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Technical Paper

Validation of the Generalized RNG Turbulence Model and Its Application to Flow in a HSDI Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0140
A generalized re-normalization group (RNG) turbulence model based on the local "dimensionality" of the flow field is proposed. In this modeling approach the model coefficients C₁, C₂, and C₃ are all constructed as functions of flow strain rate. In order to further validate the proposed turbulence model, the generalized RNG closure model was applied to model the backward facing step flow (a classic test case for turbulence models). The results indicated that the modeling of C₂ in the generalized RNG closure model is reasonable, and furthermore, the predictions of the generalized RNG model were in better agreement with experimental data than the standard RNG turbulence model. As a second step, the performance of the generalized RNG closure was investigated for a complex engine flow.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Sparse Analytical Jacobian Chemistry Solver for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Simulations with Comprehensive Reaction Mechanisms

2012-09-24
2012-01-1974
The paper presents the development of a novel approach to the solution of detailed chemistry in internal combustion engine simulations, which relies on the analytical computation of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) system Jacobian matrix in sparse form. Arbitrary reaction behaviors in either Arrhenius, third-body or fall-off formulations can be considered, and thermodynamic gas-phase mixture properties are evaluated according to the well-established 7-coefficient JANAF polynomial form. The current work presents a full validation of the new chemistry solver when coupled to the KIVA-4 code, through modeling of a single cylinder Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty engine, running in two-stage combustion mode.
Technical Paper

Using Dynamic Modular Diesel Engine Models To Understand System Interactions and Performance

1999-03-01
1999-01-0976
This paper reviews the engine modeling program in the Powertrain Control Research Laboratory at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, focuses on simulation results obtained from a complete modular turbocharged diesel engine dynamic model developed in this lab, and suggests ways that dynamic engine system models can be used in the design process. It examines the dynamic responses and interactions between various components in the engine system, looks at how these components affect the overall performance of the system in transient and steady state operation.
Technical Paper

Two-Color Imaging of In-Cylinder Soot Concentration and Temperature in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine with Comparison to Multidimensional Modeling for Single and Split Injections

1998-02-23
980524
Two-Color imaging optics were developed and used to observe soot emission processes in a modern heavy-duty diesel engine. The engine was equipped with a common rail, electronically-controlled, high-pressure fuel injection system that is capable of up to four injection pulses per engine cycle. The engine was instrumented with an endoscope system for optical access for the combustion visualization. Multidimensional combustion and soot modeling results were used for comparisons to enhance the understanding and interpretation of the experimental data. Good agreement between computed and measured cylinder pressures, heat release and soot and NOx emissions was achieved. In addition, good qualitative agreement was found between in-cylinder soot concentration (KL) and temperature fields obtained from the endoscope images and those obtained from the multidimensional modeling.
Technical Paper

Two-Color Combustion Visualization of Single and Split Injections in a Single-Cylinder Heavy-Duty D.I. Diesel Engine Using an Endoscope-Based Imaging System

1999-03-01
1999-01-1112
An experimental study of luminous combustion in a modern diesel engine was performed to investigate the effect of injection parameters on NOX and soot formation via flame temperature and soot KL factor measurements. The two-color technique was applied to 2-D soot luminosity images and area-averaged soot radiation signals to obtain spatially and temporally resolved flame temperature and soot KL factor. The imaging system used for this study was based on a wide-angle endoscope that was mounted in the cylinder head and allowed different views of the combustion chamber. The experiments were carried out on a single-cylinder 2.4 liter D.I. diesel engine equipped with an electronically controlled common-rail injection system. Operating conditions were 1600 rpm and 75% load. The two-color results confirm that retarding the injection timing causes lower flame temperatures and NOX emissions but increased soot formation, independent of injection strategy.
Technical Paper

Transient Spray Characteristics of a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignited Fuel Injector

1997-02-24
970629
This paper describes the transient spray characteristics of a high pressure, single fluid injector, intended for use in a direct-injection spark-ignited (DISI) engine. The injector was a single hole, pintle type injector and was electronically controlled. A variety of measurement diagnostics, including full-field imaging and line-of-sight diffraction based particle sizing were employed for spray characterization. Transient patternator measurements were also performed to obtain temporally resolved average mass flux distributions. Particle size and obscuration measurements were performed at three locations in the spray and at three injection pressures: 3.45 MPa (500 psi), 4.83 Mpa (700 psi), and 6.21 MPa (900 psi). Results of the spray imaging experiments indicated that the spray shapes varied with time after the start of injection and contained a leading mass, or slug along the center line of the spray.
Technical Paper

Toward Predictive Modeling of Diesel Engine Intake Flow, Combustion and Emissions

1994-10-01
941897
The development of analytic models of diesel engine flow, combustion and subprocesses is described. The models are intended for use as design tools by industry for the prediction of engine performance and emissions to help reduce engine development time and costs. Part of the research program includes performing engine experiments to provide validation data for the models. The experiments are performed on a single-cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 engine that is equipped with state-of-the-art high pressure electronic fuel injection and emissions instrumentation. In-cylinder gas velocity and gas temperature measurements have also been made to characterize the flows in the engine.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Boost Pressure on Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a Heavy-Duty Single-Cylinder D.I. Diesel Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-0840
An electronically controlled Caterpillar single-cylinder oil test engine (SCOTE) was used to study diesel combustion. The SCOTE retains the port, combustion chamber, and injection geometry of the production six cylinder, 373 kW (500 hp) 3406E heavy-duty truck engine. The engine was equipped with an electronic unit injector and an electronically controlled common rail injector that is capable of multiple injections. An emissions investigation was carried out using a six-mode cycle simulation of the EPA Federal Transient Test Procedure. The results show that the SCOTE meets current EPA mandated emissions levels, despite the higher internal friction imposed by the single-cylinder configuration. NOx versus particulate trade-off curves were generated over a range of injection timings for each mode and results of heat release calculations were examined, giving insight into combustion phenomena in current “state of the art” heavy-duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Split Injection and Swirl on a HSDI Diesel Engine Equipped with a Common Rail Injection System

2003-03-03
2003-01-0349
To overcome the trade-off between NOx and particulate emissions for future diesel vehicles and engines it is necessary to seek methods to lower pollutant emissions. The desired simultaneous improvement in fuel efficiency for future DI (Direct Injection) diesels is also a difficult challenge due to the combustion modifications that will be required to meet the exhaust emission mandates. This study demonstrates the emission reduction capability of split injections, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), and other parameters on a High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system using an RSM (Response Surface Method) optimization method. The optimizations were conducted at 1757 rev/min, 45% load. Six factors were considered for the optimization, namely the EGR rate, SOI (Start of Injection), intake boost pressure, and injection pressure, the percentage of fuel in the first injection, and the dwell between injections.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Oxygenate and Gasoline-Diesel Fuel Blends on Diesel Engine Emissions

2000-03-06
2000-01-1173
A study was performed in which the effects on the regulated emissions from a commercial small DI diesel engine were measured for different refinery-derived fuel blends. Seven different fuel blends were tested, of which two were deemed to merit more detailed evaluation. To investigate the effects of fuel properties on the combustion processes with these fuel blends, two-color pyrometry was used via optically accessible cylinderheads. Additional data were obtained with one of the fuel blends with a heavy-duty DI diesel engine. California diesel fuel was used as a baseline. The fuel blends were made by mixing the components typically found in gasoline, such as methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and whole fluid catalytic cracking gasoline (WH-FCC). The mixing was performed on a volume basis. Cetane improver (CI) was added to maintain the same cetane number (CN) of the fuel blends as that of the baseline fuel.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Swirl Ratio and Fuel Injection Parameters on CO Emission and Fuel Conversion Efficiency for High-Dilution, Low-Temperature Combustion in an Automotive Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0197
Engine-out CO emission and fuel conversion efficiency were measured in a highly-dilute, low-temperature diesel combustion regime over a swirl ratio range of 1.44-7.12 and a wide range of injection timing. At fixed injection timing, an optimal swirl ratio for minimum CO emission and fuel consumption was found. At fixed swirl ratio, CO emission and fuel consumption generally decreased as injection timing was advanced. Moreover, a sudden decrease in CO emission was observed at early injection timings. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations, pressure-based measurements of ignition delay and apparent heat release, estimates of peak flame temperature, imaging of natural combustion luminosity and spray/wall interactions, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements of in-cylinder turbulence levels are employed to clarify the sources of the observed behavior.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Aromatic Structure and Content on Direct Injection Diesel Engine Particulates

1992-02-01
920110
A single cylinder, Cummins NH, direct-injection, diesel engine has been operated in order to evaluate the effects of aromatic content and aromatic structure on diesel engine particulates. Results from three fuels are shown. The first fuel, a low sulfur Chevron diesel fuel was used as a base fuel for comparison. The other fuels consisted of the base fuel and 10% by volume of 1-2-3-4 tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) a single-ring aromatic and naphthalene, a double-ring aromatic. The fuels were chosen to vary aromatic content and structure while minimizing differences in boiling points and cetane number. Measurements included exhaust particulates using a mini-dilution tunnel, exhaust emissions including THC, CO2, NO/NOx, O2, injection timing, two-color radiation, soluble organic fraction, and cylinder pressure. Particulate measurements were found to be sensitive to temperature and flow conditions in the mini-dilution tunnel and exhaust system.
Technical Paper

The Development of Vehicular Powertrain System Modeling Methodologies: Philosphy and Implementation

1997-02-24
971089
Simulation is a useful tool which can significantly reduce resources invested during product development. Vehicle manufacturers are using simulations to aid in the evaluation of designs and components, including powertrain systems and controllers. These simulations can be made more useful by addressing issues such as flexibility, modularity, and causality. These issues and other aspects involved in the development and use of powertrain system simulations are discussed in this paper, and a case study of a powertrain system model developed in the PCRL using methodologies based on considerations of such issues is presented.
Technical Paper

The Development and Application of a Diesel Ignition and Combustion Model for Multidimensional Engine Simulation

1995-02-01
950278
An integrated numerical model has been developed for diesel engine computations based on the KIVA-II code. The model incorporates a modified RNG k-ε, turbulence model, a ‘wave’ breakup spray model, the Shell ignition model, the laminar-and-turbulent characteristic-time combustion model, a crevice flow model, a spray/wall impingement model that includes rebounding and breaking-up drops, and other improved submodels in the KIVA code. The model was validated and applied to model successfully different types of diesel engines under various operating conditions. These engines include a Caterpillar engine with different injection pressures at different injection timings, a small Tacom engine at different loads, and a Cummins engine modified by Sandia for optical experiments. Good levels of agreement in cylinder pressures and heat release rate data were obtained using the same computer model for all engine cases.
Technical Paper

Studying the Roles of Kinetics and Turbulence in the Simulation of Diesel Combustion by Means of an Extended Characteristic-Time-Model

1999-03-01
1999-01-1177
A study was performed that takes into account both turbulence and chemical kinetic effects in the numerical simulation of diesel engine combustion in order to better understand the importance of their respective roles at changing operating conditions. An approach was developed which combines the simplicity and low computational and storage requests of the laminar-and-turbulent characteristic-time model with a detailed combustion chemistry model based on well-known simplified mechanisms. Assuming appropriate simplifications such as steady state or equilibrium for most of the radicals and intermediate species, the kinetics of hydrocarbons can be described by means of three overall steps. This approach was integrated in the KIVA-II code. The concept was validated and applied to a single-cylinder, heavy-duty engine. The simulation covers a wide range of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Spectral Characteristics of Turbulent Flow in a Scale Model of a Diesel Fuel Injector Nozzle

1993-03-01
930924
An experimental investigation of the spectral characteristics of turbulent flow in a scale model of a high pressure diesel fuel injector nozzle hole has been conducted. Instantaneous velocity measurements were made in a 50X transparent model of one hole of an injector nozzle using an Aerometrics Phase/Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) in the velocity mode. Turbulence spectra were calculated from the velocity data using the Lomb-Scargle method. Injector hole length to diameter ratio (L/D) values of 1.3, 2.4, 4.9, and 7.7 and inlet radius to diameter ratio (R/D) values of approximately 0 and 0.3 were investigated. Results were obtained for a steady flow average Reynolds number of 10,500, which is analogous to a fuel injection velocity of 320 m/s and a sac pressure of approximately 67 MPa (10,000 psi). Turbulence time frequency spectra were obtained for significant locations in each geometry, in order to determine how geometry affects the development of the turbulent spectra.
Journal Article

Simultaneous Measurements of In-Cylinder Temperature and Velocity Distribution in a Small-Bore Diesel Engine Using Thermographic Phosphors

2013-04-08
2013-01-0562
In-cylinder temperature and velocity fields were quantified simultaneously in an optically accessible, small-bore diesel engine. A technique utilizing luminescence from Pr:YAG phosphor particles aerosolized into the intake air was used for temperature determination while particle image velocimetry (PIV) on the aforementioned phosphor particles was used to simultaneously measure the velocity field. The temperature and velocity fields were measured at different points throughout the compression stroke up to −30 CAD. Systematic interference due to emission from the piston window reduced the accuracy of the measurements at crank angles closer to TDC. Single-shot simultaneous measurements of the temperature and velocity fields were made using both unheated and heated intake temperatures. In both cases, cycle-to-cycle variations in the temperature and velocity fields were visible.
Technical Paper

Scaling Aspects of the Characteristic Time Combustion Model in the Simulation of Diesel Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-1175
Combustion simulations utilizing the characteristic time combustion model have been performed for four DI diesel engines ranging in size from heavy-duty to large-bore designs. It has been found that the pre-factor to the turbulent characteristic time acts as a scaling parameter between the engines. This phenomenon is explained in terms of the non-equilibrium behavior of the turbulent time and length scales, as is encountered in the rapidly distorting, spray-induced flows of DI diesel engines. In fact, the equilibrium assumption between turbulence production and dissipation, which forms the basis for the employed k-ε-type turbulence models, does not hold in these situations. For such flows, the real turbulent dissipation time scale is locally proportional to the turbulent characteristic time scale which is determined by a typical eddy turnover time.
Journal Article

Replicating Instantaneous Cylinder Mass Flow Rate with Parallel Continuously and Discretely Actuating Intake Plenum Valves

2012-04-16
2012-01-0417
The focus of this paper is to discuss the modeling and control of intake plenum pressure on the Powertrain Control Research Laboratory's (PCRL) Single-Cylinder Engine (SCE) transient test system using a patented device known as the Intake Air Simulator (IAS), which dynamically controls the intake plenum pressure, and, subsequently, the instantaneous airflow into the cylinder. The IAS exists as just one of many devices that the PCRL uses to control the dynamic boundary conditions of its SCE transient test system to make it “think” and operate as though it were part of a Multi-Cylinder Engine (MCE) test system. The model described in this paper will be used to design a second generation of this device that utilizes both continuously and discretely actuating valves working in parallel.
Technical Paper

Reducing Particulate and NOx Emissions by Using Multiple Injections in a Heavy Duty D.I. Diesel Engine

1994-03-01
940897
An experimental study has been completed which evaluated the effectiveness of using double, triple and rate shaped injections to simultaneously reduce particulate and NOx emissions. The experiments were done using a single cylinder version of a Caterpillar 3406 heavy duty D.I. diesel engine. The fuel system used was a common rail, electronically controlled injector that allowed flexibility in both the number and duration of injections per cycle. Injection timing was varied for each injection scheme to evaluate the particulate vs. NOx tradeoff and fuel consumption. Tests were done at 1600 rpm using engine load conditions of 25% and 75% of maximum torque. The results indicate that a double injection with a significantly long delay between injections reduced particulate by as much as a factor of three over a single injection at 75% load with no increase in NOx. Double injections with a smaller dwell gave less improvement in particulate and NOx at 75% load.
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