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Technical Paper

Visualization and Modeling of Pilot Injection and Combustion in Diesel Engines

An endoscope-based image acquisition-and-processing camera system was used for diagnostics of pilot injection combustion in a single-cylinder heavy duty diesel engine. A study of the pilot injection or light load is of interest because the spray breakup, mixing and vaporization processes are less influenced by heat feedback from the flame than in full injection cases. This allows the spray process to be decoupled from the combustion process. The experimental cases were modeled using a version of the KIVA-II code that includes improvements in the turbulence, wall heat transfer, spray, ignition and combustion models. Pilot injections of three different amounts (10, 15 and 20% of the fuel injected at 75% load and 1600 RPM) at different start-of-injection timings were studied. The imaging system included an endoscope, an intensified CID camera, a frame grabber and the control circuitry.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Intake Air Temperature, Compression Ratio and Coolant Temperature on the Start of Heat Release in an HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) Engine

In this paper, effect of intake air temperature, coolant temperature, and compression ratio on start of heat release (SOHR) in HCCI engines is investigated. The operational range with HCCI operation was determined experimentally using a CFR (Cooperative Fuels Research) engine with n-butane as the fuel. In-cylinder pressure was processed to evaluate SOHR. The effect of intake air and coolant temperature on SOHR increases as engine speed increases. In order to gain more insight into the combustion phenomena, SOHR was calculated using the theory of Livengood-Wu and compared with the experimental data. Dependence of SOHR on the equivalence ratio shows good correspondence between experiment and calculation. On the contrary, dependence on the intake air temperature and compression ratio shows poorer correspondence with predictions, especially under low engine speed. We interpret this as an indication of the importance of the active intermediate species that remain in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Stoichiometric Combustion in a HSDI Diesel Engine to Allow Use of a Three-way Exhaust Catalyst

The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the characteristics of rich diesel combustion near the stoichiometric operating condition, 2) to explore the possibility of stoichiometric operation of a diesel engine in order to allow use of a three-way exhaust after-treatment catalyst, and 3) to achieve practical operation ranges with acceptable fuel economy impacts. Boost pressure, EGR rate, intake air temperature, fuel mass injected, and injection timing variations were investigated to evaluate diesel stoichiometric combustion characteristics in a single-cylinder high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine. Stoichiometric operation in the Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion regime and standard diesel combustion were examined to investigate the characteristics of rich combustion. The results indicate that diesel stoichiometric operation can be achieved with minor fuel economy and soot impact.
Technical Paper

Spray Targeting to Minimize Soot and CO Formation in Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) Combustion with a HSDI Diesel Engine

The effect of spray targeting on exhaust emissions, especially soot and carbon monoxide (CO) formation, were investigated in a single-cylinder, high-speed, direct-injection (HSDI) diesel engine. The spray targeting was examined by sweeping the start-of-injection (SOI) timing with several nozzles which had different spray angles ranging from 50° to 154°. The tests were organized to monitor the emissions in Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion by introducing high levels of EGR (55%) with a relatively low compression ratio (16.0) and an open-crater type piston bowl. The study showed that there were optimum targeting spots on the piston bowl with respect to soot and CO formation, while nitric oxide (NOx) formation was not affected by the targeting. The soot and CO production were minimized when the spray was targeted at the edge of the piston bowl near the squish zone, regardless of the spray angle.
Technical Paper

Six-Mode Cycle Evaluation of the Effect of EGR and Multiple Injections on Particulate and NOx Emissions from a D.I. Diesel Engine

An emissions and performance study was conducted to explore the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and multiple injections on the emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate emissions, and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) over a wide range of engine operating conditions. The tests were conducted on an instrumented single cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3400 series heavy duty Diesel engine. Data was taken at 1600 rev/min, and 75% load, and also at operating conditions taken from a 6-mode simulation of the federal transient test procedure (FTP). The fuel system used was an electronically controlled, common rail injector and supporting hardware. The fuel system was capable of as many as four independent injections per combustion event at pressures from 20 to 120MPa.
Technical Paper

Positive Displacement Calibration for Laboratory Flowmeters

Positive displacement flowmeters can be used to simply and accurately calibrate common flow transducers such as axial turbine and target flowmeters. Two means of utilizing positive displacement devices were studied for use as a laboratory flowmeter calibration. The first method employed a fixed displacement axial piston motor. This proved unsatisfactory due to the difficulty in quantifying flow losses. The second method used a large hydraulic cylinder. An optical encoder measured the position of the cylinder rod, permitting a direct calculation of the flow through the in-line flowmeter being calibrated. Because cylinder leakage is virtually zero at low pressure, flow can be readily calculated knowing the effective cylinder diameter and piston velocity. The method described in this paper permits flow rates to be measured with an accuracy of ±0.1% of the volumetric flow rate. This paper discusses details of the design of the flowmeter and calibration method.
Journal Article

Piston Bowl Optimization for RCCI Combustion in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that produces low NO and PM emissions with high thermal efficiency. Previous RCCI research has been investigated in single-cylinder heavy-duty engines. The current study investigates RCCI operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine at 3 operating points. These operating points were chosen to cover a range of conditions seen in the US EPA light-duty FTP test. The operating points were chosen by the Ad Hoc working group to simulate operation in the FTP test. The fueling strategy for the engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of diesel fuel. At these 3 points, the stock engine configuration is compared to operation with both the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and custom-machined pistons designed for RCCI operation.
Technical Paper

Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in the Piston Bowl of a DI Diesel Engine

Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to make gas velocity and turbulence measurements in a motored diesel engine. The experiments were conducted using a single-cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 production engine. One of the exhaust valves and the fuel injector port were used to provide optical access to the combustion chamber so that modifications to the engine geometry were minimal, and the results are representative of the actual engine. Measurements of gas velocity were made in a plane in the piston bowl using TiO2 seed particles. The light sheet necessary for PIV was formed by passing the beam from a Nd:YAG laser through the injector port and reflecting the beam off a conical mirror at the center of the piston. PIV data was difficult to obtain due to significant out-of-plane velocities. However, data was acquired at 25° and 15° before top dead center of compression at 750 rev/min.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation of the Impact of Pilot Ratio Variations on Natural Gas Diesel Dual-Fuel Combustion

Experiments were performed on a small-bore optically accessible engine to investigate diesel pilot ignition (DPI) and reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) dual-fuel combustion strategies with direct injection of natural gas and diesel. Parametric variations of pilot ratio were performed. Natural luminosity and OH chemiluminescence movies of the combustion processes were captured at 28.8 and 14.4 kHz, respectively. These data were used to create ignition maps, which aided in comparing the propagation modes of the two combustion strategies. Lower pilot ratios resulted in lower initial heat release rates, and the initial ignition sites were generally smaller and less luminous; for increased pilot ratios the initial portion of the heat release was larger, and the ignition sites were large and bright. Comparisons between diesel pilot ignition and reactivity controlled compression ignition showed differences in combustion propagation mechanisms.
Journal Article

Optical Diagnostics and Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Spray Targeting Effects in Late-Injection Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion

The effects of spray targeting on mixing, combustion, and pollutant formation under a low-load, late-injection, low-temperature combustion (LTC) diesel operating condition are investigated by optical engine measurements and multi-dimensional modeling. Three common spray-targeting strategies are examined: conventional piston-bowl-wall targeting (152° included angle); narrow-angle floor targeting (124° included angle); and wide-angle piston-bowl-lip targeting (160° included angle). Planar laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics in a heavy-duty direct-injection optical diesel engine provide two-dimensional images of fuel-vapor, low-temperature ignition (H2CO), high-temperature ignition (OH) and soot-formation species (PAH) to characterize the LTC combustion process.
Technical Paper

On Non-Equilibrium Turbulence Corrections in Multidimensional HSDI Diesel Engine Computations

The introduction of high-pressure injection systems in D.I. diesel engines has highlighted already known drawbacks of in-cylinder turbulence modeling. In particular, the well known equilibrium hypothesis is far from being valid even during the compression stroke and moreover during the spray injection and combustion processes when turbulence energy transfer between scales occurs under non-equilibrium conditions. The present paper focuses on modeling in-cylinder engine turbulent flows. Turbulence is accounted for by using the RNG k-ε model which is based on equilibrium turbulence assumptions. By using a modified version of the Kiva-3 code, different mathematically based corrections to the computed macro length scale are proposed in order to account for non-equilibrium effects. These new approaches are applied to a simulation of a recent generation HSDI Diesel engine at both full load and partial load conditions representative of the emission EUDC cycle.
Technical Paper

Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters

This article presents nondestructive neutron computed tomography (nCT) measurements of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as a method to measure ash and soot loading in the filters. Uncatalyzed and unwashcoated 200cpsi cordierite DPFs exposed to 100% biodiesel (B100) exhaust and conventional ultra low sulfur 2007 certification diesel (ULSD) exhaust at one speed-load point (1500 rpm, 2.6 bar BMEP) are compared to a brand new (never exposed) filter. Precise structural information about the substrate as well as an attempt to quantify soot and ash loading in the channel of the DPF illustrates the potential strength of the neutron imaging technique.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Simulation of PCCI Combustion Using Gasoline and Dual-Fuel Direct Injection with Detailed Chemical Kinetics

Homogeneous or partially premixed charge compression ignition combustion is considered to be an attractive alternative to traditional internal combustion engine operation because of its extremely low levels of pollutant emissions. However, since it is difficult to control the start of combustion timing, direct injection of fuel into the combustion chamber is often used for combustion phasing control, as well as charge preparation. In this paper, numerical simulations of compression ignition processes using gasoline fuel directly injected using a low pressure, hollow cone injector are presented. The multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA3V, that incorporates various advanced sub-models and is coupled with CHEMKIN for modeling detailed chemistry, was used for the study. Simulation results of the spray behavior at various injection conditions were validated with available experimental data.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer of Fuel Films Resulting from Impinging Sprays

To help account for fuel distribution during combustion in diesel engines, a fuel film model has been developed and implemented into the KIVA-II code [1]. Spray-wall interaction and spray-film interaction are also incorporated into the model. Modified wall functions for evaporating, wavy films are developed and tested. The model simulates thin fuel film flow on solid surfaces of arbitrary configuration. This is achieved by solving the continuity, momentum and energy equations for the two dimensional film that flows over a three dimensional surface. The major physical effects considered in the model include mass and momentum contributions to the film due to spray drop impingement, splashing effects, various shear forces, piston acceleration, dynamic pressure effects, and convective heat and mass transfer.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Late Cycle Oxygen Enrichment on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions

A multidimensional simulation of Auxiliary Gas Injection (AGI) for late cycle oxygen enrichment was exercised to assess the merits of AGI for reducing the emissions of soot from heavy duty diesel engines while not adversely affecting the NOx emissions of the engine. Here, AGI is the controlled enhancement of mixing within the diesel engine combustion chamber by high speed jets of air or another gas. The engine simulated was a Caterpillar 3401 engine. For a particular operating condition of this engine, the simulated soot emissions of the engine were reduced by 80% while not significantly affecting the engine-out NOx emissions compared to the engine operating without AGI. The effects of AGI duration, timing, and orientation are studied to confirm the window of opportunity for realizing lower engine-out soot while not increasing engine out NOx through controlled enhancement of in-cylinder mixing.
Technical Paper

Modeling Fuel Preparation and Stratified Combustion in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

Fuel preparation and stratified combustion were studied for a conceptual gasoline Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (GDI or DISI) engine by computer simulations. The primary interest was on the effects of different injector orientations and the effects of tumble ratio for late injection cases at a partial load operating condition. A modified KIVA-3V code that includes improved spray breakup and wall impingement and combustion models was used. A new ignition kernel model, called DPIK, was developed to describe the early flame growth process. The model uses Lagrangian marker particles to describe the flame positions. The computational results reveal that spray wall impingement is important and the fuel distribution is controlled by the spray momentum and the combustion chamber shape. The injector orientation significantly influences the fuel stratification pattern, which results in different combustion characteristics.
Technical Paper

Modeling Early Injection Processes in HSDI Diesel Engines

Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the combustion process in the Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) regime in a light-duty diesel engine. The CHEMKIN code was implemented into an updated KIVA-3V release 2 code to simulate combustion and emission characteristics using reduced chemistry. The test engine used for validation data was a single cylinder version of a production 1.9L four-cylinder HSDI diesel engine. The engine operating condition considered was 2,000 rev/min and 5 bar BMEP load. Because high EGR levels are required for combustion retardation to make PCI combustion possible, the EGR rate was set at a relatively high level (40%) and injection timing sweeps were considered. Since injection timings were very advanced, impingement of the fuel spray on the piston bowl wall was unavoidable. To model the effects of fuel films on exhaust emissions, a drop and wall interaction model was implemented in the present code.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Gas Temperature in a HCCI Engine Using a Fourier Domain Mode Locking Laser

Initial measurements of water vapor temperature using a Fourier domain mode locking (FDML) laser were performed in a carefully controlled homogenous charge compression ignition engine with optical access. The gas temperature was inferred from water absorption spectra that were measured each 0.25 crank angle degrees (CAD) over a range of 150 CAD. Accuracy was tested in a well controlled shock tube experiment. This paper will validate the potential of this FDML laser in combustion applications.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Bulk In-Cylinder Stratification with Split Intake Runners

The mixing between the flows introduced through different intake valves of a four-valve engine was investigated optically. Each valve was fed from a different intake system, and the relative sensitivity to different flow parameters (manipulated with the goal of enhancing the bulk in-cylinder stratification) was investigated. Flow manipulation was achieved in three primary ways: modifying the intake runner geometry upstream of the head, introducing flow-directing baffles into the intake port, and attaching flow break-down screens to the intake valves. The relative merits of each flow manipulation method was evaluated using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of 3-pentanone, which was introduced to the engine through only one intake valve. Images were acquired from 315° bTDC through 45° bTDC, and the level of in-cylinder stratification was evaluated on an ensemble and cycle-to-cycle basis using a novel column-based probability distribution function (PDF) contour plot.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurement of Particulate Radiant Heat Transfer in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

A method of determining the total hemispherical in-cylinder radiant heat transfer of a direct injection diesel engine was developed using the Two Color theory. A radiant probe was installed in the head of a single cylinder test engine version of a Cummins N14 diesel engine to facilitate the optical measurement. Two probes, installed one at a time, were used to provide the data to calculate the hemispherical radiant heat flux. Each of the probes had a different field of view but both had a near-hemispherical field of view and used a window material that exhibits a cosine-normalized response. The radiant probes were designed to be self-cleaning and remained free of soot deposits during engine operation at high load. The test engine was operated at 1200 and 1500 RPM and at 50, 75, and 100% load for each engine speed. At each operating combination of engine speed and load, measurements were made at several injection timings.