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Technical Paper

Vehicle Stability through Integrated Active Steering and Differential Braking

This paper proposes a vehicle performance/safety method using combined active steering and differential braking to achieve yaw stability and rollover avoidance. The advantages and disadvantages of active steering and differential braking control methods are identified under a variety of input signals, such as J-turn, sinusoidal, and fishhook inputs by using the implemented linear 4 DOF model. Also, the nonlinear model of the vehicle is evaluated and verified through individual and integrated controller. Each controller gives the correction steering angle and correction moment to the simplified steering and braking actuators. The integrated active steering and differential braking control are shown to be most efficient in achieving yaw stability and rollover avoidance, while active steering and differential braking control has been shown to improve the vehicle performance and safety only in yaw stability and rollover avoidance, respectively.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Nitrogen on the Mechanical Properties of an SAE 1045 Steel

A cold worked and induction hardened SAE1045 steel component exhibited excessive distortion after cold working and straightening, as well as cracking during straightening after induction hardening. Since the problems occurred only in certain heats of electric furnace (EF) steel, in which nitrogen content can vary widely and in some cases be quite high, and never occurred for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel for which nitrogen contents are uniformly low it was suspected that the source of the problem was low temperature nitrogen strain aging in heats of EF steel with a high nitrogen content. The measured distortion and mechanical properties at various stages in the fabrication process showed that while nitrogen content had no significant effect on the hot rolled steel the component distortion and strength after cold working and after induction hardening increased with increasing nitrogen content.
Journal Article

Parameter Identification and Validation for Combined Slip Tire Models Using a Vehicle Measurement System

It is imperative to have accurate tire models when trying to control the trajectory of a vehicle. With the emergence of autonomous vehicles, it is more important than ever before to have models that predict how the vehicle will operate in any situation. Many different types of tire models have been developed and validated, including physics-based models such as brush models, black box models, finite element-based models, and empirical models driven by data such as the Magic Formula model. The latter is widely acknowledged to be one of the most accurate tire models available; however, collecting data for this model is not an easy task. Collecting data is often accomplished through rigorous testing in a dedicated facility. This is a long and expensive procedure which generally destroys many tires before a comprehensive data set is acquired. Using a Vehicle Measurement System (VMS), tires can be modeled through on-road data alone.
Technical Paper

Overview Introduction of Vehicle Dynamics with Novel Planar Suspension Systems

In a conventional vehicle, the longitudinal shocks caused by the road obstacles cannot be effectively absorbed due to the fact that the longitudinal connections between the chassis and wheels are typically very stiff compared with the vertical strut where the regular spring is mounted. To overcome this limitation, a concept design of a planar suspension system (PSS) is proposed. The rather stiff longitudinal linkages are replaced by a spring-damping strut in a PSS so that the vibration along any direction in the wheel plane can be effectively isolated. For a vehicle with such suspension systems, the wheels can move forth and back with respect to the chassis. The wheelbase and load distribution at the front and rear wheels can change as a consequence of the implementation of the PSS on a vehicle. The planar system can induce changes in the vehicle dynamic behavior. This paper presents the overview introduction of a dynamic study of a vehicle with such suspension systems.
Journal Article

Longitudinal Vehicle Dynamics Modeling and Parameter Estimation for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

System identification is an important aspect in model-based control design which is proven to be a cost-effective and time saving approach to improve the performance of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). This study focuses on modeling and parameter estimation of the longitudinal vehicle dynamics for Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid (PHEV) with power-split architecture. This model is needed to develop and evaluate various controllers, such as energy management system, adaptive cruise control, traction and driveline oscillation control. Particular emphasis is given to the driveline oscillations caused due to low damping present in PHEVs by incorporating flexibility in the half shaft and time lag in the tire model.
Journal Article

Integrated Stability Control System for Electric Vehicles with In-wheel Motors using Soft Computing Techniques

An electric vehicle model has been developed with four direct-drive in-wheel motors. A high-level vehicle stability controller is proposed, which uses the principles of fuzzy logic to determine the corrective yaw moment required to minimize the vehicle sideslip and yaw rate errors. A genetic algorithm has been used to optimize the parameters of the fuzzy controller. The performance of the controller is evaluated as the vehicle is driven through a double-lane-change maneuver. Preliminary results indicate that the proposed control system has the ability to improve the performance of the vehicle considerably.
Technical Paper

Improving Stability of a Narrow Track Personal Vehicle using an Active Tilting System

A compact sized vehicle that has a narrow track could solve problems caused by vehicle congestion and limited parking spaces in a mega city. Having a smaller footprint reduces the vehicle's total weight which would decrease overall vehicle power consumption. Also a smaller and narrower vehicle could travel easily through tight and congested roads that would speed up the traffic flow and hence decrease the overall traffic volume in urban areas. As an additional benefit of having a narrow track length, a driver can experience similar motorcycle riding experience without worrying about bad weather conditions since a driver sits in a weather protected cabin. However, reducing the vehicle's track causes instability in vehicle dynamics, which leads to higher possibility of rollovers if the vehicle is not controlled properly. A three wheel personal vehicle with an active tilting system is designed in MapleSim.
Journal Article

Impact Testing of a Hot-Formed B-Pillar with Tailored Properties - Experiments and Simulation

This paper presents the numerical validation of the impact response of a hot formed B-pillar component with tailored properties. A laboratory-scale B-pillar tool is considered with integral heating and cooling sections in an effort to locally control the cooling rate of an austenitized blank, thereby producing a part with tailored microstructures to potentially improve the impact response of these components. An instrumented falling-weight drop tower was used to impact the lab-scale B-pillars in a modified 3-point bend configuration to assess the difference between a component in the fully hardened (martensitic) state and a component with a tailored region (consisting of bainite and ferrite). Numerical models were developed using LS-DYNA to simulate the forming and thermal history of the part to estimate the final thickness and strain distributions as well as the predicted microstructures.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction of an Automotive Chassis System with Combined Hardening Material Model

The choice of an appropriate material model with parameters derived from testing and proper modeling of stress-strain response during cyclic loading are the critical steps for accurate fatigue-life prediction of complex automotive subsystems. Most materials used in an automotive substructure, like a chassis system, exhibit combined hardening behavior and it is essential to capture this behavior in the CAE model in order to accurately predict the fatigue life. This study illustrates, with examples, the strain-controlled testing of material coupons, and the calculations of material parameters from test data for the combined hardening material model used in the Abaqus solver. Stress-strain response curves and fatigue results from other simpler material models like the isotropic hardening model and the linear material model with Neuber correction are also discussed in light of the respective fatigue theories.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Evaluation of a Nodular Cast Iron Component

A ferritic-pearlitic nodular iron automobile suspension knuckle was fatigue tested in the laboratory using a constant amplitude load level that simulated a severe service condition. It was found that cracks always initiated from surface casting defects and that the fatigue life could be extended significantly by machining away the as-cast surface in the fatigue sensitive locations. Both local strain and fracture mechanics approaches were used successfully to predict the fatigue life of the component.
Technical Paper

Effect of Stress Triaxiality on the Constitutive Response of Super Vacuum Die Cast AM60B Magnesium Alloy

The effect of stress triaxiality on failure strain in as-cast magnesium alloy AM60B is examined. Experiments using one uniaxial and two notched tensile geometries were used to study the effect of stress triaxiality on the quasi-static constitutive response of super vacuum die cast AM60B castings. For all tests, local strains, failure location and specimen elongation were tracked using two-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) analysis. The uniaxial specimens were tested in two orthogonal directions to determine the anisotropy of the casting. Finite element models were developed to estimate effective plastic strain histories and stress state (triaxiality) as a function of notch severity. It was found that there is minimal, if any, anisotropy present in AM60B castings. Higher stress triaxiality levels caused increases in maximum stress and decreases in elongation and local effective plastic strain at failure.
Journal Article

Cyber-Physical System Based Optimization Framework for Intelligent Powertrain Control

The interactions between automatic controls, physics, and driver is an important step towards highly automated driving. This study investigates the dynamical interactions between human-selected driving modes, vehicle controller and physical plant parameters, to determine how to optimally adapt powertrain control to different human-like driving requirements. A cyber-physical system (CPS) based framework is proposed for co-design optimization of the physical plant parameters and controller variables for an electric powertrain, in view of vehicle’s dynamic performance, ride comfort, and energy efficiency under different driving modes. System structure, performance requirements and constraints, optimization goals and methodology are investigated. Intelligent powertrain control algorithms are synthesized for three driving modes, namely sport, eco, and normal modes, with appropriate protocol selections. The performance exploration methodology is presented.
Journal Article

A New Control Strategy for Electric Power Steering on Low Friction Roads

In vehicles equipped with conventional Electric Power Steering (EPS) systems, the steering effort felt by the driver can be unreasonably low when driving on slippery roads. This may lead inexperienced drivers to steer more than what is required in a turn and risk losing control of the vehicle. Thus, it is sensible for tire-road friction to be accounted for in the design of future EPS systems. This paper describes the design of an auxiliary EPS controller that manipulates torque delivery of current EPS systems by supplying its motor with a compensation current controlled by a fuzzy logic algorithm that considers tire-road friction among other factors. Moreover, a steering system model, a nonlinear vehicle dynamics model and a Dugoff tire model are developed in MATLAB/Simulink. Physical testing is conducted to validate the virtual model and confirm that steering torque decreases considerably on low friction roads.