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Technical Paper

“Rubber Coupling” at a 4×4 Transmition System

2003-11-18
2003-01-3684
There are many different vibration sources in a car. Engine, gears, road roughness, impacts against the wheels cause vibration and sound that can decrease the parts and the car durability as well as affect drivability, safety and passengers and community comfort. In 4×4 cars, some extra vibration sources are the parts responsible for transmitting the torque and power to the rear wheels. Each of them has their own vibration modes, excited mostly by its imbalance or by the second order engine vibration. The engine vibration is a very well known phenomena and the rear driveshaft is designed not to have any vibration mode in the range of frequencies that the engine works or its second order. The imbalance of a driveshaft is also a design requirement. That means, the acceptable imbalance of the driveshaft is limited to a maximum value.
Technical Paper

“Active Mass Absorber” at a 4×4 Transmition System

2003-11-18
2003-01-3682
The extensive use of rotative machines in the diverse branches of the modern world has made the rising undesirable mechanical and acoustic vibration levels to be a problem of special importance for the machines normal operation as for the communities that are each time more affected by the problem. It makes the study of vibration and acoustic phenomena also to be even more important and the applications of its concepts more sophisticated. Several are the concepts used for decreasing vibration levels, like common dampers, hydraulic dampers, active dampers, natural frequencies changes and others. The choice of use of one or another depends greatly on the engineering possibilities (weight, energy, physical space, other components functional interference, vibration levels, etc.) as well as the cost of implementation of each one.
Technical Paper

Zero Prototype Approach in the Development of a Plastic Automotive Component

2004-11-16
2004-01-3300
In the developement process, the engineer is required to design, validate and deliver the components for manufacturing, in an as short as possible lead time. For that, the engineer may use some available tools to save not only time, but also cost. This work presents a zero prototype approach applyied to a plastic component, whose main accomplishment was the decreasing of lead time development due to the intensive use of virtual tools (CAD/CAE). As a result, the product was delivered in a short time, with no need of building physical prototypes, thus reducing development cost.
Technical Paper

Yaw Rate Based Trailer Hitch Angle Estimation for Trailer Backup Assist

2017-03-28
2017-01-0027
In the current Ford Pro-Trailer Backup Assist (TBA) system, trailer hitch angle is determined utilizing the reverse camera of the vehicle. In addition to being sensitive to environmental factors such as lighting conditions and occlusion, the vision-based approach is difficult to be applied to gooseneck or fifth wheel trailers. In this paper, a yaw rate based hitch angle observer is proposed as an alternative sensing solution for TBA. Based on the kinematic model of the vehicle-trailer, an instantaneous hitch angle is first derived by utilizing vehicle yaw rate, trailer yaw rate, vehicle velocity and vehicle/trailer parameters provided by the TBA system. Due to signal errors and parameter uncertainties, this instantaneous hitch angle may be noisy, especially at lower vehicle speed.
Technical Paper

World Radio Revisited: Still a Myth?

1990-02-01
900040
As in most industries, car radio designers have long envisioned a product which could be sold without modification throughout the world. However, local requirements, performance differences, and customer preferences have presented major obstacles to achieving this goal. Since publishing a previous paper on this subject in 1983, many changes have taken place in electronics and in car radio design. Some of these changes have reduced the barriers to producing a “World Radio” while others have presented new obstacles to be overcome. This paper addresses some of those changes and the current possibilities.
Technical Paper

World Fuels and Modern Fuel Systems - A Path to Coexistence

2015-09-29
2015-01-2818
All around the world, steps are being taken to improve the quality of our environment. Prominent among these are the definition, implementation, and attainment of increasingly stringent emissions regulations for all types of engines, including off-highway diesels. These rigorous regulations have driven use of technologies like after-treatment, advanced air systems, and advanced fuel systems. Fuel dispensed off-highway is routinely and significantly dirtier than fuel from on-highway outlets. Furthermore, fuels used in developing countries can be up to 30 times dirtier than the average fuels in North America. Poor fuel cleanliness, coupled with the higher pressures and performance demands of modern fuel systems, create life challenges greater than encountered with cleaner fuels. This can result in costly disruption of operations, loss of productivity, and customer dissatisfaction in the off-highway market.
Technical Paper

Wind Noise and Drag Optimization Test Method for Sail-Mounted Exterior Mirrors

2003-05-05
2003-01-1702
An L18 Taguchi-style Design of Experiments (DOE) with eight factors was used to optimize exterior mirrors for wind noise and drag. Eighteen mirror properties were constructed and tested on a full size greenhouse buck at the Lockheed low-speed wind tunnel in Marietta, GA. Buck interior sound data and drag measurements were taken at 80 MPH wind speed (0° yaw angle). Key wind noise parameters were the fore/aft length of mirror housing and the plan view angle of the mirror housing's inboard surface. Key drag parameters were the fore/aft length of the mirror housing, the cross-section shape of the mirror pedestal, and the angle of the pedestal (relative to the wind).
Technical Paper

Wheel Fight Objective Metric Development

2007-05-15
2007-01-2391
Wheel Fight is the undesirable rotational response of a vehicle's steering wheel due to road input at any or all of the road/wheel tire patches. The type of road input that will cause wheel fight comes in two forms: continuous rough road surfaces such as broken concrete or transient inputs such as pot-holes and tar strips. An objective method to quantify a vehicle's wheel fight sensitivity would be of great value to the vehicle development engineer. To that end, a study was conducted on Ford's Vehicle Vibration Simulator (VVS) to gather subjective responses and use those as a basis for correlation to an objective metric. One road surface known to induce wheel fight consists of using a rubber strip and driving over it while impacting only one side of the vehicle. Under this condition, steering wheel data was acquired on five different light trucks from which paired comparison studies were conducted.
Technical Paper

Wheel Dust Measurement and Root Cause Assessment

2003-10-19
2003-01-3341
North American drivers particularly dislike wheel dust (brake dust on their wheels). For some vehicle lines, customer surveys indicate that wheel dust is a significant concern. For this reason, Ford and its suppliers are investigating the root causes of brake dust and developing test procedures to detect wheel dust issues up-front. Intuitively, it would appear that more brake wear would lead to more wheel dust. To test this hypothesis, a gage was needed to quantitatively measure the wheel dust. Gages such as colorimeters were evaluated to measure the brightness (L*) of the wheel, which ranged from roughly 70-80% (clean) to 10-20% (very dirty). Gage R&R's and subjective ratings by a panel of 30 people were used to validate the wheel dust gages. A city traffic vehicle test and an urban dynamometer procedure were run to compare the level of wheel dust for 10 different lining types on the same vehicle.
Journal Article

Well-to-Wheels Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants of Dimethyl Ether from Natural Gas and Renewable Feedstocks in Comparison with Petroleum Gasoline and Diesel in the United States and Europe

2016-10-17
2016-01-2209
Dimethyl ether (DME) is an alternative to diesel fuel for use in compression-ignition engines with modified fuel systems and offers potential advantages of efficiency improvements and emission reductions. DME can be produced from natural gas (NG) or from renewable feedstocks such as landfill gas (LFG) or renewable natural gas from manure waste streams (MANR) or any other biomass. This study investigates the well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and emissions of five DME production pathways as compared with those of petroleum gasoline and diesel using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).
Technical Paper

Weld Line Factors for Thermoplastics

2017-03-28
2017-01-0481
Weld lines occur when melt flow fronts meet during the injection molding of plastic parts. It is important to investigate the weld line because the weld line area can induce potential failure of structural application. In this paper, a weld line factor (W-L factor) was adopted to describe the strength reduction to the ultimate strength due to the appearance of weld line. There were two engineering thermoplastics involved in this study, including one neat PP and one of talc filled PP plastics. The experimental design was used to investigate four main injection molding parameters (melt temperature, mold temperature, injection speed and packing pressure). Both the tensile bar samples with/without weld lines were molded at each process settings. The sample strength was obtained by the tensile tests under two levels of testing speed (5mm/min and 200mm/min) and testing temperatures (room temperature and -30°C). The results showed that different materials had various values of W-L factor.
Technical Paper

Weight Reduction Workshops “Saving Weight and Saving Money”

2002-03-04
2002-01-0364
Identifying weight reduction ideas is not difficult in the engineering world today. The difficulty is implementation! Typically Product System Teams generate long lists of weight reduction roadmap ideas, but never have time to deliver. Engineers today are too busy to run dual path programs. ‘Roadmap’ ideas sit on an opportunities list until they are “out of time” and then “fall off” the list. This paper will describe a Weight Reduction Workshop process implemented at Ford Motor Company which drives weight reduction ideas into program assumptions early in the definition of a product program. The weight reduction workshop results are: Weight Reduction Ideas Recommended Variable Cost & Investment Estimates Weight savings Cost per pound of weight saved Technical confidence Work plan for each recommended idea Ideas are also evaluated against all the program's sub-attribute requirements to insure the design functions of the component are not compromised.
Technical Paper

Wear of D2 Tool Steel Dies during Trimming DP980-type Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) for Automotive Parts

2017-03-28
2017-01-1706
Automobile body panels made from advanced high strength steel (AHSS) provide high strength-to-mass ratio and thus AHSS are important for automotive light-weighting strategy. However, in order to increase their use, the significant wear damage that AHSS sheets cause to the trim dies should be reduced. The wear of dies has undesirable consequences including deterioration of trimmed parts' edges. In this research, die wear measurement techniques that consisted of white-light optical interferometry methods supported by large depth-of-field optical microscopy were developed. 1.4 mm-thick DP980-type AHSS sheets were trimmed using dies made from AISI D2 steel. A clearance of 10% of the thickness of the sheets was maintained between the upper and lower dies. The wear of the upper and lower dies was evaluated and material abrasion and chipping were identified as the main damage features at the trim edges.
Technical Paper

Wavelet-based Modification of Impulsive Sound Character and Application to Diesel Sound Quality

2005-05-16
2005-01-2271
A wavelet-based technique for reducing the impulsive character of sound recordings is presented. The amount of impulsive content removed may be adjusted by varying a statistical threshold. The technique is validated for a diesel idle sound-quality application. The wavelet-based modification produces a substantial decrease in impulsive character as verified by an objective sound-quality metric for engine “ticking”. Informal subjective assessment of the modified results found them to be realistic and free from artifacts. The procedure is expected to be useful for sound-quality simulation and target-setting for diesel powertrain noise and other automotive sounds containing both impulsive and non-impulsive content.
Technical Paper

Wavelet-Based Visualization, Separation, and Synthesis Tools for Sound Quality of Impulsive Noises

2003-05-05
2003-01-1527
Recent applied mathematics research on the properties of the invertible shift-invariant discrete wavelet transform has produced new ways to visualize, separate, and synthesize impulsive sounds, such as thuds, slaps, taps, knocks, and rattles. These new methods can be used to examine the joint time-frequency characteristics of a sound, to select individual components based on their time-frequency localization, to quantify the components, and to synthesize new sounds from the selected components. The new tools will be presented in a non-mathematical way illustrated by two real-life sound quality problems, extracting the impulsive components of a windshield wiper sound, and analyzing a door closing-induced rattle.
Technical Paper

Wavelet-Based Visualization of Impulsive and Transient Sounds in Stationary Background Noise

2001-04-30
2001-01-1475
Scalograms based on shift-invariant orthonormal wavelet transforms can be used to analyze impulsive and transient sounds in the presence of more stationary sound backgrounds, such as wind noise or drivetrain noise. The visual threshold of detection for impulsive features on the scalogram (signal energy content vs. time and frequency,) is shown to be similar to the audible threshold of detection of the human auditory system for the corresponding impulsive sounds. Two examples of impulsive sounds in a realistic automotive sound background are presented: automotive interior rattle in a vehicle passenger compartment, and spark knock recorded in an engine compartment.
Technical Paper

Warpage Prediction on Injection Molded Semi-Crystalline Thermoplastics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0149
Warpage is the distortion induced by inhomogeneous shrinkage during injection molding of plastic parts. Uncontrolled warpage will result in dimensional instability and bring a lot of challenges to the mold design and part assembly. Current commercial simulation software for injection molding cannot provide consistently accurate warpage prediction, especially for semi-crystalline thermoplastics. In this study, the root cause of inconsistency in warpage prediction has been investigated by using injection molded polypropylene plaques with a wide range of process conditions. The warpage of injection molded plaques are measured and compared to the numerical predictions from Moldex3D. The study shows that with considering cooling rate effect on crystallization kinetics and using of the improved material model for residual stress calculations, good agreements are obtained between experiment and simulation results.
Technical Paper

Wall Film Dynamics Modeling for Impinging Sprays in Engines

2004-03-08
2004-01-0099
This paper proposes a film dynamics model for liquid film resulting from fuel spray impinging on a wall surface. It is based on a thin film assumption and uses numerical particles to represent the film to be compatible with the particle spray models developed previously. The Lagrangian method is adopted to govern the transport of the film particles. A new, statistical treatment was introduced of the momentum exchange between the impinging spray and the wall film to account for the directional distribution of the impinging momentum. This model together with the previously published models for outgoing droplets constitutes a complete description of the spray wall impingement dynamics. For model validation, films resulting from impinging sprays on a flat surface with different impingement angles were calculated and the results were compared with the corresponding experimental measurements.
Technical Paper

Wake Structures of Rectangular Bodies with Radiused Edges Near a Plane Surface

1999-03-01
1999-01-0648
Almost all published results of wake measurements for ground vehicles or similar shapes have included very limited information on streamwise development of wake structures. This is typically a result of the fact that the wake measurements have been conducted as parts of particular vehicle development efforts. So the focus has been on the incremental changes in the wakes associated with alternative geometries or buildup of various parts. The objectives are typically reached by limiting the surveys to a single streamwise plane. The present study, by contrast, is a study of wake development for a series of relatively simple rectangular shapes with radiused edges with a systematic variation in the ratio of height to width or “Aspect Ratio”.
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