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Journal Article

Virtual Motorsports as a Vehicle Dynamics Teaching Tool

2008-12-02
2008-01-2967
The paper describes a ‘virtual motorsports’ event developed by the University of Windsor Vehicle Dynamics and Control Research Group. The event was a competitive project-based component of a Vehicle Dynamics course offered by the University's Department of Mechanical, Automotive, & Materials Engineering. The simulated race was developed to provide fourth year automotive engineering students with design and race experience, similar to that found in Formula SAE®or SAE Baja®, but within the confines of a single academic semester. The project, named ‘Formula463’, was conducted entirely within a virtual environment, and encompassed design, testing, and racing of hi-fidelity virtual vehicle models. The efficacy of the Formula463 program to provide students with a design experience using model based simulation tools and methods has been shown over the past two years. All of the software has been released under a General Public License and is freely available on the authors website.
Technical Paper

Variable Torque Distribution Yaw Moment Control for Hybrid Powertrains

2007-04-16
2007-01-0278
This paper proposes and evaluates the use of a robust variable torque distribution (VTD) yaw moment control for an all wheel drive (AWD) hybrid vehicle prototype currently under development. The proposed VTD controller was used to improve the linearity of vehicle response to driver input through the modulation of front-to-rear torque distribution and a corrective torque differential between the left and right rear wheels. The development of a non-linear vehicle model and a reference model tracking sliding mode based control are discussed. The efficacy of the proposed control system was demonstrated through the use of numerical simulations using the developed non-linear vehicle model. The simulation results presented indicate the effectiveness of the proposed system and the potential restrictions to such a system including tire saturation and drivetrain component limitations.
Journal Article

Simulation of the Axial Cutting Deformation of AA6061-T6 Round Tubes Utilizing Eulerian and Mesh Free Finite Element Formulations

2008-04-14
2008-01-1117
Experimental and numerical studies have been completed on the deformation behaviour of round AA6061-T6 aluminum extrusions during an axial cutting deformation mode employing both curved and straight deflectors to control the bending deformation of petalled side walls. Round extrusions of length 200 mm with a nominal wall thickness of 3.175 mm and an external diameter of 50.8 mm were considered. A heat treated 4140 steel alloy cutter and deflectors, both straight and curved, were designed and manufactured for the testing considered. The four blades of the cutter had an approximate average thickness of 1.00 mm which were designed to penetrate through the round AA6061-T6 extrusions. Experimental observations illustrated high crush force efficiencies of 0.82 for the extrusions which experienced the cutting deformation mode with the deflectors. Total energy absorption during the cutting process was approximately 5.48 kJ.
Journal Article

Residual Stresses and Dimensional Changes in Ferritic Nitrocarburized Navy C-rings and Prototype Stamped Parts Made from SAE 1010 Steel

2009-04-20
2009-01-0425
Nitrocarburizing is an economical surface hardening process and is proposed as an alternative heat treatment method to carbonitriding. The focus of this study is to compare the size and shape distortion and residual stresses resulting from the ferritic nitrocarburizing and gas carbonitriding processes for SAE 1010 plain carbon steel. Gas, ion and vacuum nitrocarburizing processes utilizing different heat treatment temperatures and times were performed to compare the different ferritic nitrocarburizing processes. Navy C-Ring specimens and prototype stamped parts were used to evaluate size and shape distortion. X-ray diffraction techniques were used to determine the residual stresses in the specimens. Overall, the test results indicate that the nitrocarburizing process gives rise to smaller dimensional changes than carbonitriding, and that the size and shape distortion can be considerably reduced by applying appropriate ferritic nitrocarburizing procedures.
Technical Paper

Observations of the Relative Performance of Magnesium and Aluminum Steering Wheel Skeletons with Identical Geometry

2000-03-06
2000-01-0784
Automotive steering wheels depend on a structural skeleton made of steel, aluminum, or magnesium to be the basis for the mechanical properties of the finished part. The mechanical properties of concern are the fatigue properties and the crash performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the crash and the fatigue performance of a steering wheel skeleton fabricated by high pressure die casting. Two materials were used to produce two groups of wheels with identical geometry. The production part was designed, optimized and fabricated with AM50A magnesium. The production magnesium component met all of the regulatory design and performance requirements. A small sample run was made in a proprietary aluminum - magnesium alloy. The fatigue and crash properties were evaluated empirically. In fatigue testing, the aluminum skeletons displayed a significant improvement, with respect to the magnesium skeletons, in the number of cycles to failure at the loads tested.
Technical Paper

Metrics for Evaluating the Ride Handling Compromise

2010-04-12
2010-01-1139
Though the purpose of a vehicle's suspension is multi-faceted and complex, the fundamentals may be simply stated: the suspension exists to provide the occupants with a tolerable ride, while simultaneously ensuring that the tires maintain good contact with the ground. At the root of the familiar ride/handling compromise, is the problem that tuning efforts which improve either grip or handling are generally to the detriment of the other. This study seeks to set forth a clear means for examining the familiar ride/handing compromise, by first exploring the key ideas of these terms, and then by describing the development of content-rich metrics to permit a direct optimization strategy. For simplicity, the optimization problem was examined in a unilateral manner, where heave (vertical; z-axis) behaviour is examined in isolation, though the methods described herein may be extended to pitch and roll behaviour as well.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Stability Analysis of Coupled Vehicles for General and Military Applications

2010-04-12
2010-01-0638
The paper describes a study conducted by the University of Windsor Vehicle Dynamics and Control Research Group into the stability of coupled vehicles, e.g., truck-trailer combinations. Several instabilities associated with truck-trailer combinations have been well documented, and have been predicted using mathematical models. Despite having relatively low complexity the classic truck-trailer model, a simple two body, three degree of freedom, linear model has been used extensively in coupled vehicle stability analyses. The aim of the presented work was to extend the conventional coupled vehicle analysis with a set of more elaborate mathematical models evaluating various vehicle configurations. Using in-house multibody dynamics software the linearized equations of motion of three dimensional models were automatically generated for various coupled vehicle configurations with general and military applications. Stability analyses were conducted over a range of expected operating speeds.
Technical Paper

Design of As-Cast High Strength Al-Si-Cu-Ni-Sr Alloys Using the Taguchi Method

2017-09-30
2017-01-5009
In the present study, a design of experiment (DOE) technique, the Taguchi method, was used to develop as-cast high strength aluminum alloys with element additions of Si, Cu, Ni and Sr. The Taguchi method uses a special design of orthogonal arrays to study all the designed factors with a minimum of experiments at a relatively low cost. The element factors chosen for this study were Si, Cu, Ni and Sr content in the designed aluminum-based alloys. For each factor, three different levels of weight percentages were selected (Si: 6, 9, 12%, Cu: 3, 5, 7%, Ni: 0.5, 1, 1.5% and Sr: 0.01, 0.02, 0.03%). Tensile properties such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and elongation at failure were selected as three individual responses to evaluate the engineering performance of the designed alloys. The results of the factor response analysis were used to derive the optimal level combinations.
Journal Article

Comparison of Austempering and Quench-and-Tempering Processes for Carburized Automotive Steels

2013-04-08
2013-01-0173
Carburized parts often see use in powertrain components for the automotive industry. These parts are commonly quenched and tempered after the carburizing process. The present study compared the austempering heat treatment to the traditional quench-and-temper process for carburized parts. Samples were produced from SAE 8620, 4320, and 8822 steels and heat treated across a range of conditions for austempering and for quench-and-tempering. Distortion was examined through the use of Navy C-Ring samples. Microstructure, hardness, and Charpy toughness were also examined. X-ray diffraction was used to compare the residual stress found in the case of the components after the quench-and-temper and the austempering heat treatments. Austempering samples showed less distortion and higher compressive residual stresses, while maintaining comparable hardness values in both case and core. Toughness measurements were also comparable between both processes.
Technical Paper

Active Suspension Handling Simulation using Cosimulation

2010-12-01
2010-01-1582
In this study the capabilities of a semi-active suspension and an active roll suspension are evaluated for comparison with a passive suspension. The vehicle used is a utility truck modeled as a multi-body system in ADAMS/Car while the ECU (electronic control unit) is built in Matlab/Simulink. Cosimulation is used in linking the vehicle model with the controller by exchanging the input and output values of each sub-system with one another. For the simulation models considered, results indicate that for a fish-hook cornering maneuver the semi-active suspension is limited in increasing vehicle performance while the active roll suspension significantly improves it. Further analysis is needed to confirm these findings.
Technical Paper

A Hardness Study on Laser Cladded Surfaces for a Selected Bead Overlap Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0285
Laser cladding is used to coat a surface of a metal to enhance the metallurgical properties at the surface level of a substrate. For surface cladding operations, overlapping bead geometry is required. Single bead analyses do not provide a complete representation of essential properties; hence, this research focuses on overlapping conditions. The research scope targets the coaxial laser cladding process specifically for P420 stainless steel clad powder using a fiber optic laser with a 4.3 mm spot size on a low/medium carbon structural steel plate (AISI 1018). Many process parameters influence the bead geometrical shape, and it is assumed that the complex temperature distributions within the process could cause subsequent large variations in hardness values. The bead overlap configurations experiments are performed with 40%, 50% and 60% bead overlaps for a three-pass bead formation.
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