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Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Properties of Methane and Air, and Propane and Air for Engine Performance Calculations

This is a continuation of the presentation of thermodynamic properties of selected fuel-air mixtures in chart form, suitable for utilization in engine performance calculations. Methane and propane, representative of natural gas and LPG are the two fuels considered. Using these charts, comparisons are made between the performance to be expected with these gaseous fuels compared to octane, as representative of gasoline. Reduced engine power is predicted and this is confirmed by experience of other investigators.
Technical Paper

The Simulation of Single Cylinder Intake and Exhaust Systems

A detailed description of a numerical method for computing unsteady flows in engine intake and exhaust systems is given. The calculations include the effects of heat transfer and friction. The inclusion of such calculations in a mathematically simulated engine cycle is discussed and results shown for several systems. In particular, the effects of bell-mouth versus plain pipe terminations and the effects of a finite surge tank are calculated. Experimental data on the effect of heat transfer from the back of the intake valve on wave damping are given and show the effect to be negligible. Experimental data on wave damping during the valve closed period and on the temperature rise of the air near the valve are also given.
Technical Paper

The Radiant and Convective Components of Diesel Engine Heat Transfer

The ratio of two temperature gradients across the combustion-chamber wall in a diesel engine is used to provide a heat flow ratio showing the radiant heat transfer as a per cent of local total heat transfer. The temperature gradients were obtained with a thermocouple junction on each side of the combustion-chamber wall. The first temperature gradient was obtained by covering the thermocouple at the cylinder gas-wall interface with a thin sapphire window, while the second was obtained without the window. Results show that the time-average radiant heat transfer is of significant magnitude in a diesel engine, and is probably even more significant in heat transfer during combustion and expansion.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Injection Pressure on Air Entrainment into Transient Diesel Sprays

The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of injection pressure on air entrainment into transient diesel sprays. The main application of interest was the direct injection diesel engine. Particle Image Velocimetry was used to make measurements of the air entrainment velocities into a spray plume as a function of time and space. A hydraulically actuated, electronically controlled unit injector (HEUI) system was used to supply the fuel into a pressurized spray chamber. The gas chamber density was maintained at 27 kg/m3. The injection pressures that were studied in this current research project were 117.6 MPa and 132.3 MPa. For different injection pressures, during the initial two-thirds of the spray plume there was little difference in the velocities normal to the spray surface. For the last third of the spray plume, the normal velocities were 125% higher for the high injection pressure case.
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Crankcase Scavenged, Two-Stroke, SI Engine and Comparisons with Experimental Data

A detailed mathematical model of the thermodynamic events of a crankcase scavenged, two-stroke, SI engine is described. The engine is divided into three thermodynamic systems: the cylinder gases, the crankcase gases, and the inlet system gases. Energy balances, mass continuity equations, the ideal gas law, and thermodynamic property relationships are combined to give a set of coupled ordinary differential equations which describe the thermodynamic states encountered by the systems of the engine during one cycle of operation. A computer program is used to integrate the equations, starting with estimated initial thermodynamic conditions and estimated metal surface temperatures. The program iterates the cycle, adjusting the initial estimates, until the final conditions agree with the beginning conditions, that is, until a cycle results.
Technical Paper

Psychophysics of Trust in Vehicle Control Algorithms

Increasingly sophisticated vehicle automation can perform steering and speed control, allowing the driver to disengage from driving. However, vehicle automation may not be capable of handling all roadway situations and driver intervention may be required in such situations. The typical approach is to indicate vehicle capability through displays and warnings, but control algorithms can also signal capability. Psychophysical methods can be used to link perceptual experiences to physical stimuli. In this situation, trust is an important perceptual experience related to automation capability that is revealed by the physical stimuli produced by different control algorithms. For instance, precisely centering the vehicle in the lane may indicate a highly capable system, whereas simply keeping the vehicle within lane boundaries may signal diminished capability.
Technical Paper

Pressure-Based Knock Measurement Issues

Highly time resolved measurements of cylinder pressure acquired simultaneously from three transducers were used to investigate the nature of knocking combustion and to identify biases that the pressure measurements induce. It was shown by investigating the magnitude squared coherence (MSC) between the transducer signals that frequency content above approximately 40 kHz does not originate from a common source, i.e., it originates from noise sources. The major source of noise at higher frequency is the natural frequency of the transducer that is excited by the impulsive knock event; even if the natural frequency is above the sampling frequency it can affect the measurements by aliasing. The MSC analysis suggests that 40 kHz is the appropriate cutoff frequency for low-pass filtering the pressure signal. Knowing this, one can isolate the knock event from noise more accurately.
Journal Article

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of the Soot Deposition Mechanism in Diesel Particulate Filters

A computational, three-dimensional approach to investigate the behavior of diesel soot particles in the micro-channels of wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filters is presented. The KIVA3V CFD code, already extended to solve the 2D conservation equations for porous media materials [1], has been enhanced to solve in 2-D and 3-D the governing equations for reacting and compressible flows through porous media in non axes-symmetric geometries. With respect to previous work [1], a different mathematical approach has been followed in the implementation of the numerical solver for porous media, in order to achieve a faster convergency as source terms were added to the governing equations. The Darcy pressure drop has been included in the Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation has been extended to account for the thermal exchange between the gas flow and the porous wall.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Equivalence Ratio Effects on Particulate Formation in a Spark-Ignition Engine under Premixed Conditions

3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have been performed to study particulate formation in a Spark-Ignition (SI) engine under premixed conditions. A semi-detailed soot model and a chemical kinetic model, including poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation, were coupled with a spark ignition model and the G equation flame propagation model for SI engine simulations and for predictions of soot mass and particulate number density. The simulation results for in-cylinder pressure and particle size distribution (PSDs) are compared to available experimental studies of equivalence ratio effects during premixed operation. Good predictions are observed with regard to cylinder pressure, combustion phasing and engine load. Qualitative agreements of in-cylinder particle distributions were also obtained and the results are helpful to understand particulate formation processes.
Technical Paper

Limitations of Sector Mesh Geometry and Initial Conditions to Model Flow and Mixture Formation in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

Sector mesh modeling is the dominant computational approach for combustion system design optimization. The aim of this work is to quantify the errors descending from the sector mesh approach through three geometric modeling approaches to an optical diesel engine. A full engine geometry mesh is created, including valves and intake and exhaust ports and runners, and a full-cycle flow simulation is performed until fired TDC. Next, an axisymmetric sector cylinder mesh is initialized with homogeneous bulk in-cylinder initial conditions initialized from the full-cycle simulation. Finally, a 360-degree azimuthal mesh of the cylinder is initialized with flow and thermodynamics fields at IVC mapped from the full engine geometry using a conservative interpolation approach. A study of the in-cylinder flow features until TDC showed that the geometric features on the cylinder head (valve tilt and protrusion into the combustion chamber, valve recesses) have a large impact on flow complexity.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Fuel Condensation Processes under Non-reacting Conditions in an Optically-Accessible Engine

Engine experiments have revealed the importance of fuel condensation on the emission characteristics of low temperature combustion. However, direct in-cylinder experimental evidence has not been reported in the literature. In this paper, the in-cylinder condensation processes observed in optically accessible engine experiments are first illustrated. The observed condensation processes are then simulated using state-of-the-art multidimensional engine CFD simulations with a phase transition model that incorporates a well-validated phase equilibrium numerical solver, in which a thermodynamically consistent phase equilibrium analysis is applied to determine when mixtures become unstable and a new phase is formed. The model utilizes fundamental thermodynamics principles to judge the occurrence of phase separation or combination by minimizing the system Gibbs free energy.
Journal Article

Instrumentation, Acquisition and Data Processing Requirements for Accurate Combustion Noise Measurements

The higher cylinder peak pressure and pressure rise rate of modern diesel and gasoline fueled engines tend to increase combustion noise while customers demand lower noise. The multiple degrees of freedom in engine control and calibration mean there is more scope to influence combustion noise but this must first be measured before it can be balanced with other attributes. An efficient means to realize this is to calculate combustion noise from the in-cylinder pressure measurements that are routinely acquired as part of the engine development process. This publication reviews the techniques required to ensure accurate and precise combustion noise measurements. First, the dynamic range must be maximized by using an analogue to digital converter with sufficient number of bits and selecting an appropriate range in the test equipment.
Technical Paper

High Speed Dual-Fuel RCCI Combustion for High Power Output

In recent years society's demand and interest in clean and efficient internal combustion engines has grown significantly. Several ideas have been proposed and tested to meet this demand. In particular, dual-fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion has demonstrated high thermal efficiency, and low engine-out NOx, and soot emissions. Unlike homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion, which solely relies on the chemical kinetics of the fuel for ignition control, RCCI combustion has proven to provide superior combustion controllability while retaining the known benefits of low emissions and high thermal efficiency of HCCI combustion. However, in order for RCCI combustion to be adopted as a high efficiency and low engine-out emission solution, it is important to achieve high-power operation that is comparable to conventional diesel combustion (CDC).
Technical Paper

Fuel - Engine Research in Universities

The reasons for conducting research in a university are presented and discussed. It is concluded that fuel-engine studies are compatible with these reasons and therefore are well suited for university research. Past studies in this field are summarized and unanswered questions and future topics suitable for university investigation are suggested. Included in the topics discussed are: instrumentation, thermodynamic description of working fluids, fuel vaporization and atomization, combustion, and instantaneous heat transfer and mass flow rates. The steps that need to be taken to ensure continuing university interest in fuel-engine studies are presented.
Technical Paper

Factors that Affect BSFC and Emissions for Diesel Engines: Part 1 - Presentation of Concepts

The per cylinder displacement in cubic centimeters (PCDICC) vs. brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) have been plotted for both DI and IDI diesel engines. The smallest and largest PCDICC are 25.7 to 2,000,000. It was found for the DI engines that the lowest to the highest (BSFC) ranged from approximately 155 to 450. In terms of ratios these turn out to be about 2.9. Reasons for the increase in BSFC with decrease in PCDICC are presented. Background material are presented to help in explaining the trends experienced. Boundary conditions of the injected fuel as to duration, drop size, and their effect on BSFC, emissions are postulated.
Journal Article

Exploring the Role of Reactivity Gradients in Direct Dual Fuel Stratification

Low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategies have been an active area of research due to their ability to achieve high thermal efficiency while avoiding the formation of NOx and particulate matter. One of the largest challenges with LTC is the relative lack of authority over the heat release rate profile, which, depending on the particular injection strategy, either limits the maximum attainable load, or creates a tradeoff between noise and efficiency at high load conditions. We have shown previously that control over heat release can be dramatically improved through a combination of reactivity stratification in the premixed charge and a diffusion-limited injection that occurs after the conclusion of the low-temperature heat release, in a strategy called direct dual fuel stratification (DDFS).
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Piston Heat Transfer in a Light Duty Engine Under Conventional Diesel, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion Regimes

An experimental study has been conducted to provide insight into heat transfer to the piston of a light-duty single-cylinder research engine under Conventional Diesel (CDC), Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion regimes. Two fast-response surface thermocouples embedded in the piston top measured transient temperature. A commercial wireless telemetry system was used to transmit thermocouple signals from the moving piston. A detailed comparison was made between the different combustion regimes at a range of engine speed and load conditions. The closed-cycle integrated and peak heat transfer rates were found to be lower for HCCI and RCCI when compared to CDC. Under HCCI operation, the peak heat transfer rate showed sensitivity to the 50% burn location.
Technical Paper

Experimental Instantaneous Heat Fluxes in a Diesel Engine and Their Correlation

By the use of surface thermocouples to measure instantaneous temperatures, the instantaneous heat fluxes are calculated at several positions on the cylinder head and sleeve of a direct injection diesel engine for both motored and fired operation. Existing correlations are shown to be unable to predict these data. An analysis of convective heat transfer in the engine leads to a boundary layer model which adequately correlates the data for motored operation. The extension of this motored correlation to fired operation demonstrates the need for instantaneous local gas velocity and temperature data.
Technical Paper

Efficiency and Emissions Mapping of RCCI in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to reduce NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). The RCCI concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that the fuel reactivity can be tailored to the engine speed and load allowing stable low-temperature combustion to be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. Varying the premixed gasoline fraction changes the fuel reactivity stratification in the cylinder providing further control of combustion phasing and pressure rise rate than the use of EGR alone. This added control over the combustion process has been shown to allow rapid engine operating point exploration without direct modeling guidance.
Technical Paper

Effects of Low Pressure EGR on Transient Air System Performance and Emissions for Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

Low pressure EGR offers greater effectiveness and flexibility for turbocharging and improved heat transfer compared to high pressure EGR systems. These characteristics have been shown to provide potential for further NOx, soot, and fuel consumption reductions in modern diesel engines. One of the drawbacks is reduced transient response capability due to the long EGR path. This can be largely mitigated by combining low pressure and high pressure loops in a hybrid EGR system, but the changes in transient response must be considered in the design of an effective control strategy. The effect of low pressure EGR on transient emissions was evaluated using two different combustion strategies over a variety of transient events. Low pressure EGR was found to significantly lengthen the response time of intake oxygen concentration following a transient event, which can have a substantial effect on emissions formation.