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Technical Paper

Toward Predictive Modeling of Diesel Engine Intake Flow, Combustion and Emissions

The development of analytic models of diesel engine flow, combustion and subprocesses is described. The models are intended for use as design tools by industry for the prediction of engine performance and emissions to help reduce engine development time and costs. Part of the research program includes performing engine experiments to provide validation data for the models. The experiments are performed on a single-cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 engine that is equipped with state-of-the-art high pressure electronic fuel injection and emissions instrumentation. In-cylinder gas velocity and gas temperature measurements have also been made to characterize the flows in the engine.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Swirl Ratio and Fuel Injection Parameters on CO Emission and Fuel Conversion Efficiency for High-Dilution, Low-Temperature Combustion in an Automotive Diesel Engine

Engine-out CO emission and fuel conversion efficiency were measured in a highly-dilute, low-temperature diesel combustion regime over a swirl ratio range of 1.44-7.12 and a wide range of injection timing. At fixed injection timing, an optimal swirl ratio for minimum CO emission and fuel consumption was found. At fixed swirl ratio, CO emission and fuel consumption generally decreased as injection timing was advanced. Moreover, a sudden decrease in CO emission was observed at early injection timings. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations, pressure-based measurements of ignition delay and apparent heat release, estimates of peak flame temperature, imaging of natural combustion luminosity and spray/wall interactions, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements of in-cylinder turbulence levels are employed to clarify the sources of the observed behavior.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Split Injection on Fuel Distribution in an Engine-Fed Combustion Chamber

This research focused on the effects of split injection on fuel spray behavior in a diesel environment. It was done in a special designed engine-fed combustion chamber (swirl ratio of 5) with full field optical access through a quartz window. The simulated engine combustion chamber used a special backwards spraying injector (105°). The electronically controlled injector could control the size and position of it's two injections. Both injections were through the same nozzle and it produced very rapid injections (1.5 ms) with a maximum injection pressure of 130 MPa. Experimental data included: rate of injection, injector pressure, spray plume images, tip penetration, liquid and vapor fuel distributions, combustion pressure, and rate of pressure rise. From 105° forward scatter images, tip penetration was observed to be very rapid and reached a plateau at 25 mm.
Technical Paper

Temperature Effects on Fuel Sprays from a Multi-Hole Nozzle Injector

A study of fuel spray characteristics for diesel fuel from a multi-hole nozzle injector was performed yielding tip penetration length and spray cone angle for each of the spray plumes from a six hole injector. The main feature of the system used was that analysis of all the fuel plumes could occur at one time, as all the plumes were imaged on the same piece of film. Spray behavior was examined for two injection pressures (72 MPa and 122 MPa) and for ambient temperatures up to 523 K (250°C). The results in this paper show how the spray plumes behave as they leave each of the six holes of the injector. The characteristics of each hole differs during injection. The variations of spray cone angle and tip penetration length between holes are small, but significant. These variations in tip penetration and cone angle changed as the temperature of the chamber changed, but the overall characteristics of the spray plumes changed only slightly for the temperatures used in this paper.
Technical Paper

Spectral Characteristics of Turbulent Flow in a Scale Model of a Diesel Fuel Injector Nozzle

An experimental investigation of the spectral characteristics of turbulent flow in a scale model of a high pressure diesel fuel injector nozzle hole has been conducted. Instantaneous velocity measurements were made in a 50X transparent model of one hole of an injector nozzle using an Aerometrics Phase/Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) in the velocity mode. Turbulence spectra were calculated from the velocity data using the Lomb-Scargle method. Injector hole length to diameter ratio (L/D) values of 1.3, 2.4, 4.9, and 7.7 and inlet radius to diameter ratio (R/D) values of approximately 0 and 0.3 were investigated. Results were obtained for a steady flow average Reynolds number of 10,500, which is analogous to a fuel injection velocity of 320 m/s and a sac pressure of approximately 67 MPa (10,000 psi). Turbulence time frequency spectra were obtained for significant locations in each geometry, in order to determine how geometry affects the development of the turbulent spectra.
Technical Paper

Progress Towards Diesel Combustion Modeling

Progress on the development and validation of a CFD model for diesel engine combustion and flow is described. A modified version of the KIVA code is used for the computations, with improved submodels for liquid breakup, drop distortion and drag, spray/wall impingement with rebounding, sliding and breaking-up drops, wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, multistep kinetics ignition and laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion models, Zeldovich NOx formation, and soot formation with Nagle Strickland-Constable oxidation. The code also considers piston-cylinder-liner crevice flows and allows computations of the intake flow process in the realistic engine geometry with two moving intake valves. Significant progress has been made using a modified RNG k-ε turbulence model, and a multicomponent fuel vaporization model and a flamelet combustion model have been implemented.
Journal Article

Phenomenological Autoignition Model for Diesel Sprays Using Reduced Chemical Kinetics and a Characteristic Scalar Dissipation Rate

This study focuses on the development of an autoignition model for diesel sprays that is applicable to phenomenological multi-zone combustion models. These models typically use a single-step Arrhenius expression to represent the low-temperature chemistry leading up to autoignition. There has been a substantial amount of work done in the area of n-heptane autoignition in homogeneous mixtures. Reduced kinetic mechanisms with ten reactions or less have been proposed in the literature to represent the complex low-temperature oxidation of n-heptane. These kinetic models are attractive for multi-zone simulations because of the low number of reactions involved. However, these kinetic mechanisms and the multi-zone treatment of the fuel spray do not account for the effect of turbulence/chemistry interactions on the chemical reaction rate.
Technical Paper

Optimization of an Asynchronous Fuel Injection System in Diesel Engines by Means of a Micro-Genetic Algorithm and an Adaptive Gradient Method

Optimal fuel injection strategies are obtained with a micro-genetic algorithm and an adaptive gradient method for a nonroad, medium-speed DI diesel engine equipped with a multi-orifice, asynchronous fuel injection system. The gradient optimization utilizes a fast-converging backtracking algorithm and an adaptive cost function which is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The micro-genetic algorithm uses parameter combinations of the best two individuals in each generation until a local convergence is achieved, and then generates a random population to continue the global search. The optimizations have been performed for a two pulse fuel injection strategy where the optimization parameters are the injection timings and the nozzle orifice diameters.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Modeling of Spray Atomization and Air-Fuel Mixing in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

A numerical study of air-fuel mixing in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine was carried out. In this paper, the numerical models are described and grid generation methods to represent a realistic port-valve-chamber geometry is discussed. To model a vaporizing hollow-cone spray resulting from an automotive pressure-swirl injector, a newly developed sheet spray atomization model was used to compute the processes of disintegration of the liquid sheet and breakup of the subsequent drops. Computations were performed of a particular 4-valve pent-roof engine configuration in which the intake process and an early fuel injection scheme were considered. After an analysis of the intake-generated flow structures in this engine configuration, the spray behavior and the spatial and temporal evolution of fuel liquid and vapor phases are characterized.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Modeling of Fuel Composition Effects on Combustion and Cold-Starting in Diesel Engines

A computer model developed for describing multicomponent fuel vaporization, and ignition in diesel engines has been applied in this study to understand cold-starting and the parameters that are of significant influence on this phenomena. This research utilizes recent improvements in spray vaporization and combustion models that have been implemented in the KIVA-II CFD code. Typical engine fuels are blends of various fuels species, i.e., multicomponent. Thus, the original single component fuel vaporization model in KIVA-II was replaced by a multicomponent fuel vaporization model (based on the model suggested by Jin and Borman). The modelhas been extended to model diesel sprays under typical diesel conditions, including the effect of fuel cetane number variation. Necessary modifications were carried out in the atomization and collision sub-models. The ignition model was also modified to account for fuel composition effects by modifying the Shell ignition model.
Technical Paper

Modelling the Influence of Fuel Injection Parameters on Diesel Engine Emissions

Rate shaping of the fuel injection process is known to significantly impact emissions production in diesel engines. To demonstrate the ability of multidimensional engine modeling to quantify and explain the effect of rate shaping and injection duration, three injection profiles typical of common diesel fuel injection systems were investigated for three injection durations and injection timings. The present study uses an improved version of the KIVA-II engine simulation code employing the characteristic time combustion model, the Kelvin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor spray atomization mechanisms, the extended Zeldovich thermal NOx production model, and a single species soot model.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Use of Air-Injection for Emissions Reduction in a Direct-Injected Diesel Engine

This study investigates the effect of air-injection during the late combustion period produced by an air-cell on emissions from a direct injected diesel engine. The engine considered is a Caterpillar 3401 test engine which was modeled with an air-cell included as part of the piston geometry. A version of the KIVA-II code with updated submodels for diesel combustion and emissions was modified to allow for geometries with walls interior to the domain. This modified version of KIVA-II was then used to model an air-cell equipped diesel engine for four different air-cell configurations. Of the four air-cell configurations simulated, one proved successful in reducing the predicted engine emissions by more than a factor of two while simultaneously reducing NOx by a slight amount, thus moving the engine off its particulate-NOx tradeoff curve defined by varying the fuel injection timing.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Intake Generated Turbulence and Resolved Flow Structures on Combustion in DI Diesel Engines

Previous studies have shown the importance of the in-cylinder flow field which exists prior to fuel injection on performance and emissions behavior of direct injected (DI) diesel engines. Key parameters in the flow field are the turbulence level and the resolved structures, such as swirl and tumble flow. These characteristics are known to have significant effects on the fuel vaporization, droplet break-up, and fuel-air mixing. The relative importance of these effects is investigated through simulation of injection into a stirred, heated, constant volume combustion bomb, using the computational fluid dynamics codes KIVA-3 [9] and KIVA-II [10]. Initial conditions for these simulations are based on in-cylinder conditions which exist in a heavy duty DI diesel engine immediately prior to fuel injection.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Fuel Spray Characteristics on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emission

A new spray model has been developed to improve the prediction of diesel engine combustion and emissions using the KIVA-II CFD code. The accuracy of modeling the spray breakup process has been improved by the inclusion of Rayleigh-Taylor accelerative instabilities, which are calculated simultaneously with a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave model. This model improves the prediction of the droplet sizes within a diesel spray and provides a more accurate initial condition for the evaporation, combustion, and emissions models. An improvement to the droplet drag model is also presented. This model accounts for the increased droplet drag due to the change in the droplet's shape, as well as the increase in the frontal area of the droplet. The drag model affects the breakup process locally, producing a more realistic droplet size distribution, and therefore a more accurate calculation of the vaporization process.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Fuel Injection Characteristics on Diesel Engine Soot and NOx Emissions

The three-dimensional KIVA code has been used to study the effects of injection pressure and split injections on diesel engine performance and soot and NOx emissions. The code has been updated with state-of-the-art submodels including: a wave breakup atomization model, drop drag with drop distortion, spray/wall interaction with sliding, rebounding, and breaking-up drops, multistep kinetics ignition and laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion, wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, Zeldovich NOx formation, and soot formation with Nagle Strickland-Constable oxidation. The computational results are compared with experimental data from a single-cylinder Caterpillar research engine equipped with a high-pressure, electronically-controlled fuel injection system, a full-dilution tunnel for soot measurements, and gaseous emissions instrumentation.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effect of Engine Speed on the Combustion Process and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine

Previous studies have shown that air motion affects the combustion process and therefore also the emissions in a DI diesel engine. Experimental studies indicate that higher engine speeds enhance the turbulence and this improves air and fuel mixing. However, there are few studies that address fundamental combustion related factors and possible limitations associated with very high speed engine operation. In this study, operation over a large range of engine speeds was simulated by using a multi-dimensional computer code to study the effect of speed on emissions, engine power, engine and exhaust temperatures. The results indicate that at higher engine speeds fuel is consumed in a much shorter time period by the enhanced air and fuel mixing. The shorter combustion duration provides much less available time for soot and NOx formations. In addition, the enhanced air/fuel mixing decreases soot and NOx by reducing the extent of the fuel rich regions.
Technical Paper

Modeling Techniques to Support Fuel Path Control in Medium Duty Diesel Engines

In modern production diesel engine control systems, fuel path control is still largely conducted through a system of tables that set mode, timing and injection quantity and with common rail systems, rail pressure. In the hands of an experienced team, such systems have proved so far able to meet emissions standards, but they lack the analytical underpinning that lead to systematic solutions. In high degree of freedom systems typified by modern fuel injection, there is substantial scope to deploy optimising closed loop strategies during calibration and potentially in the delivered product. In an optimising controller, a digital algorithm will explicitly trade-off conflicting objectives and follow trajectories during transients that continue to meet a defined set of criteria. Such an optimising controller must be based on a model of the system behaviour which is used in real time to investigate the consequences of proposed control actions.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Diesel Spray Impingement and Fuel Film Characteristics Using Refractive Index Matching Method

The fuel film thickness resulting from diesel fuel spray impingement was measured in a chamber at conditions representative of early injection timings used for low temperature diesel combustion. The adhered fuel volume and the radial distribution of the film thickness are presented. Fuel was injected normal to the impingement surface at ambient temperatures of 353 K, 426 K and 500 K, with densities of 10 kg/m3 and 25 kg/m3. Two injectors, with nozzle diameters of 100 μm and 120 μm, were investigated. The results show that the fuel film volume was strongly affected by the ambient temperature, but was minimally affected by the ambient density. The peak fuel film thickness and the film radius were found to increase with decreased temperature. The fuel film was found to be circular in shape, with an inner region of nearly constant thickness. The major difference observed with temperature was a decrease in the radial extent of the film.
Journal Article

Investigation of Spray Evaporation and Numerical Model Applied for Fuel-injection Small Engines

The purpose of this research is to develop a prediction technique that can be used in the development of port fuel-injection (hereinafter called PFI) gasoline engines, especially for general purpose small utility engines. Utility engines have two contradictory desirable aspects: compactness and high-power at wide open throttle. Therefore, applying the port fuel injector to utility engines presents a unique intractableness that is different from application to automobiles or motorcycles. At the condition of wide open throttle, a large amount of fuel is required to output high power, and injected fuel is deposited as a wall film on the intake port wall. Despite the fuel rich condition, emissions are required to be kept under a certain level. Thus, it is significant to understand the wall film phenomenon and control film thickness in the intake ports.
Technical Paper

Investigating Limitations of a Two-Zone NOx Model Applied to DI Diesel Combustion Using 3-D Modeling

A two-zone NOx model intended for 1-D engine simulations was developed and used to model NOx emissions from a 2.5 L single-cylinder engine. The intent of the present work is to understand key aspects of a simple NOx model that are needed for predictive accuracy, including NOx formation and destruction phenomena in a DI Diesel combustion system. The presented two-zone model is fundamentally based on the heat release rate and thermodynamic incylinder data, and uses the Extended Zeldovich mechanism to model NO. Results show that the model responded very well to changes in speed, load, injection timing, and EGR level. It matched measured tail pipe NOx levels within 20%, using a single tuning setup. When the model was applied to varied injection rate shapes, it showed correct sensitivity to speed, load, injection timing, and EGR level, but the absolute level was well outside the target accuracy. The same limitation was seen when applying the Plee NOx model.