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Technical Paper

Turning of Inconel 825 with Coated Carbide Tool Applying Vegetable-Based Cutting Fluid Mixed with CuO, Al2O3 and CNT Nanoparticles by MQL

2019-10-11
2019-28-0060
Inconel 825 is nickel (Ni)-iron (Fe)-chromium (Cr) alloy with additions of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), and titanium (Ti). The alloy has excellent resistance to corrosion and is often the most cost-effective alloy in sulphuric acid piping vessels and chemical process equipment. No attempt of applying MQL with three nanofluids was reported conferring to the works accessed. The present study is focused on evaluating the effect of the addition of three nanoparticles (CuO, Al2O3, and CNT) in vegetable oil applied by MQL mode during turning of Inconel 825 with coated carbide tool. Cutting force, surface roughness, and tool wear are evaluated. The results showed that the addition of nCNT substantially improved the machining performance and smaller flank the tool edge, while the adhesion and abrasion are observed as wear mechanism and better results are obtained at 0.5% of nCNT+ vegetable oil to produce the lowest values.
Technical Paper

Study on Effect of Laser Peening on Inconel 718 Produced by DMLS Technique

2019-10-11
2019-28-0146
In Additive manufacturing, Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) is a rapid manufacturing technique used for manufacturing of functional component. Finely powered metal is melted by using high-energy fiber laser, by Island principle strategy that produces mechanically and thermally stable metallic component with reduced stresses, thermal gradients and at high precision. Inconel is an austenitic chromium nickel-based superalloy often used in the applications which require high strength and temperature resistant. It can retain its properties at high temperature. An attempt is made to examine the effect of laser shot peening (LSP) on DMLS Inconel 718 sample. Microstructure shows elliptical shaped structure and formation of new grain boundaries. The surface roughness of the material has been increased due to the effect of laser shock pulse and ablative nature. Macro hardness increased to 13% on the surface.
Technical Paper

Sensor Perception and Motion Planning for an Autonomous Material Handling Vehicle

2019-10-22
2019-01-2611
The ground mobile robotics study is structured on the two pivotal members namely Sensor Perception and Motion Planning. Sensor perception or Exteroception comprises the ability of measurement of the layout of the environment relative to vehicle's frame of reference which is a necessity for the implementation of safe navigation towards the goal destination in an unstructured environment. Environment scanning has played a significant role in mobile robots application to investigate the unexplored environment in the sector of defence while transporting and handling material in warehouse and hospitals. Motion Planning is a conjunction of analyzing the sensor's information while being able to plan the route from starting point to the target destination. In this paper, a 3600 2-D LiDAR is used to capture the spatial information of the surrounding, the scanning results are presented in a local map and global map.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study, the Process Benefits, Optimization and Chip Morphology Study of Machining Parameter on Turning of Inconel 718 Using CVD Coated Tool and Nd: YAG Laser

2018-07-09
2018-28-0029
This paper presents the parametric study, process benefits, optimization and chip appearance of machining parameters on turning of the Inconel 718 using Nd: YAG laser source. To analyze the mentioned above effect on alloy 718, the cutting inserts of chemical vapor disposition coated (CVD) TiN/TICN/Al2O3 are used to turn at the time of machining. To evaluate the linear (mean effect plots) and interaction effect (3D surface plots) of laser parameters on the force, roughness and tool wear to keep the minimal, experiments of the L27 orthogonal array are done by selecting the controllable parameters viz speed, the rate of feed along with laser power. From the parametric study, increase in speed and laser power along with decrement in the rate of feed resulted in lower cutting force. But surface finish and tool wear reduced with a decline in speed and scale of feed and increased with increment in laser power.
Technical Paper

Parameter Optimization during Minimum Quantity Lubrication Turning of Inconel 625 Alloy with CUO, Al2O3 and CNT Nanoparticles Dispersed Vegetable-Oil-Based Cutting Fluid

2019-10-11
2019-28-0061
Inconel 625, nickel based alloy, is found in gas turbine blades, seals, rings, shafts, and turbine disks. On the other hand, the manufacturing of this alloy is challenging, mainly when machining processes are used due to excellent mechanical properties. Application of nanofluids in minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) shows gaining importance in the machining process, which is economical and eco-friendly. The principal objective of this investigational work is to study the influence of three types of nanofluids in the MQL turning of Inconel 625 nickel based alloys. The used nanofluids are multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT), alumina (Al2O3) and copper oxide (CUO) dispersed in vegetable oil. Taguchi-based L27 orthogonal array is used for the experimental design. The parameter optimization of design variables over response is carried out by the use of Taguchi-based derringer's desirability function.
Technical Paper

Methodology Development for External Aerodynamic Evaluation of a Bus and Its Impact on Fuel Economy along with Experimental Validation

2019-01-09
2019-26-0294
The objective of this study is to develop, demonstrate and validate the methodology of external aerodynamic analysis of a State Road Transport bus for prediction of drag coefficient and its impact on fuel consumption with experimental validation. It has been verified that vehicle consumes around 40% of the available engine power to overcome the air drag. This gives us a huge scope to study the effect of aerodynamic drag. Baseline model of State Road Transport Bus was evaluated for estimating fuel consumption using Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology. The CFD results were validated with the experimental data with less than 10% deviation. Bus design was optimized with an objective of reducing the fuel consumption with parameters like angle of windshield, rounding and tapering corners and rear draft angle. Optimized bus design is also ensured to meet functional specifications as per AIS052.
Technical Paper

Mechanical and Corrosion Behaviour of Al 7075 Composite Reinforced with TiC and Al2O3 Particles

2019-10-11
2019-28-0094
Various research regarding new types of fabrication and modifications of Aluminium alloy to improve the existing properties are going on. The wide range application of aluminium alloy is in aerospace and Automobile Industries. The demand for this material improved by mechanical properties with little to zero increment in weight. The current work is based on the fabrication of hybrid aluminium metal matrix composites with the addition of TiC (Titanium Carbide) and Al2O3 (Aluminium Oxide) reinforcement particle using stir casting technique. Three types of hybrid composite samples were prepared based on the weight percentage 5% Al2O3+0% TiC (sample-1), 8% Al2O3 + 12% TiC (sample-2), 20% Al2O3+15% TiC (sample-3). The objective of the study is to analyze the mechanical and corrosion properties of the hybrid composite with the influence of the reinforcement and varying the weight fraction of the particles.
Technical Paper

Machinability and Parametric Optimization of Inconel 600 Using Taguchi-Desirability Analysis under Dry Environment

2019-10-11
2019-28-0068
Inconel 600 is a face-centered cubic structure and nickel-chromium alloy. Alloy 600 has good resistance to oxidation, corrosion-resistant, excellent mechanical properties, and good creep rupture strength at a higher temperature. Alloy 600 is used in heat treating, phenol condensers, chemical and food processing, soap manufacture, vegetable, and fatty acid vessels. In this context, the present paper investigates the machinability characteristics of Alloy 600 under dry environment. Also, the parametric effect of cutting speed, feed rate, and cutting depth on the force, surface roughness, and tool wear is carried out using 3-Dimensional surface and 1-Dimensional plots. The optimal parameters are determined systematically based on Taguchi-desirability analysis with turned with TiAlN coated carbide insert. From the graphical analysis of collected data, the low rate of feed and moderate cutting for roughness and cutting force and average feed rate for tool wear with low cutting depth.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Dimensional Analysis of Fused Filament Fabrication of Wax Filament by Taguchi Design

2019-10-11
2019-28-0133
Experimental investigations were carried out on the machinable wax filament using the fused deposition modelling (FDM) rapid prototyping process. The printer used for conducting the experiments was Flash Forge guider 2. The filament material used for this study was machinable wax filament of 1.75 mm diameter. Experimental trials were carried out as per Taguchi L9 orthogonal array to determine the optimum process parameter combination. The dimensional analysis of test samples were carried out in terms of change in volume of samples which is result of combine effect of deviations in all the dimensions of test sample. Four factors each at three levels was used to obtain the optimum printing parameters for better dimensional accuracy and proper printing. The four important printing parameters were taken as factor and set to analyse the significant factor affecting on printing. The complexity in printing of wax filament is taken in to consideration during the experimental study.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Corrosion Resistance Alloy C-2000 Fabricated by Conventional Arc Welding Technique

2019-10-11
2019-28-0177
In the current work the metallurgical and tensile properties of the weld joints of alloy C-2000 were investigated. Welding technique employed in this study is Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG) and Pulsed Current Tungsten Inert Gas (PC-TIG) welding with autogenous mode and Ni-Cr-Mo rich ERNiCrMo-10 filler wire. The results show that PC-TIG weldment obtained the refined microstructure compared to the TIG weldment. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed the extent of Cr segregation was observed in all the weldments. PC-TIG welding shows reduced segregation compared to the corresponding TIG. X-ray diffraction (XRD) corroborated the existence of Ni3Cr2 phases in the weld fusion zone. Tensile test results show the PC-TIG weldment obtained marginally higher tensile properties comparing over the corresponding TIG weldment. The strength of the weldments is inferior in all cases in comparison to base metal.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Metallurgical and Mechanical Properties of Hastelloy X by Key-Hole Plasma Arc Welding Process

2019-10-11
2019-28-0152
This research work describes the effect of microsegregation, microstructure and tensile strength of the Hastelloy X weldment produced by keyhole plasma arc welding (K-PAW). Weld joint was obtained in a single pass without the addition of filler wire. The significant results obtained in this research work are (i) fine equiaxed dendrite was detected in the weld centre due to lesser heat input (HI) along with the faster solidification attained in K-PAW (ii) The existence of secondary precipitates in the interdendritic boundary was identified by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis (iii) Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS) revealed the Cr and Mo microsegregation in interdendritic boundary of the weld zone (iv) X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the Mo-rich P phase and Cr-rich M23C6 phase. The observed tensile strength of weldment is 6.14 % inferior to base metal.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Machinability Characteristics on Turning of Nimonic 90A Using Al2O3 and CNT Nanoparticle in Groundnut Oil

2019-10-11
2019-28-0072
Nimonic 90A alloy is a nickel-chromium-cobalt alloy and found as a potential material for turbine blades, discs, forgings, a ring section, and hot-working tools. This paper presents the effect of concentration along with cutting speed and feed rate on Fz: cutting force, Ra: surface roughness and Vba: tool wear with the application of two different nanofluids (NFS) on turning of Nimonic 90A by TiAlN PVD carbide cutting inserts. The nanoparticles suspended in oil taken for present investigation are nAl2O3, nCNT, and groundnut oil. The Taguchi L9 orthogonal array and derringer’s desirability response surface has been employed for parameter design and optimal search. 3D surface plots, factor effect plots, Taguchi S/N, and variance tests are used to study the effect of concentration on the machining performance of Nimonic 90A. The statistical analysis revealed % concentration for nCNT and cutting speed for nAl2O3 are found as an influenced parameter on performance characteristics.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Machinability Characteristics and Chip Morphology on Inconel 718: Dry and MQL

2019-10-11
2019-28-0066
Inconel 718 has excellent material properties, corrosion, and oxidation property among the nickel based superalloy. This property makes it suitable for producing components operating under extreme environments subjected to pressure and heat. The present study aims to examine the machinability comparison under dry and MQL turning of Inconel 718. The secondary aim is to report the sustainable machining on Inconel 718. Dry and MQL (Minimum Quantity Lubrication) experiments are carried out on Inconel 718 alloy based on Taguchi’s designed L16 orthogonal array. The cutting tools are an advanced coated cutting tool and uncoated tool. The levels of turning parameters are varied at 70, 120, 170 and 220 m/min of turning speed, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25 mm/rev of feed rate and 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mm of cutting depth. The cutting forces, surface roughness, flank wear, and chip morphology are taken for the current investigation. The factor effect on output responses is studied using 2D plots.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems in the Manufacturing of Turbo Charger Turbine Housing

2019-10-11
2019-28-0135
Today manufacturing industries have become more competitive and to survive, industries should be capable of accommodating the sudden market change. The conventional manufacturing systems like Dedicated Manufacturing Lines (DMLs) can produce high volume of product but difficult to cater to varying product types. On the other hand, Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) is capable of handling product variety but not suited for mass production, The Reconfigurable Manufacturing System (RMS) gives the advantage of both the system, as it has the capability to adjust to both high volume requirement and product variety, and it able to upgrade to new process technology with minimal effort. In this work the reconfiguration is carried out in machine and system level. At machine level, a new inspection machine is proposed which can be used for multiple products with minimal adjustments and a special drilling and bore tool is suggested to reduce the cycle time and ramp up time when product changes.
Technical Paper

Fabrication and Machinability Study of Al2219 Metal Matrix Composites Reinforced with SiN/MoS2 Nanoparticles

2019-10-11
2019-28-0170
Composites materials are substituting constituents for traditional materials due to their remarkable properties, and the addition of nanoparticles gives a new development in the material domain. The nanoparticles influence on fabrication and machinability investigation study is essential as the composites to be used in applications like automotive and aerospace. The current study investigates the machinability characteristics of Al2219 based metal composites reinforced with nanoparticles of SiN/MoS2. Al2219- reinforcements (SiN and MoS2) composites are fabricated by the method of stir casting. Four different compositions (Al2219/SiN (2 wt% and 4 wt%), , Al2219/2 wt.% SiN/ 2 wt.% MoS2, Al2219/2 wt.% MoS2) are fabricated by varying the different weight percentages of nanoparticles reinforcements. An attempt is made to study the investigation analysis of force, surface roughness, and tool wear using CNC machine lathe to consider the effect of cutting speed, cutting depth, and samples.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Tool Wear and Cutting Temperature during Machining of Nimonic C-263 and Waspaloy Based on Taguchi Method and Response Surface Methodology

2019-10-11
2019-28-0144
Nickel based materials of Nimonic C-263 and Waspaloy are used nowadays for aerospace applications owing to its superior strength properties that are maintained at a higher temperature. Tool wear and cutting temperature in the vicinity of cutting edge are two essential machinability characteristics for any cutting tool. In this regard, this study is pursued to examine the influence of factors on measuring of tool wear (Vba) and cutting temperature (Ts) during dry machining of two alloys studied experimentally based on Taguchi method and response surface methodology. Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array is used to design the experiment and a PVD (TiAlN), CVD (TiN/Al2O3/TiCN) coated carbide inserts are used on turning of two alloys. The factor effect on output responses are studied using analysis of variance, empirical models, and responses surface 3D plots. To minimize the response and to convert into one single optimum level, responses surface desirability function approach is applied.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Turning Characteristics of TiC/MoS2 Nanoparticles Reinforced Al7075 Using TiN Coated Cutting Tool

2019-10-11
2019-28-0165
In recent years, aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMC) are found as a potential material for numerous applications owing to its excellent tribological and mechanical properties. In this work, the machining characteristics of aluminum alloy (Al7075) reinforced with TiC/MoS2 having nanoparticle has been studied. The samples of aluminum metal matrix composites by varying TiC in 0, 2 and 4 and MoS2 in 0 and 2 of the percentage weight of aluminum alloy (Composite 1(Al7075), Composite 2 (Al7075/2TiC/2MoS2) and composite 3 (Al7075/4TiC/2MoS2), respectively) are fabricated by the stir-casing method. The turning characteristics of the developed metal matrix composites are studied at various parameters such as cutting velocity (30 m/min, 60 m/min and 90 m/min), cutting depth (0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm) and composites (1, 2 and 3) using TiN coated cutting tool by dry turning at 0.05 mm/rev feed rate.
Technical Paper

Empirical and Artificial Neural Network Modeling of Laser Assisted Hybrid Machining Parameters of Inconel 718 Alloy

2018-07-09
2018-28-0023
In the present paper, to predict the process relation between laser-assisted machining parameters and machinability characteristics, statistical models are formulated by employing surface response methodology along with artificial neural network. Machining parameters such as speed of cut; the rate of feed; along with the power of laser are taken as model input variables. For developing confidence limit in collected raw experimental data, the full factorial experimental design was applied to cutting force; surface roughness; along with flank wear. Response surface method (RSM) with the least square method is used to develop the theoretical equation. Furthermore, artificial neural network method has been done to model the laser-assisted machining process. Then, both the models (RSM and ANN) are compared for accuracy regarding root mean square error (RMSE); model predicted error (MPE) along with the coefficient of determination (R2).
Technical Paper

Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Inconel 718 Produced by DMLS Technique

2019-10-11
2019-28-0140
The main purpose of this study is to investigate additive manufactured Inconel super alloy subjected to cryogenic treatment (CT). Cryogenic treatment is mainly used in aerospace, defense and automobile application. Direct metal laser sintering is an additive manufacturing technique used for manufacturing of complex and complicated functional components. Inconel is an austenitic chromium nickel based super alloy often used in the applications which require high strength & temperature resistant. In this work, a study is carried out on microstructure and mechanical properties of additive manufactured Inconel 718 when subjected to cryogenic treatment at three different time intervals. The micro-structural evolution of IN718 super-alloy before and after CT was investigated by both optic microscope and scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness and hardness at different CT time intervals has also analyzed. Additionally, XRD technique was used to analyze the surface residual stress.
Technical Paper

Design of a Novel Electro-Pneumatic Gear Shift System for a Sequential Gearbox

2019-10-11
2019-28-0011
This paper describes the design of a novel pneumatic gear shifting system to replace the existing gear stick manual shifting system for ease of the driver while shifting gears. The aim of this work is to have a semi-automatic shifting (pneumatic shifting) removing the need for the driver clutch operation. The system consists of a solenoid valve, CO2 gas-pressurized cylinder, double-acting cylinder, and single-acting cylinder. On basis of the signal received the gear needs to be changed, the shifter opens or closes a magnetic valve assembly. The solenoid valve allows the compressed air into the piston that comes from a pressurized cylinder, in order to create the effect of shifting gears. The pedal shifter and buttons are used to shift the gears. The pedal shifter was designed by using a 3-D printing technique using PLA material. The microcontroller used is ATMEGA-328 in this system. There are three switches, one for upshift, downshift, and clutch respectively.
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