Refine Your Search




Search Results

Technical Paper

Visualization techniques to identify and quantify sources and paths of exterior noise radiated from stationary and nonstationary vehicles

In recent years, Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) has been used to identify stationary vehicle exterior noise sources. However that application has usually been limited to individual components. Since powertrain noise sources are hidden within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial field that combine to create the complete exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address these concerns: it is described here. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. In the second part of this paper, the use of farfield arrays is considered. Several array techniques have previously been applied to identify noise sources on moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Sparse Analytical Jacobian Chemistry Solver for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Simulations with Comprehensive Reaction Mechanisms

The paper presents the development of a novel approach to the solution of detailed chemistry in internal combustion engine simulations, which relies on the analytical computation of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) system Jacobian matrix in sparse form. Arbitrary reaction behaviors in either Arrhenius, third-body or fall-off formulations can be considered, and thermodynamic gas-phase mixture properties are evaluated according to the well-established 7-coefficient JANAF polynomial form. The current work presents a full validation of the new chemistry solver when coupled to the KIVA-4 code, through modeling of a single cylinder Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty engine, running in two-stage combustion mode.
Technical Paper

Using a Statistical Machine Learning Tool for Diesel Engine Air Path Calibration

A full calibration exercise of a diesel engine air path can take months to complete (depending on the number of variables). Model-based calibration approach can speed up the calibration process significantly. This paper discusses the overall calibration process of the air-path of the Cat® C7.1 engine using statistical machine learning tool. The standard Cat® C7.1 engine's twin-stage turbocharger was replaced by a VTG (Variable Turbine Geometry) as part of an evaluation of a novel air system. The changes made to the air-path system required a recalculation of the air path's boost set point and desired EGR set point maps. Statistical learning processes provided a firm basis to model and optimize the air path set point maps and allowed a healthy balance to be struck between the resources required for the exercise and the resulting data quality.
Journal Article

Use of Low-Pressure Direct-Injection for Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Light-Duty Engine Operation

Reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) has been shown to be capable of providing improved engine efficiencies coupled with the benefit of low emissions via in-cylinder fuel blending. Much of the previous body of work has studied the benefits of RCCI operation using high injection pressures (e.g., 500 bar or greater) with common rail injection (CRI) hardware. However, low-pressure fueling technology is capable of providing significant cost savings. Due to the broad market adoption of gasoline direct injection (GDI) fueling systems, a market-type prototype GDI injector was selected for this study. Single-cylinder light-duty engine experiments were undertaken to examine the performance and emissions characteristics of the RCCI combustion strategy with low-pressure GDI technology and compared against high injection pressure RCCI operation. Gasoline and diesel were used as the low-reactivity and high-reactivity fuels, respectively.
Journal Article

Understanding Hydrocarbon Emissions in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Combining Experimental and Computational Methods

Fundamental understanding of the sources of fuel-derived Unburned Hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions in heavy duty diesel engines is a key piece of knowledge that impacts engine combustion system development. Current emissions regulations for hydrocarbons can be difficult to meet in-cylinder and thus after treatment technologies such as oxidation catalysts are typically used, which can be costly. In this work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are combined with engine experiments in an effort to build an understanding of hydrocarbon sources. In the experiments, the combustion system design was varied through injector style, injector rate shape, combustion chamber geometry, and calibration, to study the impact on UHC emissions from mixing-controlled diesel combustion.
Technical Paper

Two-Color Combustion Visualization of Single and Split Injections in a Single-Cylinder Heavy-Duty D.I. Diesel Engine Using an Endoscope-Based Imaging System

An experimental study of luminous combustion in a modern diesel engine was performed to investigate the effect of injection parameters on NOX and soot formation via flame temperature and soot KL factor measurements. The two-color technique was applied to 2-D soot luminosity images and area-averaged soot radiation signals to obtain spatially and temporally resolved flame temperature and soot KL factor. The imaging system used for this study was based on a wide-angle endoscope that was mounted in the cylinder head and allowed different views of the combustion chamber. The experiments were carried out on a single-cylinder 2.4 liter D.I. diesel engine equipped with an electronically controlled common-rail injection system. Operating conditions were 1600 rpm and 75% load. The two-color results confirm that retarding the injection timing causes lower flame temperatures and NOX emissions but increased soot formation, independent of injection strategy.
Technical Paper

Tribodynamics of a New De-Clutch Mechanism Aimed for Engine Downsizing in Off-Road Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Clutches are commonly utilised in passenger type and off-road heavy-duty vehicles to disconnect the engine from the driveline and other parasitic loads. In off-road heavy-duty vehicles, along with fuel efficiency start-up functionality at extended ambient conditions, such as low temperature and intake absolute pressure are crucial. Off-road vehicle manufacturers can overcome the parasitic loads in these conditions by oversizing the engine. Caterpillar Inc. as the pioneer in off-road technology has developed a novel clutch design to allow for engine downsizing while vehicle’s performance is not affected. The tribological behaviour of the clutch will be crucial to start engagement promptly and reach the maximum clutch capacity in the shortest possible time and smoothest way in terms of dynamics. A multi-body dynamics model of the clutch system is developed in MSC ADAMS. The flywheel is introducing the same speed and torque as the engine (represents the engine input to the clutch).
Journal Article

Transient, Three Dimensional CFD Model of the Complete Engine Lubrication System

This paper reports on a comprehensive, crank-angle transient, three dimensional, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the complete lubrication system of a multi-cylinder engine using the CFD software Simerics-Sys / PumpLinx. This work represents an advance in system-level modeling of the engine lubrication system over the current state of the art of one-dimensional models. The model was applied to a 16 cylinder, reciprocating internal combustion engine lubrication system. The computational domain includes the positive displacement gear pump, the pressure regulation valve, bearings, piston pins, piston cooling jets, the oil cooler, the oil filter etc… The motion of the regulation valve was predicted by strongly coupling a rigorous force balance on the valve to the flow.
Technical Paper

Toward Predictive Modeling of Diesel Engine Intake Flow, Combustion and Emissions

The development of analytic models of diesel engine flow, combustion and subprocesses is described. The models are intended for use as design tools by industry for the prediction of engine performance and emissions to help reduce engine development time and costs. Part of the research program includes performing engine experiments to provide validation data for the models. The experiments are performed on a single-cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 engine that is equipped with state-of-the-art high pressure electronic fuel injection and emissions instrumentation. In-cylinder gas velocity and gas temperature measurements have also been made to characterize the flows in the engine.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Emission Sampling in a Direct-Injection Engine

Time-resolved measurements were made of the gas composition at the exhaust port of a direct-injection two-stroke engine operating at 2000 rpm and an air-fuel ratio of 30:1. A high-speed sampling valve capable of 1.0 ms (12 CAD) time resolution was used to collect samples 1 cm downstream of the exhaust port of the engine. The time-resolved NOx, CO2 and CO concentrations decreased continuously during the scavenging process due to the dilution by short-circuited air. The hydrocarbon emissions, however, behaved significantly differently from the other species. At the time of exhaust port opening the concentration was low, it reached a maximum value by BDC, then decreased slightly in the latter part of the scavenging event. The dilution rates calculated for the hydrocarbon data gave negative values, indicating that there was a significant production of hydrocarbons during the gas exchange period.
Journal Article

The Visualization of Soot Late in the Diesel Combustion Process by Laser Induced Incandescence with a Vertical Laser Sheet

Although soot-formation processes in diesel engines have been well characterized during the mixing-controlled burn, little is known about the distribution of soot throughout the combustion chamber after the end of appreciable heat release during the expansion and exhaust strokes. Hence, the laser-induced incandescence (LII) diagnostic was developed to visualize the distribution of soot within an optically accessible single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine during this period. The developed LII diagnostic is semi-quantitative; i.e., if certain conditions (listed in the Appendix) are true, it accurately captures spatial and temporal trends in the in-cylinder soot field. The diagnostic features a vertically oriented and vertically propagating laser sheet that can be translated across the combustion chamber, where “vertical” refers to a direction parallel to the axis of the cylinder bore.
Technical Paper

The Role of Carboxylate-Based Coolants in Cast Iron Corrosion Protection

Nitrites have long been added to heavy-duty coolant to inhibit iron cylinder liner corrosion initiated by cavitation. However, in heavy-duty use, nitrites deplete from the coolant, which then must be refortified using supplemental coolant additives (SCA's). Recently, carboxylates have also been found to provide excellent cylinder liner protection in heavy-duty application. Unlike nitrites, carboxylate inhibitors deplete slowly and thus do not require continual refortification with SCA's. In the present paper laboratory aging experiments shed light on the mechanism of cylinder liner protection by these inhibitors. The performance of carboxylates, nitrites and mixtures of the two inhibitors are compared. Results correlate well with previously published fleet data. Specifically, rapid nitrite and slow carboxylate depletion are observed. More importantly, when nitrite and carboxylates are used in combination, nitrite depletion is repressed while carboxylates deplete at a very slow rate.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Boost Pressure on Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a Heavy-Duty Single-Cylinder D.I. Diesel Engine

An electronically controlled Caterpillar single-cylinder oil test engine (SCOTE) was used to study diesel combustion. The SCOTE retains the port, combustion chamber, and injection geometry of the production six cylinder, 373 kW (500 hp) 3406E heavy-duty truck engine. The engine was equipped with an electronic unit injector and an electronically controlled common rail injector that is capable of multiple injections. An emissions investigation was carried out using a six-mode cycle simulation of the EPA Federal Transient Test Procedure. The results show that the SCOTE meets current EPA mandated emissions levels, despite the higher internal friction imposed by the single-cylinder configuration. NOx versus particulate trade-off curves were generated over a range of injection timings for each mode and results of heat release calculations were examined, giving insight into combustion phenomena in current “state of the art” heavy-duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Split Injection on Soot and NOx Production in an Engine-Fed Combustion Chamber

This research focused on the effects of split injection on combustion in a diesel environment. It was done in a specially designed engine-fed combustion chamber (swirl ratio of 5) with full field optical access through a quartz window. The simulated engine combustion chamber used a special backwards spraying injector (105°). The electronically controlled injector could control the size and position of it's, two injections. Both injections were through the same nozzle and it produced very rapid injections (1.5 ms) with a maximum injection pressure of 130 MPa. Experimental data included: rate of injection, injector pressure, combustion chamber dumping (NO & NOx concentrations), flame temperature, KL factor (soot concentration) combustion pressure, and rate of pressure rise. Injection rates indicate that the UCORS injection system creates very rapid injections with the ability to produce controllable split injections.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Split Injection on Fuel Distribution in an Engine-Fed Combustion Chamber

This research focused on the effects of split injection on fuel spray behavior in a diesel environment. It was done in a special designed engine-fed combustion chamber (swirl ratio of 5) with full field optical access through a quartz window. The simulated engine combustion chamber used a special backwards spraying injector (105°). The electronically controlled injector could control the size and position of it's two injections. Both injections were through the same nozzle and it produced very rapid injections (1.5 ms) with a maximum injection pressure of 130 MPa. Experimental data included: rate of injection, injector pressure, spray plume images, tip penetration, liquid and vapor fuel distributions, combustion pressure, and rate of pressure rise. From 105° forward scatter images, tip penetration was observed to be very rapid and reached a plateau at 25 mm.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Aromatic Structure and Content on Direct Injection Diesel Engine Particulates

A single cylinder, Cummins NH, direct-injection, diesel engine has been operated in order to evaluate the effects of aromatic content and aromatic structure on diesel engine particulates. Results from three fuels are shown. The first fuel, a low sulfur Chevron diesel fuel was used as a base fuel for comparison. The other fuels consisted of the base fuel and 10% by volume of 1-2-3-4 tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) a single-ring aromatic and naphthalene, a double-ring aromatic. The fuels were chosen to vary aromatic content and structure while minimizing differences in boiling points and cetane number. Measurements included exhaust particulates using a mini-dilution tunnel, exhaust emissions including THC, CO2, NO/NOx, O2, injection timing, two-color radiation, soluble organic fraction, and cylinder pressure. Particulate measurements were found to be sensitive to temperature and flow conditions in the mini-dilution tunnel and exhaust system.
Technical Paper

The Development and Application of a Diesel Ignition and Combustion Model for Multidimensional Engine Simulation

An integrated numerical model has been developed for diesel engine computations based on the KIVA-II code. The model incorporates a modified RNG k-ε, turbulence model, a ‘wave’ breakup spray model, the Shell ignition model, the laminar-and-turbulent characteristic-time combustion model, a crevice flow model, a spray/wall impingement model that includes rebounding and breaking-up drops, and other improved submodels in the KIVA code. The model was validated and applied to model successfully different types of diesel engines under various operating conditions. These engines include a Caterpillar engine with different injection pressures at different injection timings, a small Tacom engine at different loads, and a Cummins engine modified by Sandia for optical experiments. Good levels of agreement in cylinder pressures and heat release rate data were obtained using the same computer model for all engine cases.
Technical Paper

The Application of Boundary Element Analysis to Engine Component Design

Boundary element analysis (BEA) is an effective computer simulation program for certain applications in design engineering. The BEA technique has been used extensively at Caterpillar for structural analysis of engine and vehicle components. The time savings and modeling ease of BEA are illustrated with specific examples of engine component models. These examples represent a variety of modeling techniques, and include comparisons with measured test data.
Technical Paper

Strategies for Developing Performance Standards for Alternative Hydraulic Fluids

There has been an ongoing interest in replacing mineral oil with more biodegradable and/or fire-resistant hydraulic fluids in many mobile equipment applications. Although many alternative fluids may be more biodegradable, or fire-resistant, or both than mineral oil, they often suffer from other limitations such as poorer wear, oxidative stability, and yellow metal corrosion which inhibit their performance in high-pressure hydraulic systems, particularly high pressure piston pump applications. From the fluid supplier's viewpoint, the development of a definitive test, or series of tests, that provides sufficient information to determine how a given fluid would perform with various hydraulic components would be of interest because it would minimize extensive testing. This is often too slow or prohibitively expensive. Furthermore, from OEM's (original equipment manufacturer's) point of view, it would be advantageous to develop a more effective, industry accepted fluid analysis screening.
Technical Paper

Steady-State Engine Testing of γ-Alumina Catalysts Under Plasma Assist for NOx Control in Heavy-Duty Diesel Exhaust

A slipstream of exhaust from a Caterpillar 3126B engine was diverted into a plasma-catalytic NOx control system in the space velocity range of 7,000 to 100,000 hr-1. The stream was first fed through a non-thermal plasma that was formed in a coaxial cylinder dielectric barrier discharge reactor. Plasma treated gas was then passed over a catalyst bed held at constant temperature in the range of 573 to 773 K. Catalysts examined consisted of γ-alumina, indium-doped γ-alumina, and silver-doped γ-alumina. Road and rated load conditions resulted in engine out NOx levels of 250 - 600 ppm. The effects of hydrocarbon level, catalyst temperature, and space velocity are discussed where propene and in one case ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (late cycle injection) were the reducing agents used for NOx reduction. Results showed NOx reduction in the range of 25 - 97% depending on engine operating conditions and management of the catalyst and slipstream conditions.