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Technical Paper

Visualization techniques to identify and quantify sources and paths of exterior noise radiated from stationary and nonstationary vehicles

In recent years, Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) has been used to identify stationary vehicle exterior noise sources. However that application has usually been limited to individual components. Since powertrain noise sources are hidden within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial field that combine to create the complete exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address these concerns: it is described here. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. In the second part of this paper, the use of farfield arrays is considered. Several array techniques have previously been applied to identify noise sources on moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Using a Statistical Machine Learning Tool for Diesel Engine Air Path Calibration

A full calibration exercise of a diesel engine air path can take months to complete (depending on the number of variables). Model-based calibration approach can speed up the calibration process significantly. This paper discusses the overall calibration process of the air-path of the Cat® C7.1 engine using statistical machine learning tool. The standard Cat® C7.1 engine's twin-stage turbocharger was replaced by a VTG (Variable Turbine Geometry) as part of an evaluation of a novel air system. The changes made to the air-path system required a recalculation of the air path's boost set point and desired EGR set point maps. Statistical learning processes provided a firm basis to model and optimize the air path set point maps and allowed a healthy balance to be struck between the resources required for the exercise and the resulting data quality.
Technical Paper

Two-Color Imaging of In-Cylinder Soot Concentration and Temperature in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine with Comparison to Multidimensional Modeling for Single and Split Injections

Two-Color imaging optics were developed and used to observe soot emission processes in a modern heavy-duty diesel engine. The engine was equipped with a common rail, electronically-controlled, high-pressure fuel injection system that is capable of up to four injection pulses per engine cycle. The engine was instrumented with an endoscope system for optical access for the combustion visualization. Multidimensional combustion and soot modeling results were used for comparisons to enhance the understanding and interpretation of the experimental data. Good agreement between computed and measured cylinder pressures, heat release and soot and NOx emissions was achieved. In addition, good qualitative agreement was found between in-cylinder soot concentration (KL) and temperature fields obtained from the endoscope images and those obtained from the multidimensional modeling.
Technical Paper

Transmission Modulating Valve Simulation and Simulation Verification

This paper presents a response to the question: Simulation - mathematical manipulation or useful design tool? A mathematical model of a modulating valve in a transmission control system was developed to predict clutch pressure modulation characteristics. The transmission control system was previously reported in SAE Paper 850783 - “Electronic/Hydraulic Transmission Control System for Off-Highway Vehicles”. The comparison of simulation predictions with test data illustrates the effectiveness of simulation as a design tool. THE EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER hardware and simulation software has resulted in increased interest and usage of simulation for dynamic analysis of hydraulic systems. Most commercially available software is relatively easy to learn to use. The application of such software and the modeling techniques involved require a longer learning curve.
Technical Paper

Transient Spray Characteristics of a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignited Fuel Injector

This paper describes the transient spray characteristics of a high pressure, single fluid injector, intended for use in a direct-injection spark-ignited (DISI) engine. The injector was a single hole, pintle type injector and was electronically controlled. A variety of measurement diagnostics, including full-field imaging and line-of-sight diffraction based particle sizing were employed for spray characterization. Transient patternator measurements were also performed to obtain temporally resolved average mass flux distributions. Particle size and obscuration measurements were performed at three locations in the spray and at three injection pressures: 3.45 MPa (500 psi), 4.83 Mpa (700 psi), and 6.21 MPa (900 psi). Results of the spray imaging experiments indicated that the spray shapes varied with time after the start of injection and contained a leading mass, or slug along the center line of the spray.
Journal Article

The Visualization of Soot Late in the Diesel Combustion Process by Laser Induced Incandescence with a Vertical Laser Sheet

Although soot-formation processes in diesel engines have been well characterized during the mixing-controlled burn, little is known about the distribution of soot throughout the combustion chamber after the end of appreciable heat release during the expansion and exhaust strokes. Hence, the laser-induced incandescence (LII) diagnostic was developed to visualize the distribution of soot within an optically accessible single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine during this period. The developed LII diagnostic is semi-quantitative; i.e., if certain conditions (listed in the Appendix) are true, it accurately captures spatial and temporal trends in the in-cylinder soot field. The diagnostic features a vertically oriented and vertically propagating laser sheet that can be translated across the combustion chamber, where “vertical” refers to a direction parallel to the axis of the cylinder bore.
Technical Paper

The Evolution of Electronic Engine Diagnostics

Software systems on electronically controlled diesel truck engines typically provide diagnostic features to enable the engine mechanic to identify and debug system problems. As future systems become more sophisticated, so will the diagnostic requirements. The advantages of serviceability and accuracy found in todays electronic systems must not be allowed to degrade due to this increased sophistication. One method of maintaining a high level of serviceability and accuracy is to place an even greater priority on diagnostics and servicing in the initial design phase of the product than is done today. In particular, three major goals of future diagnostic systems should be separation of component failures from system failures, prognostication of failures and analysis of engine performance. This paper will discuss a system to realize these goals by dividing the diagnostic task into the Electronic System Diagnostics, Engine System Diagnostics and the Diagnostic Interface.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Wall Temperature on Flame Structure During Flame Quenching

The effect of wall temperature on single surface flame quenching and flame structure of an atmospheric premixed methane-air flame was studied. The luminous region of a laminar flame was located at an angle of 45 degrees to a temperature- controlled surface. C2 laser-induced fluorescence was used as an indicator of flame position while Raman spectroscopy was used to determine gas temperature profiles near the surface. These measurements were conducted for wall positions (vertical distance from the surface) ranging from 50 mm to 1.0 mm and wall temperatures ranging from 150 °C to 600 °C. C2 laser-induced fluorescence measurements indicated flame position is affected by the presence of a surface and the surface temperature. Larger C2 fluorescence intensity values were observed for higher wall temperatures at all distances from the surface.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Swirl Ratio and Fuel Injection Parameters on CO Emission and Fuel Conversion Efficiency for High-Dilution, Low-Temperature Combustion in an Automotive Diesel Engine

Engine-out CO emission and fuel conversion efficiency were measured in a highly-dilute, low-temperature diesel combustion regime over a swirl ratio range of 1.44-7.12 and a wide range of injection timing. At fixed injection timing, an optimal swirl ratio for minimum CO emission and fuel consumption was found. At fixed swirl ratio, CO emission and fuel consumption generally decreased as injection timing was advanced. Moreover, a sudden decrease in CO emission was observed at early injection timings. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations, pressure-based measurements of ignition delay and apparent heat release, estimates of peak flame temperature, imaging of natural combustion luminosity and spray/wall interactions, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements of in-cylinder turbulence levels are employed to clarify the sources of the observed behavior.
Journal Article

The Big Data Application Strategy for Cost Reduction in Automotive Industry

Cost reduction in the automotive industry becomes a widely-adopted operational strategy not only for Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) that take cost leader generic corporation strategy, but also for many OEMs that take differentiation generic corporation strategy. Since differentiation generic strategy requires an organization to provide a product or service above the industry average level, a premium is typically included in the tag price for those products or services. Cost reduction measures could increase risks for the organizations that pursue differentiation strategy. Although manufacturers in the automotive industry dramatically improved production efficiency in past ten years, they are still facing the pressure of cost control. The big challenge in cost control for automakers and suppliers is increasing prices of raw materials, energy and labor costs. These costs create constraints for the traditional economic expansion model.
Technical Paper

The Artificial Intelligence Application Strategy in Powertrain and Machine Control

The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the automotive industry can dramatically reshape the industry. In past decades, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) applied neural network and pattern recognition technologies to powertrain calibration, emission prediction and virtual sensor development. The AI application is mostly focused on reducing product development and validation cost. AI technologies in these applications demonstrate certain cost-saving benefits, but are far from disruptive. A disruptive impact can be realized when AI applications finally bring cost-saving benefits directly to end users (e.g., automation of a vehicle or machine operation could dramatically improve the efficiency). However, there is still a gap between current technologies and those that can fully give a vehicle or machine intelligence, including reasoning, knowledge, planning and self-learning.
Technical Paper

Steady-State Engine Testing of γ-Alumina Catalysts Under Plasma Assist for NOx Control in Heavy-Duty Diesel Exhaust

A slipstream of exhaust from a Caterpillar 3126B engine was diverted into a plasma-catalytic NOx control system in the space velocity range of 7,000 to 100,000 hr-1. The stream was first fed through a non-thermal plasma that was formed in a coaxial cylinder dielectric barrier discharge reactor. Plasma treated gas was then passed over a catalyst bed held at constant temperature in the range of 573 to 773 K. Catalysts examined consisted of γ-alumina, indium-doped γ-alumina, and silver-doped γ-alumina. Road and rated load conditions resulted in engine out NOx levels of 250 - 600 ppm. The effects of hydrocarbon level, catalyst temperature, and space velocity are discussed where propene and in one case ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (late cycle injection) were the reducing agents used for NOx reduction. Results showed NOx reduction in the range of 25 - 97% depending on engine operating conditions and management of the catalyst and slipstream conditions.
Journal Article

Stator Side Voltage Regulation of Permanent Magnet Generators

Permanent magnet AC generators are robust, inexpensive, and efficient compared to wound-field synchronous generators with brushless exciters. Their application in variable-speed applications is made difficult by the variation of the stator voltage with shaft speed. This paper presents the use of stator-side reactive power injection as a means of regulating the stator voltage. Design-oriented analysis of machine performance for this mode of operation identifies an appropriate level of machine saliency that enables excellent terminal voltage regulation over a specified speed and load range, while minimizing stator current requirements. This paper demonstrates that the incorporation of saliency into the permanent magnet generator can significantly reduce the size of the reactive current source that is required to regulate the stator voltage during operation over a wide range of speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

Results of Plasma-Generated Hydrophilic and Antimicrobial Surfaces for Fluid Management Applications

Humidity control within confined spaces is of great importance for existing NASA environmental control systems and Exploration applications. The Engineered Multifunction Surfaces (MFS) developed in this STTR Phase II form the foundation for a modular and scalable Distributed Humidity Control System (DHCS) while minimizing power, size and mass requirements. Key innovations of the MFS-based DHCS include passive humidity collection, control, and phase separation without moving parts, durable surface properties without particulate generation and accumulation, and the ability to scale up, or network in a distributed manner, a compact, modular device for Exploration applications including space suits, CEV, Rovers, Small and Transit Habitats and Large Habitats.
Technical Paper

Results of Applying a Families-of-Systems Approach to Systems Engineering of Product Line Families

Most of the history of systems engineering has been focused on processes for engineering a single complex system. However, most large enterprises design, manufacture, operate, sell, or support not one product but multiple product lines of related but varying systems. They seek to optimize time to market, costs of development and production, leverage of intellectual assets, best use of talented human resources, overall competitiveness, overall profitability and productivity. Optimizing globally across multiple product lines does not follow from treating each system family member as an independently engineered system or product. Traditional systems engineering principles can be generalized to apply to families. This article includes a multi-year case study of the actual use of a generic model-based systems engineering methodology for families, Systematica™, across the embedded electronic systems products of one of the world's largest manufacturers of heavy equipment.
Technical Paper

Reduced Magnet Designs and Position Self-Sensing Control Methods of Flux-Intensifying Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

This paper presents advanced and cost-reducing technologies of a motor drive system with reduced permanent magnets but without a position sensor. The key enabler is the integration of novel designs of flux-intensifying interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (FI-IPMSMs) and position self-sensing control technologies. In this paper, we focus on two advantages of FI-IPMSM over conventional flux-weakening interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (FW-IPMSMs). The first benefit is that thinner magnets are possible and there is less concern for demagnetization because of its significantly smaller flux-weakening current. This paper presents two design examples of FI-IPMSMs, one of which has not only smaller magnets but also similar power conversion capability. The second advantage is reduced saturation and cross-saturation effect, which leads to improved position self-sensing capability.
Technical Paper

Rapid Prototyping of Control Strategies for Embedded Systems

As both the number and complexity of electronic control system applications on earthmoving equipment and on-highway trucks increase, so does the effort associated with developing and maintaining control strategies implemented in embedded systems. A new tool was recently introduced by Sigma Technology of Ann Arbor, Michigan, that provides the capability to perform rapid prototyping of production embedded systems. The rapid prototyping process includes system modeling, control algorithm synthesis, simulation analysis, source code generation and vehicle implementation. The results of incorporating this tool in the control system design process include improved control performance, improved system reliability/robustness, and significantly reduced development/maintenance costs.
Technical Paper

Pump/Motor Displacement Control Using High-Speed On/Off Valves

A four valve controller and electronic control circuits were developed to control the displacement of hydrostatic pump/motors (P/M's) utilized in an automobile with a hydrostatic transmission and hydropneumatic accumulator energy storage. Performance of the control system was evaluated. The controller uses four high-speed, two-way, single-stage poppet valves, functioning in the same manner as a 4-way, 3-position spool valve. Two such systems were used to control the displacement of two P/Ms, each system driving a front wheel of the vehicle. The valves were controlled electronically by a distributed-control dead-band circuit and valve driver boards. Testing showed that the control system's time response satisified driving demand needs, but that the control system's error was slightly larger than desired. This may lead to complications in some of the vehicle's operating modes.
Technical Paper

Process Control Standards for Technology Development

Engineering new technology and products challenges managers to balance design innovation and program risk. To do this, managers need methods to judge future results to avoid program and product disasters. Besides the traditional prediction tools of schedule, simulations and “iron tests”, process control standards (with measurements) can also be applied to the development programs to mitigate risks. This paper briefly discusses the theory and case history behind some new process control methods and standards currently in place at Caterpillar's Electrical & Electronics department. Process standards reviewed in this paper include process mapping, ISO9001, process controls, and process improvement models (e.g. SEI's CMMs.)
Technical Paper

Potato Tuber Formation and Metabolism in the Spaceflight Environment

Five potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaf cuttings were flown on STS-73 in late October, 1995 as part of the 16-day USML-2 mission. Pre-flight studies were conducted to study tuber growth, determine carbohydrate concentrations and examine the developing starch grains within the tuber. In these tests, tubers attained a fresh weight of 1.4 g tuber-1 after 13 days. Tuber fresh mass was significantly correlated to tuber diameter. Greater than 60% of the tuber dry mass was starch and the starch grains varied in size from 2 to 40 mm in the long axis. For the flight experiment, cuttings were obtained from seven-week-old Norland potato plants, kept at 5°C for 12 hours then planted into arcillite in the ASTROCULTURE™ flight hardware. The flight package was loaded on-board the orbiter 22 hours prior to launch.