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Technical Paper

Tribological Factors Affecting the LDH Test

The present work is aimed at investigating the tribological factors influencing the LDH test. The material used was AKDQ cold-rolled bare steel, 0.82mm thick. The investigated factors included: test speed (0.833, 4.167, 6.667, and 8.333 mm/s), lubricant viscosity (4.5, 7.0, and 12.5 mm2/s), punch roughness (0.033 and 0.144 μm Ra), and test temperature (25 and 50 °C). Test speed and lubricant viscosity form a variation of the numerator of the Stribeck curve's x-axis (ηV). With ηV increasing from 4 to 120 mm3/s2 friction decreased, resulting in a 0.5 mm higher LDH. Increasing the punch roughness decreased friction producing an increase of 0.25 mm in the LDH. There appears to be an optimum roughness -- at which the roughness features act as lubricant reservoirs but the asperities do not break through the lubricant film -- resulting in minimum friction, therefore, maximum LDH.
Technical Paper

Transient Tribological Phenomena in Drawbead Simulation

Details of the development of metal transfer and friction were studied by drawing cold-rolled bare, galvannealed, electrogalvanized, and hot-dip galvanized strips with a mineral-oil lubricant of 30 cSt viscosity at 40 C, over a total distance of 2500 mm by three methods. An initial high friction peak was associated with metal transfer to the beads and was largest with pure zinc and smallest with Fe-Zn coatings. Insertion of a new strip disturbed the coating and led to the development of secondary peaks. Long-term trends were governed by the stability of the coating. Stearic acid added to mineral oil delayed stabilization of the coating and increased contact area and thus friction with pure zinc surfaces. The usual practice of reporting average friction values can hide valuable information on lubrication mechanisms and metal transfer.
Journal Article

The Influence of the Through-Thickness Strain Gradients on the Fracture Characterization of Advanced High-Strength Steels

The development and calibration of stress state-dependent failure criteria for advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) and aluminum alloys requires characterization under proportional loading conditions. Traditional tests to construct a forming limit diagram (FLD), such as Marciniak or Nakazima tests, are based upon identifying the onset of strain localization or a tensile instability (neck). However, the onset of localization is strongly dependent on the through-thickness strain gradient that can delay or suppress the formation of a tensile instability so that cracking may occur before localization. As a result, the material fracture limit becomes the effective forming limit in deformation modes with severe through-thickness strain gradients, and this is not considered in the traditional FLD. In this study, a novel bending test apparatus was developed based upon the VDA 238-100 specification to characterize fracture in plane strain bending using digital image correlation (DIC).
Technical Paper

The Effects of Thermal Degradation on the Performance of a NOX Storage/Reduction Catalyst

The performance characteristics of a commercial lean-NOX trap catalyst were evaluated between 200 and 500°C, using H2, CO, and a mixture of both H2 and CO as reductants before and after different high-temperature aging steps, from 600 to 750°C. Tests included NOX reduction efficiency during cycling, NOX storage capacity (NSC), oxygen storage capacity (OSC), and water-gas-shift (WGS) and NO oxidation reaction extents. The WGS reaction extent at 200 and 300°C was negatively affected by thermal degradation, but at 400 and 500°C no significant change was observed. Changes in the extent of NO oxidation did not show a consistent trend as a function of thermal degradation. The total NSC was tested at 200, 350 and 500°C. Little change was observed at 500°C with thermal degradation but a steady decrease was observed at 350°C as the thermal degradation temperature was increased.
Technical Paper

Report of NADDRG Friction Committee on Reproducibility of Friction Tests within and Between Laboratories

The present paper offers a status report on round-robin tests conducted with the participation of ten laboratories, with drawbead simulation (DBS) as the test method. The results showed that, in most laboratories, the coefficient of friction (COF) derived from the test is repeatable within an acceptable range of ±0.01. Repeatability between laboratories was less satisfactory. Five laboratories reported results within the desirable band, while some laboratories found consistently higher values. In one instance this could be traced to incomplete transfer of clamp forces to the load cell, in other instances inaccurate test geometry is suspected. Therefore, numerical values of COF from different laboratories are not necessarily comparable. Irrespective of these inter-laboratory variations, the relative ranking of lubricants was not affected, and data generated within one laboratory can be used for relative evaluations and for a resolution of production problems.
Technical Paper

Notch Plasticity and Fatigue Modelling of AZ31B-H24 Magnesium Alloy Sheet

Vehicle weight reduction through the use of components made of magnesium alloys is an effective way to reduce carbon dioxide emission and improve fuel economy. In the design of these components, which are mostly under cyclic loading, notches are inevitably present. In this study, surface strain distribution and crack initiation sites in the notch region of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy notched specimens under uniaxial load are measured via digital image correlation. Predicted strains from finite element analysis using Abaqus and LS-DYNA material types 124 and 233 are then compared against the experimental measurements during quasi-static and cyclic loading. It is concluded that MAT_233, when calibrated using cyclic tensile and compressive stress-strain curves, is capable of predicting strain at the notch root. Finally, employing Smith-Watson-Topper model together with MAT_233 results, fatigue lives of the notched specimens are estimated and compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Monitoring the Effect of RSW Pulsing on AHSS using FEA (SORPAS) Software

In this study, a finite element software application (SORPAS®) is used to simulate the effect of pulsing on the expected weld thermal cycle during resistance spot welding (RSW). The predicted local cooling rates are used in combination with experimental observation to study the effect pulsing has on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Zn-coated DP600 AHSS (1.2mm thick) spot welds. Experimental observation of the weld microstructure was obtained by metallographic procedures and mechanical properties were determined by tensile shear testing. Microstructural changes in the weld metal and heat affect zone (HAZ) were characterized with respect to process parameters.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Testing of Sheet Metals Subject to Uniaxial Tension-Compression

The paper describes the fabrication and testing of thin sheet metal uniaxial fatigue specimens that have been laminated to prevent buckling. When hot or cold rolled metal thicknesses are below 5 mm, the usual fatigue specimens, having a uniform gauge length of 7.5 mm or more, buckle in the short life region (∼10000 cycles) of strain-life testing. For thinner materials, non-standard specimen designs or anti-buckling guides have been used, but each of these solutions requires additional instrumentation. The results presented in this paper show that laminating multiple sheets of material together to increase the specimen's effective thickness raises the strain level for the onset of buckling of the standard uniaxial specimen. Constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests extending into the high-strain short-life region were performed. Fatigue life data for multiple layer specimens were in good agreement with those obtained for single layer specimens.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction of an Automotive Chassis System with Combined Hardening Material Model

The choice of an appropriate material model with parameters derived from testing and proper modeling of stress-strain response during cyclic loading are the critical steps for accurate fatigue-life prediction of complex automotive subsystems. Most materials used in an automotive substructure, like a chassis system, exhibit combined hardening behavior and it is essential to capture this behavior in the CAE model in order to accurately predict the fatigue life. This study illustrates, with examples, the strain-controlled testing of material coupons, and the calculations of material parameters from test data for the combined hardening material model used in the Abaqus solver. Stress-strain response curves and fatigue results from other simpler material models like the isotropic hardening model and the linear material model with Neuber correction are also discussed in light of the respective fatigue theories.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction for Variable Amplitude Strain Histories

This paper presents a model for fatigue life prediction for metals subjected to variable amplitude service loading. The model, which is based on crack growth and crack closure mechanisms for short fatigue cracks, incorporates a strain-based damage parameter, EΔε*, determined from the effective or open part of a strain cycle along with a fatigue resistance curve that takes the form: EΔε* = A(Nf)b, where E is the elastic modulus, Nf is the number of cycles to failure, and A and b are experimentally determined material constants. The fatigue resistance curve is generated for a SAE 1045 steel and the model is used successfully to predict the fatigue lives of smooth axial specimens subjected to two variable amplitude strain histories. The model is also used to predict the magnitude of non-damaging cycles that can be omitted from the strain histories to accelerate fatigue testing.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Evaluation of a Nodular Cast Iron Component

A ferritic-pearlitic nodular iron automobile suspension knuckle was fatigue tested in the laboratory using a constant amplitude load level that simulated a severe service condition. It was found that cracks always initiated from surface casting defects and that the fatigue life could be extended significantly by machining away the as-cast surface in the fatigue sensitive locations. Both local strain and fracture mechanics approaches were used successfully to predict the fatigue life of the component.
Technical Paper

Experimental Measurements of Thermal Characteristics of LiFePO4 Battery

A major challenge in the development of the next generation electric and hybrid electric vehicle (EV and HEV) technology is the control and management of heat generation and operating temperatures. Vehicle performance, reliability and ultimately consumer market adoption are integrally dependent on successful battery thermal management designs. In addition to this, crucial to thermal modeling is accurate thermo-physical property input. Therefore, to design a thermal management system and for thermal modeling, a designer must study the thermal characteristics of batteries. This work presents a purely experimental thermal characterization of thermo-physical properties of a lithium-ion battery utilizing a promising electrode material, LiFePO4, in a prismatic pouch configuration. In this research, the thermal resistance and corresponding thermal conductivity of prismatic battery materials is evaluated.
Technical Paper

Effect of Stress Triaxiality on the Constitutive Response of Super Vacuum Die Cast AM60B Magnesium Alloy

The effect of stress triaxiality on failure strain in as-cast magnesium alloy AM60B is examined. Experiments using one uniaxial and two notched tensile geometries were used to study the effect of stress triaxiality on the quasi-static constitutive response of super vacuum die cast AM60B castings. For all tests, local strains, failure location and specimen elongation were tracked using two-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) analysis. The uniaxial specimens were tested in two orthogonal directions to determine the anisotropy of the casting. Finite element models were developed to estimate effective plastic strain histories and stress state (triaxiality) as a function of notch severity. It was found that there is minimal, if any, anisotropy present in AM60B castings. Higher stress triaxiality levels caused increases in maximum stress and decreases in elongation and local effective plastic strain at failure.
Journal Article

Derivation of Effective Strain-Life Data, Crack Closure Parameters and Effective Crack Growth Data from Smooth Specimen Fatigue Tests

Small crack growth from notches under variable amplitude loading requires that crack opening stress be followed on a cycle by cycle basis and taken into account in making fatigue life predictions. The use of constant amplitude fatigue life data that ignores changes in crack opening stress due to high stress overloads in variable amplitude fatigue leads to non-conservative fatigue life predictions. Similarly fatigue life predictions based on small crack growth calculations for cracks growing from flaws in notches are non-conservative when constant amplitude crack growth data are used. These non-conservative predictions have, in both cases, been shown to be due to severe reductions in fatigue crack closure arising from large (overload or underload) cycles in a typical service load history.
Technical Paper

Damage and Formability of AKDQ and High Strength DP600 Steel Tubes

Using standard tensile testing methods, the material properties of AKDQ and DP600 steels tubes along the axial direction were determined. A novel in-situ optical strain mapping system ARAMIS® was utilized to evaluate the strain distribution during tensile testing along the axial direction. Microstructural and damage characterization was carried out using microscopy and image analysis techniques to compare the damage evolution and formability of both materials. Failure in both steels was observed to occur via a ductile failure mode. AKDQ was found to be the more formable material as it can achieve higher strains, total elongations and thinning prior to failure than the higher strength DP600.
Journal Article

Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst Thermal Deactivation Studied with FTIR Spatial Resolution

The performance of a commercial Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst after differing degrees of hydrothermal aging (aged for 72 hours at 500, 700 and 800°C with 10% moisture balanced with air) was studied by spatially resolving different key reactions using gas-phase FTIR measurements. Gases were sampled along a channel at different positions and analyzed using FTIR, which overcomes the interference of water and nitrogen on ammonia concentration detection encountered in standard mass spectrometer-based spatial resolution measurements. The NO:NO₂ concentration ratio was changed so that the standard (NO:NO₂ = 1:0), fast (NO:NO₂ = 1:1) and NO₂ (NO:NO₂ = 0:1) SCR reactions could be investigated as a function of the catalyst's hydrothermal aging extent. In addition, the effects of hydrothermal aging on the activity of NH₃ and NO oxidation were also investigated. Hydrothermal aging had little effect on NO oxidation activity.
Technical Paper

Crack Initiation and Propagation Fatigue Life Prediction for an A36 Steel Welded Plate Specimen

Fatigue crack initiation and propagation models predict the fatigue life of welded "T" specimens tested by the Fatigue Design and Evaluation (FDE) Committee of SAE under constant and variable amplitude load histories. The crack propagation equations stipulated by British Standard BS-7910 have been incorporated in a material memory model for cyclic deformation. The simulations begin with the crack initiation model and show how it is used to account for cyclic mean stress relaxation and the effects of periodic overloads. After the cracks initiate the BS-7910 model is applied to predict the crack advance due to either constant or variable amplitude histories. Simulation results correspond to the experimental results with good accuracy.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of the Fatigue Performance of Automotive Steels

A rapid inexpensive evaluation and comparison of the cyclic properties of three steels used in the automotive industry is presented. This evaluation ranges from the endurance limit through the transition life and low cycle regions to the monotonic results. Smooth and notched specimens, tested in strain control and load control, respectively, provide data that are used to indicate notch sensitivity and size effects, cyclic strength and ductility, and cyclic deformation response. The effect of overloads on fatigue damage is given and prestrained smooth specimens demonstrate the possible effect of a few large plastic strain cycles on fatigue resistance. Overloaded notched specimens indicate reductions in life due to both large plastic strain cycles and the induced tensile residual stress. These data are suitable for direct insertion into the design process and also provide a broad base for continuing studies of cyclic behavior.