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Journal Article

A Progress Review on Soot Experiments and Modeling in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN)

The 4th Workshop of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) was held September 5-6, 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This manuscript presents a summary of the progress in experiments and modeling among ECN contributors leading to a better understanding of soot formation under the ECN “Spray A” configuration and some parametric variants. Relevant published and unpublished work from prior ECN workshops is reviewed. Experiments measuring soot particle size and morphology, soot volume fraction (fv), and transient soot mass have been conducted at various international institutions providing target data for improvements to computational models. Multiple modeling contributions using both the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations approach and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach have been submitted. Among these, various chemical mechanisms, soot models, and turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) methodologies have been considered.
Technical Paper

A Tape Recording and Computer Processing System for Instantaneous Engine Data

The development of a high speed, multichannel data acquisition system is described. A precision magnetic tape recorder is used to record analog data from highly transient phenomena. Analog-to-digital data conversion is performed on a hybrid computer and the digitized data is processed using large, high speed digital computers. A detailed example of the application of the system to the measurement of rates-of-injection, rates-of-heat release, and instantaneous rates-of-heat transfer from the cylinder gases to the cylinder walls in a high speed open-chamber diesel engine is presented.
Technical Paper

A Triangulated Lagrangian Ignition Kernel Model with Detailed Kinetics for Modeling Spark Ignition with the G-Equation-Part I: Geometric Aspects

Modeling ignition kernel development in spark ignition engines is crucial to capturing the sources of cyclic variability, both with RANS and LES simulations. Appropriate kernel modeling must ensure that energy transfer from the electrodes to the gas phase has the correct timing, rate and locations, until the flame surface is large enough to be represented on the mesh by the G-Equation level-set method. However, in most kernel models, geometric details driving kernel growth are missing: either because it is described as Lagrangian particles, or because its development is simplified, i.e., down to multiple spherical flames. This paper covers the geometric aspects of kernel development, which makes up the core of a Triangulated Lagrangian Ignition Kernel model. One (or multiple, if it restrikes) spark channel is initialized as a one-dimensional Lagrangian particle thread.
Journal Article

A Zero-Dimensional Phenomenological Model for RCCI Combustion Using Reaction Kinetics

Homogeneous low temperature combustion is believed to be a promising approach to resolve the conflict of goals between high efficiency and low exhaust emissions. Disadvantageously for this kind of combustion, the whole process depends on chemical kinetics and thus is hard to control. Reactivity controlled combustion can help to overcome this difficulty. In the so-called RCCI (reactivity controlled compression ignition) combustion concept a small amount of pilot diesel that is injected directly into the combustion chamber ignites a highly diluted gasoline-air mixture. As the gasoline does not ignite without the diesel, the pilot injection timing and the ratio between diesel and gasoline can be used to control the combustion process. A phenomenological multi-zone model to predict RCCI combustion has been developed and validated against experimental and 3D-CFD data. The model captures the main physics governing ignition and combustion.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Assessment of Turbulence Production, Reynolds Stress and Length Scale (Dissipation) Modeling in a Swirl-Supported DI Diesel Engine

Simultaneous measurements of the radial and the tangential components of velocity are obtained in a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine typical of automotive applications. Results are presented for engine operation with fuel injection, but without combustion, for three different swirl ratios and four injection pressures. With the mean and fluctuating velocities, the r-θ plane shear stress and the mean flow gradients are obtained. Longitudinal and transverse length scales are also estimated via Taylor's hypothesis. The flow is shown to be sufficiently homogeneous and stationary to obtain meaningful length scale estimates. Concurrently, the flow and injection processes are simulated with KIVA-3V employing a RNG k-ε turbulence model. The measured turbulent kinetic energy k, r-θ plane mean strain rates ( 〈Srθ〉, 〈Srr〉, and 〈Sθθ〉 ), deviatoric turbulent stresses , and the r-θ plane turbulence production terms are compared directly to the simulated results.
Technical Paper

Bowl Geometry Effects on Turbulent Flow Structure in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Diesel piston bowl geometry can affect turbulent mixing and therefore it impacts heat-release rates, thermal efficiency, and soot emissions. The focus of this work is on the effects of bowl geometry and injection timing on turbulent flow structure. This computational study compares engine behavior with two pistons representing competing approaches to combustion chamber design: a conventional, re-entrant piston bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed for a part-load, conventional diesel combustion operating point with a pilot-main injection strategy under non-combusting conditions. Two injection timings are simulated based on experimental findings: an injection timing for which the stepped-lip piston enables significant efficiency and emissions benefits, and an injection timing with diminished benefits compared to the conventional, re-entrant piston.
Journal Article

Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline with a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Engine

The focus of the present study was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over a variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition.
Technical Paper

Comparative Small Engine Testing Using Hybrid Composite Cylinder Liners

Cylinder liners exert a major influence on engine performance, reliability, durability and maintenance. Various combinations of nonmetallic reinforcements and coatings have been used to improve the tribological performance of sleeves or surfaces used in compressors and internal combustion engines in four stroke, two stroke and rotary configurations. In this paper we report the use of a hybrid composite containing silicon carbide and graphite in an aluminum alloy matrix to improve the performance of various small engines and compressors. Material properties of the base material, as well as comparative dynamometer testing, are presented.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Variable Valve Actuation, Cylinder Deactivation and Injection Strategies for Low-Load RCCI Operation of a Light Duty Engine

While Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategies such as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) exhibit high thermal efficiency and produce low NOx and soot emissions, low load operation is still a significant challenge due to high unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, which occur as a result of poor combustion efficiencies at these operating points. Furthermore, the exhaust gas temperatures are insufficient to light-off the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), thereby resulting in poor UHC and CO conversion efficiencies by the aftertreatment system. To achieve exhaust gas temperature values sufficient for DOC light-off, combustion can be appropriately phased by changing the ratio of gasoline to diesel in the cylinder, or by burning additional fuel injected during the expansion stroke through post-injection.
Technical Paper

Cyclic Variations and Average Burning Rates in a S. I. Engine

A method of calculating mass burning rates for a single cylinder spark-ignition combustion engine based on experimentally obtained pressure-time diagrams was used to analyze the effects of fuel-air ratio, engine speed, spark timing, load, and cyclic cylinder pressure variations on mass burning rates and engine output. A study of the effects on mass burning rates by cyclic pressure changes showed the low pressure cycles were initially slow burning cycles. Although large cyclic cylinder pressure variations existed in the data the cyclic variations in imep were relatively small.
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Chemistry and Spray Properties on Particulate Size Distributions from Dual-Fuel Combustion Strategies

The effect of direct-injected fuel on particle size distributions (PSDs) of particulate matter emitted from dual-fuel combustion strategies was investigated. The PSD data were acquired from a light-duty single-cylinder diesel engine operated using conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and two diesel/natural gas dual-fuel combustion strategies. Three different direct-injection (DI) fuels (diesel, 2,6,10-trimethyldodecane, and a primary reference fuel blend) and two different injector nozzles were studied. The DI fuels were chosen to have similar energy and ignition characteristics (heat of combustion and cetane number) but different physical and chemical properties (volatility, aromatics %, viscosity, density). The two nozzles (with different orifice diameter and spray angle) allowed a wide range in DI fuel quantity for the dual-fuel combustion strategies.
Technical Paper

Effects of Low Pressure EGR on Transient Air System Performance and Emissions for Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

Low pressure EGR offers greater effectiveness and flexibility for turbocharging and improved heat transfer compared to high pressure EGR systems. These characteristics have been shown to provide potential for further NOx, soot, and fuel consumption reductions in modern diesel engines. One of the drawbacks is reduced transient response capability due to the long EGR path. This can be largely mitigated by combining low pressure and high pressure loops in a hybrid EGR system, but the changes in transient response must be considered in the design of an effective control strategy. The effect of low pressure EGR on transient emissions was evaluated using two different combustion strategies over a variety of transient events. Low pressure EGR was found to significantly lengthen the response time of intake oxygen concentration following a transient event, which can have a substantial effect on emissions formation.
Technical Paper

Efficiency and Emissions Mapping of RCCI in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to reduce NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). The RCCI concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that the fuel reactivity can be tailored to the engine speed and load allowing stable low-temperature combustion to be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. Varying the premixed gasoline fraction changes the fuel reactivity stratification in the cylinder providing further control of combustion phasing and pressure rise rate than the use of EGR alone. This added control over the combustion process has been shown to allow rapid engine operating point exploration without direct modeling guidance.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Surface Film Models for Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Spray-Wall Interaction

Surface film formation is an important phenomenon during spray impingement in a combustion chamber. The film that forms on the chamber walls and piston bowl produces soot post-combustion. While some droplets stick to the wall surface, others splash and interact with the gas present inside the combustion chamber. Accurate prediction of both the film thickness and splashed mass is crucial for surface film model development since it leads to a precise estimation of the amount of soot and other exhaust gases formed. This information could guide future studies aimed at a comprehensive understanding of the combustion process and might enable development of engines with reduced emissions. Dynamic structure Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence model implemented for in-cylinder sprays [1] has shown to predict the flow structure of a spray more accurately than the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Validation of Large-Eddy-Simulation (LES) for Gas Jet and Sprays

Large-eddy simulation (LES) is a useful approach for the simulation of turbulent flow and combustion processes in internal combustion engines. This study employs the ANSYS Forte CFD package and explores several key and fundamental components of LES, namely, the subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence models, the numerical schemes used to discretize the transport equations, and the computational mesh. The SGS turbulence models considered include the classic Smagorinsky model and a dynamic structure model. Two numerical schemes for momentum convection, quasi-second-order upwind (QSOU) and central difference (CD), were evaluated. The effects of different computational mesh sizes controlled by both fixed mesh refinement and a solution-adaptive mesh-refinement approach were studied and compared. The LES models are evaluated and validated against several flow configurations that are critical to engine flows, in particular, to fuel injection processes.
Technical Paper

Experimental Instantaneous Heat Fluxes in a Diesel Engine and Their Correlation

By the use of surface thermocouples to measure instantaneous temperatures, the instantaneous heat fluxes are calculated at several positions on the cylinder head and sleeve of a direct injection diesel engine for both motored and fired operation. Existing correlations are shown to be unable to predict these data. An analysis of convective heat transfer in the engine leads to a boundary layer model which adequately correlates the data for motored operation. The extension of this motored correlation to fired operation demonstrates the need for instantaneous local gas velocity and temperature data.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Engine Speed Transient Operation in a Light Duty RCCI Engine

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that utilizes in-cylinder fuel blending to produce low NOx and PM emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency. The current study investigates RCCI and conventional diesel combustion (CDC) operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine over transient operating conditions using a high-bandwidth, transient capable engine test cell. Transient RCCI and CDC combustion and emissions results are compared over an up-speed change from 1,000 to 2,000 rev/min. and a down-speed change from 2,000 to 1,000 rev/min. at a constant 2.0 bar BMEP load. The engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending with port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for the RCCI tests and the same ULSD for the CDC tests.
Journal Article

Exploring the Role of Reactivity Gradients in Direct Dual Fuel Stratification

Low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategies have been an active area of research due to their ability to achieve high thermal efficiency while avoiding the formation of NOx and particulate matter. One of the largest challenges with LTC is the relative lack of authority over the heat release rate profile, which, depending on the particular injection strategy, either limits the maximum attainable load, or creates a tradeoff between noise and efficiency at high load conditions. We have shown previously that control over heat release can be dramatically improved through a combination of reactivity stratification in the premixed charge and a diffusion-limited injection that occurs after the conclusion of the low-temperature heat release, in a strategy called direct dual fuel stratification (DDFS).
Technical Paper

Factors that Affect BSFC and Emissions for Diesel Engines: Part 1 - Presentation of Concepts

The per cylinder displacement in cubic centimeters (PCDICC) vs. brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) have been plotted for both DI and IDI diesel engines. The smallest and largest PCDICC are 25.7 to 2,000,000. It was found for the DI engines that the lowest to the highest (BSFC) ranged from approximately 155 to 450. In terms of ratios these turn out to be about 2.9. Reasons for the increase in BSFC with decrease in PCDICC are presented. Background material are presented to help in explaining the trends experienced. Boundary conditions of the injected fuel as to duration, drop size, and their effect on BSFC, emissions are postulated.
Technical Paper

Guidelines for CFD Simulations of Ground Vehicle Aerodynamics

The CFD tools in aerodynamic design process have been commonly used in aerospace industry in last three decades. Although there are many CFD software algorithms developed for aerodynamic applications, the nature of a complex, three-dimensional geometry in incompressible highly separated, viscous flow made computational simulation of ground vehicle aerodynamics more difficult than aerospace applications. However, recent developments in computational hardware and software industry enabled many new engineering applications on computational environment. Traditional production process has largely influenced by computational design, analysis, manufacturing and visualization. Different aspects of linking advanced computational tools and aerodynamic vehicle design challenges are discussed in the present work. Key technologies like parallel computation, turbulence modeling and CFD/wind tunnel compatibility issues are presented.