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Technical Paper

Visualization techniques to identify and quantify sources and paths of exterior noise radiated from stationary and nonstationary vehicles

In recent years, Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) has been used to identify stationary vehicle exterior noise sources. However that application has usually been limited to individual components. Since powertrain noise sources are hidden within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial field that combine to create the complete exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address these concerns: it is described here. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. In the second part of this paper, the use of farfield arrays is considered. Several array techniques have previously been applied to identify noise sources on moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Species-Based Extended Coherent Flamelet Model (SB-ECFM) in a Spark Ignition Engine

The Extended Coherent Flamelet Model (ECFM) is limited to lower order upwinding schemes to minimize the numerical discrepancy between species and tracers, which can lead to inaccurate estimates of the progress variable and consequently negative conditional mass fractions in the burned gases after ignition. The recently developed Species-Based ECFM (SB-ECFM) removes the species tracers from the definition of the progress variable, and allows the use of higher order schemes. In this study, SB-ECFM is coupled with the Imposed Stretch Spark Ignition Model (ISSIM) to simulate a spark-ignition engine, the transparent combustion chamber (TCC) engine. To examine the spatial discretization effect and demonstrate the improvement due to using higher order schemes, Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations performed with a first-order upwinding scheme and a second-order central differencing scheme are compared.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Sparse Analytical Jacobian Chemistry Solver for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Simulations with Comprehensive Reaction Mechanisms

The paper presents the development of a novel approach to the solution of detailed chemistry in internal combustion engine simulations, which relies on the analytical computation of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) system Jacobian matrix in sparse form. Arbitrary reaction behaviors in either Arrhenius, third-body or fall-off formulations can be considered, and thermodynamic gas-phase mixture properties are evaluated according to the well-established 7-coefficient JANAF polynomial form. The current work presents a full validation of the new chemistry solver when coupled to the KIVA-4 code, through modeling of a single cylinder Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty engine, running in two-stage combustion mode.
Technical Paper

Using a Statistical Machine Learning Tool for Diesel Engine Air Path Calibration

A full calibration exercise of a diesel engine air path can take months to complete (depending on the number of variables). Model-based calibration approach can speed up the calibration process significantly. This paper discusses the overall calibration process of the air-path of the Cat® C7.1 engine using statistical machine learning tool. The standard Cat® C7.1 engine's twin-stage turbocharger was replaced by a VTG (Variable Turbine Geometry) as part of an evaluation of a novel air system. The changes made to the air-path system required a recalculation of the air path's boost set point and desired EGR set point maps. Statistical learning processes provided a firm basis to model and optimize the air path set point maps and allowed a healthy balance to be struck between the resources required for the exercise and the resulting data quality.
Technical Paper

Using Pilot Diesel Injection in a Natural Gas Fueled HCCI Engine

Previous research has shown that the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion concept holds promise for reducing pollutants (i.e. NOx, soot) while maintaining high thermal efficiency. However, it can be difficult to control the operation of the HCCI engines even under steady state running conditions. Power density may also be limited if high inlet air temperatures are used for achieving ignition. A methodology using a small pilot quantity of diesel fuel injected during the compression stroke to improve the power density and operation control is considered in this paper. Multidimensional computations were carried out for an HCCI engine based on a CAT3401 engine. The computations show that the required initial temperature for ignition is reduced by about 70 K for the cases of the diesel pilot charge and a 25∼35% percent increase in power density was found for those cases without adversely impacting the NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Using Dynamic Modular Diesel Engine Models To Understand System Interactions and Performance

This paper reviews the engine modeling program in the Powertrain Control Research Laboratory at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, focuses on simulation results obtained from a complete modular turbocharged diesel engine dynamic model developed in this lab, and suggests ways that dynamic engine system models can be used in the design process. It examines the dynamic responses and interactions between various components in the engine system, looks at how these components affect the overall performance of the system in transient and steady state operation.
Journal Article

Use of Low-Pressure Direct-Injection for Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Light-Duty Engine Operation

Reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) has been shown to be capable of providing improved engine efficiencies coupled with the benefit of low emissions via in-cylinder fuel blending. Much of the previous body of work has studied the benefits of RCCI operation using high injection pressures (e.g., 500 bar or greater) with common rail injection (CRI) hardware. However, low-pressure fueling technology is capable of providing significant cost savings. Due to the broad market adoption of gasoline direct injection (GDI) fueling systems, a market-type prototype GDI injector was selected for this study. Single-cylinder light-duty engine experiments were undertaken to examine the performance and emissions characteristics of the RCCI combustion strategy with low-pressure GDI technology and compared against high injection pressure RCCI operation. Gasoline and diesel were used as the low-reactivity and high-reactivity fuels, respectively.
Journal Article

Understanding Hydrocarbon Emissions in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Combining Experimental and Computational Methods

Fundamental understanding of the sources of fuel-derived Unburned Hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions in heavy duty diesel engines is a key piece of knowledge that impacts engine combustion system development. Current emissions regulations for hydrocarbons can be difficult to meet in-cylinder and thus after treatment technologies such as oxidation catalysts are typically used, which can be costly. In this work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are combined with engine experiments in an effort to build an understanding of hydrocarbon sources. In the experiments, the combustion system design was varied through injector style, injector rate shape, combustion chamber geometry, and calibration, to study the impact on UHC emissions from mixing-controlled diesel combustion.
Technical Paper

Two-Color Imaging of In-Cylinder Soot Concentration and Temperature in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine with Comparison to Multidimensional Modeling for Single and Split Injections

Two-Color imaging optics were developed and used to observe soot emission processes in a modern heavy-duty diesel engine. The engine was equipped with a common rail, electronically-controlled, high-pressure fuel injection system that is capable of up to four injection pulses per engine cycle. The engine was instrumented with an endoscope system for optical access for the combustion visualization. Multidimensional combustion and soot modeling results were used for comparisons to enhance the understanding and interpretation of the experimental data. Good agreement between computed and measured cylinder pressures, heat release and soot and NOx emissions was achieved. In addition, good qualitative agreement was found between in-cylinder soot concentration (KL) and temperature fields obtained from the endoscope images and those obtained from the multidimensional modeling.
Technical Paper

Two-Color Combustion Visualization of Single and Split Injections in a Single-Cylinder Heavy-Duty D.I. Diesel Engine Using an Endoscope-Based Imaging System

An experimental study of luminous combustion in a modern diesel engine was performed to investigate the effect of injection parameters on NOX and soot formation via flame temperature and soot KL factor measurements. The two-color technique was applied to 2-D soot luminosity images and area-averaged soot radiation signals to obtain spatially and temporally resolved flame temperature and soot KL factor. The imaging system used for this study was based on a wide-angle endoscope that was mounted in the cylinder head and allowed different views of the combustion chamber. The experiments were carried out on a single-cylinder 2.4 liter D.I. diesel engine equipped with an electronically controlled common-rail injection system. Operating conditions were 1600 rpm and 75% load. The two-color results confirm that retarding the injection timing causes lower flame temperatures and NOX emissions but increased soot formation, independent of injection strategy.
Technical Paper

Tribodynamics of a New De-Clutch Mechanism Aimed for Engine Downsizing in Off-Road Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Clutches are commonly utilised in passenger type and off-road heavy-duty vehicles to disconnect the engine from the driveline and other parasitic loads. In off-road heavy-duty vehicles, along with fuel efficiency start-up functionality at extended ambient conditions, such as low temperature and intake absolute pressure are crucial. Off-road vehicle manufacturers can overcome the parasitic loads in these conditions by oversizing the engine. Caterpillar Inc. as the pioneer in off-road technology has developed a novel clutch design to allow for engine downsizing while vehicle’s performance is not affected. The tribological behaviour of the clutch will be crucial to start engagement promptly and reach the maximum clutch capacity in the shortest possible time and smoothest way in terms of dynamics. A multi-body dynamics model of the clutch system is developed in MSC ADAMS. The flywheel is introducing the same speed and torque as the engine (represents the engine input to the clutch).
Journal Article

Transient, Three Dimensional CFD Model of the Complete Engine Lubrication System

This paper reports on a comprehensive, crank-angle transient, three dimensional, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the complete lubrication system of a multi-cylinder engine using the CFD software Simerics-Sys / PumpLinx. This work represents an advance in system-level modeling of the engine lubrication system over the current state of the art of one-dimensional models. The model was applied to a 16 cylinder, reciprocating internal combustion engine lubrication system. The computational domain includes the positive displacement gear pump, the pressure regulation valve, bearings, piston pins, piston cooling jets, the oil cooler, the oil filter etc… The motion of the regulation valve was predicted by strongly coupling a rigorous force balance on the valve to the flow.
Technical Paper

Transient Spray Characteristics of a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignited Fuel Injector

This paper describes the transient spray characteristics of a high pressure, single fluid injector, intended for use in a direct-injection spark-ignited (DISI) engine. The injector was a single hole, pintle type injector and was electronically controlled. A variety of measurement diagnostics, including full-field imaging and line-of-sight diffraction based particle sizing were employed for spray characterization. Transient patternator measurements were also performed to obtain temporally resolved average mass flux distributions. Particle size and obscuration measurements were performed at three locations in the spray and at three injection pressures: 3.45 MPa (500 psi), 4.83 Mpa (700 psi), and 6.21 MPa (900 psi). Results of the spray imaging experiments indicated that the spray shapes varied with time after the start of injection and contained a leading mass, or slug along the center line of the spray.
Technical Paper

Towards Quantitative Prediction of Urea Thermo-Hydrolysis and Deposits Formation in Exhaust Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Systems

In order to assist in fast design cycle of Diesel engines selective catalytic reduction (SCR) exhaust systems, significant endeavor is currently being made to improve numerical simulation accuracy of urea thermo-hydrolysis. In this article, the achievements of a recently developed urea semi-detailed decomposition chemical scheme are assessed using three available databases from the literature. First, evaporation and thermo-hydrolysis of urea-water solution (UWS) single-droplets hanged on a thin thermocouple ring (127 μm) as well as on a thick quartz (275 μm), have been simulated at ambient temperature conditions ranging from 473K to 773K. It has been shown that the numerical results, in terms of evaporation rate and urea gasification, as well as droplet temperature history are very close to the experiments if the heat flux coming from the droplet support is properly accounted for.
Technical Paper

Toward Predictive Modeling of Diesel Engine Intake Flow, Combustion and Emissions

The development of analytic models of diesel engine flow, combustion and subprocesses is described. The models are intended for use as design tools by industry for the prediction of engine performance and emissions to help reduce engine development time and costs. Part of the research program includes performing engine experiments to provide validation data for the models. The experiments are performed on a single-cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 engine that is equipped with state-of-the-art high pressure electronic fuel injection and emissions instrumentation. In-cylinder gas velocity and gas temperature measurements have also been made to characterize the flows in the engine.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Emission Sampling in a Direct-Injection Engine

Time-resolved measurements were made of the gas composition at the exhaust port of a direct-injection two-stroke engine operating at 2000 rpm and an air-fuel ratio of 30:1. A high-speed sampling valve capable of 1.0 ms (12 CAD) time resolution was used to collect samples 1 cm downstream of the exhaust port of the engine. The time-resolved NOx, CO2 and CO concentrations decreased continuously during the scavenging process due to the dilution by short-circuited air. The hydrocarbon emissions, however, behaved significantly differently from the other species. At the time of exhaust port opening the concentration was low, it reached a maximum value by BDC, then decreased slightly in the latter part of the scavenging event. The dilution rates calculated for the hydrocarbon data gave negative values, indicating that there was a significant production of hydrocarbons during the gas exchange period.
Technical Paper

Three Way Catalyst Modeling with Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Kinetics for a Lean Burn Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) Gasoline Engine

A Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) model with global TWC kinetics for lean burn DISI engines were developed and validated. The model incorporates kinetics of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide oxidations, NOx reduction, water-gas and steam reforming and oxygen storage. Ammonia (NH₃) and new nitrous oxide (N₂O) kinetics were added into the model to study NH₃ and N₂O formation in TWC systems. The model was validated over a wide range of engine operating conditions using various types of experimental data from a lean burn automotive SIDI engine. First, well-controlled time-resolved steady state data were used for calibration and initial model tests. In these steady state operations, the engine was switched between lean and rich conditions for NOx emission control. Then, the model was further validated using a large set of time-averaged steady state data. Temperature dependencies of NH₃ and N₂O kinetics in the TWC model were examined and well captured by the model.
Technical Paper

Thermal Barrier Coatings For Low Emission, High Efficiency Diesel Engine Applications

Thermal efficiencies of 54% have been demonstrated by single cylinder engine testing of advanced diesel engine concepts developed under Department of Energy funding. In order for these concept engines to be commercially viable, cost effective and durable systems for insulating the piston, head, ports and exhaust manifolds will be required. The application and development of new materials such as thick thermal barrier coating systems will be key to insulating these components. Development of test methods to rapidly evaluate the durability of coating systems without expensive engine testing is a major objective of current work. In addition, a novel, low cost method for producing thermal barrier coated pistons without final machining of the coating has been developed.
Journal Article

The Visualization of Soot Late in the Diesel Combustion Process by Laser Induced Incandescence with a Vertical Laser Sheet

Although soot-formation processes in diesel engines have been well characterized during the mixing-controlled burn, little is known about the distribution of soot throughout the combustion chamber after the end of appreciable heat release during the expansion and exhaust strokes. Hence, the laser-induced incandescence (LII) diagnostic was developed to visualize the distribution of soot within an optically accessible single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine during this period. The developed LII diagnostic is semi-quantitative; i.e., if certain conditions (listed in the Appendix) are true, it accurately captures spatial and temporal trends in the in-cylinder soot field. The diagnostic features a vertically oriented and vertically propagating laser sheet that can be translated across the combustion chamber, where “vertical” refers to a direction parallel to the axis of the cylinder bore.
Technical Paper

The Sensitivity of Transient Response Prediction of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine to Turbine Map Extrapolation

Mandated pollutant emission levels are shifting light-duty vehicles towards hybrid and electric powertrains. Heavy-duty applications, on the other hand, will continue to rely on internal combustion engines for the foreseeable future. Hence there remain clear environmental and economic reasons to further decrease IC engine emissions. Turbocharged diesels are the mainstay prime mover for heavy-duty vehicles and industrial machines, and transient performance is integral to maximizing productivity, while minimizing work cycle fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. 1D engine simulation tools are commonplace for “virtual” performance development, saving time and cost, and enabling product and emissions legislation cycles to be met. A known limitation however, is the predictive capability of the turbocharger turbine sub-model in these tools.