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Technical Paper

Test Strategy for Linux based Platforms using Open Source Tools

Today open source software is widely used in different domains like Desktop systems, Consumer electronics (smart phones, TV, washing machines, camera, printers, smart watches), Automotive, Automation etc. With the increased involvement of the open source software in the different domains including the safety critical ones, there has been a requirement of the well-defined test strategy to test and verify such systems. Currently there are multiple open source tools and frameworks to choose from. The paper describes the various open source test strategies and tools available to qualify such systems, their features, maintenance, community support, advantages and disadvantages. Target audience would be the software engineers, program managers, using an open source stack for the product development.
Technical Paper

Target Tracking by a Single Camera Based on Range-Window Algorithm and Pattern Matching

An algorithm, which determines the range of a preceding vehicle by a single image, had been proposed. It uses a “Range-Window Algorithm”. Here in order to realize higher robustness and stability, the pattern matching is incorporated into the algorithm. A single camera system using this algorithm has an advantage over the high cost of stereo cameras, millimeter wave radar and non-robust mechanical scanning in some laser radars. And it also provides lateral position of the vehicle. The algorithm uses several portions of a captured image, namely windows. Each window is corresponding to a predetermined range and has the fixed physical width and height. In each window, the size and position of objects in the image are estimated through the ratio between the widths of the objects and the window, and a score is given to each object. The object having the highest score is determined as the best object. The range of the window corresponding to the best object becomes an estimated range.
Technical Paper

Statistical Modeling of Fatigue Crack Growth in Wing Skin Fastener Holes

Estimation and prediction of residual life and reliability are serious concerns in life cycle management for aging structures. Laboratory testing replicating fatigue loading for a typical military aircraft wing skin was undertaken. Specimens were tested until their fatigue life expended reached 100% of the component fatigue life. Then, scanning electron microscopy was used to quantify the size and location of fatigue cracks within the high stress regions of simulated fastener holes. Distributions for crack size, nearest neighbor distances, and spatial location were characterized statistically in order to estimate residual life and to provide input for life cycle management. Insights into crack initiation and growth are also provided.
Technical Paper

Non-Linear Analysis of Tunable Compression Bushing for Stabilizer Bars

Stabilizer bars in a suspension system are supported with bushings by a frame structure. To prevent the axial movement of the stabilizer bar within the bushing, several new stabilizer bar-bushing systems have been developed. The new systems introduce permanent compressive force between the bar and the bushing thereby preventing the relative movement of the bar within the bushing. This mechanical bond between the bar and the bushing can eliminate features such as grippy flats, collars etc. In addition, by controlling the compression parameters, the properties of the bushing such as bushing rates can be tuned and hence can be used to improve the ride and handling performance of the vehicle. In this paper, nonlinear CAE tools are used to evaluate one such compressively loaded bushing system. Computational difficulties associated with modeling such a system are discussed.
Technical Paper

MBT Timing Detection and its Closed-Loop Control Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signal

Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing for an internal combustion engine is the minimum advance of spark timing for best torque. Traditionally, MBT timing is an open loop feedforward control whose values are experimentally determined by conducting spark sweeps at different speed, load points and at different environmental operating conditions. Almost every calibration point needs a spark sweep to see if the engine can be operated at the MBT timing condition. If not, a certain degree of safety margin is needed to avoid pre-ignition or knock during engine operation. Open-loop spark mapping usually requires a tremendous amount of effort and time to achieve a satisfactory calibration. This paper shows that MBT timing can be achieved by regulating a composite feedback measure derived from the in-cylinder ionization signal referenced to a top dead center crank angle position. A PI (proportional and integral) controller is used to illustrate closed-loop control of MBT timing.
Technical Paper

Improved Hydraulic Power Steering Pump Design Using Computer Tools

A hydraulic steering pump system will be considered in this report. The objective is to improve the design of a specific power steering pump using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. The first part of this report deals with a pump oil seal leak. The thermal and fluid environments have been simulated. A variable fluid viscosity is used, showing a 15-20% increase in peak temperature. Potential improvements in product design have been suggested. The second part deals with using computer tools to reduce redundant testing. This includes use of parametric approach towards optimization. A rotating grid approach (basic moving mesh technique) is used.
Technical Paper

GENPAD® - Ergonomic Packaging

GENPAD® is a knowledge-based, three-dimensional modeling computer tool developed by Visteon to create occupant-friendly interiors. GENPAD quickly and easily produces zones to evaluate ergonomic aspects of vehicle interiors such as reach, clearance, vision, and reflection. These zones are produced from automated design studies based on experience and engineering standards accepted by the automotive industry. Without GENPAD, a single study requires an experienced engineer 4-6 hours to complete. Multiple studies require several engineers weeks to perform. The methods used are also error-prone due to complex instructions. To overcome these challenges, GENPAD provides over 50 ergonomic packaging studies that produce accurate results in minutes, not weeks, every time.
Technical Paper

Development of Modular Electrical, Electronic, and Software System Architectures for Multiple Vehicle Platforms

Rising costs continue to be a problem within the automotive industry. One way to address these rising costs is through modularity. Modular systems provide the ability to achieve product variety through the combination and standardization of components. Modular design approaches used in development of vehicle electrical, electronic, and software (EES) systems allow sharing of architectures/modules between different product lines (vehicles). This modular design approach may provide economies of scale, reduced development time, reduced order lead-time, easier product diagnostics, maintenance and repair. Other benefits of this design approach include development of a variety of EES systems through component swapping and component sharing. In this paper, new optimization algorithms and software tools are presented that allow vehicle EES system design engineers to develop modular architectures/modules that can be shared across vehicle platforms (for OEMs) and across OEMs (for suppliers).
Technical Paper

Development and Implementation of a Tool for Modeling Driveline Systems

In order to facilitate the modeling of vehicle drivelines in ADAMS, an ADAMS/View driveline tool was developed with the aid of Mechanical Dynamics, Inc (MDI). Known as Visteon Axle & Driveline Simulation-Dynamics (VADSIM-DYNA) this tool is used to supply customers with driveline models for use in their full vehicle modeling as well as for predicting forces in the driveline. Of specific interest is a method for calculating the mesh point of a hypoid gear set using the geometry of the ring and pinion gears, and a custom force statement for calculation of the mesh point reactions at the center of gravity for both the pinion and ring gears. With the introduction of ADAMS/Driveline, The comapny has worked with MDI to implement VADSIM-DYNA into the base product. With the aid of VADSIM-DYNA the ability to provide customers with ADAMS models of driveline components and systems has been greatly enhanced.
Technical Paper

Design Review a Tool for Product Development Quality Assurance

Same of the more enticing and productive opportunities to a useful work in product assurance are those of influencing the design of a product. The primary concern of design assurance is preventing or correcting those design errors that lead to poor product integrity. One of the tools used by the development teams in many organizations is the Design Review. The impact in cost and quality is directly affected by the correct utilization of the tool.
Technical Paper

Control Software Interface for Managing System Requirements

Not all software tools are created equal and not all software tools are created to perform the same tasks. Therefore, different software tools are used to perform different tasks. However, being able to share the information between the different software tools, without having to manually re-enter (duplicate) any of the information, can save a lot of time and improve the quality of the product. The control software interface presented in this paper, allows system engineers to exchange data between software tools in an efficient manner which maximizes each tools capabilities and ultimately reduces development time and improves the quality of the product.
Technical Paper

Combining CAE and Experimental Techniques to Develop Optimal Defrost / Demist Performance in a Vehicle

Customer clinics and surveys have revealed the increased importance to the customer of good defrost and demist performance in their vehicle. Achieving this level of performance, within the time and cost constraints of a modern vehicle development program, places increased reliance on computational (CAE) techniques. However, this paper describes how the optimum development process should be to combine this reliance upon CAE methods with a newly developed experimental technique. This new laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) based methodology is employed at all stages of the development process and complements the CAE techniques perfectly. The end result is optimized airflow management within the vehicle cabin – essential if good defrost and demist performance is to be achieved in a vehicle.
Technical Paper

Blind Spot Monitoring by a Single Camera

A practical and low cost Blind Spot Monitoring system is proposed. By using a single camera, the range and azimuth position of a vehicle in a blind spot are measured. The algorithm is based on the proposed RWA (Range Window Algorithm). The camera is installed on the door mirror and monitoring the side and rear of the host vehicle. The algorithm processes the image and identifies range and azimuth angle of the vehicle in the adjacent lane. This algorithm is applied to real situations. The 388 images including several kinds of vehicles are analyzed. The detection rate is 86% and the range accuracy is 1.6[m]. The maximum detection range is about 30[m].
Technical Paper

Automated Finite Element Analysis of Fuel Rail Assemblies with the use of Knowledge Based Engineering Tools

Realizing the value of knowledge, corporations are turning to Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) as a design process. A fuel rail KBE tool was created at Visteon with the purpose of increasing knowledge retention and delivering knowledge based designs to the customer much quicker than with conventional methods. Currently, both engineers and CAD designers are using the Fuel Rail KBE Modeler at Visteon. It has been used on many vehicle programs and has saved the company countless person-hours of development time. The Fuel Rail KBE Modeler is a powerful tool that saves resources through automation of both the design and analysis processes. This paper documents the incorporation of automated FEA capability into the KBE environment.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Coatings Appearance and Durability Testing Induced Surface Defects Using Image Capture/Processing/Analysis

This paper describes the applicability of optical imaging techniques to the analysis of the scratch resistance of automotive interior plastic materials. The evaluation of so-called “finger testing” has traditionally relied upon human vision for detection of the initial scratch position. Commonly performed under uniform and defined illumination conditions, the relative contrast difference signified by whitening on a surface as determined by unaided human vision is a highly variable subjective perception; thus individual inspectors may determine the “whitening” point differently. This paper compares test data obtained from both visual and instrumental evaluation methods and discusses the advantages of optical imaging techniques for surface defect analysis.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Hardware-In-the-Loop Testing Systems at Visteon

This paper discusses our experiences on the implementation and benefits of using the Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) systems for Powertrain control system software verification and validation. The Visteon HIL system integrated with several off-the-shelf diagnostics and calibration tools is briefly explained. Further, discussions on test automation sequence control and failure insertion are outlined The capabilities and advantages of using HIL for unit level software testing, open loop and closed-loop system testing, fault insertion and test automation are described. HIL also facilitates Software and Hardware Interface validation testing with low-level driver and platform software. This paper attempts to show the experiences with and capabilities of these HIL systems.
Technical Paper

An Approach for the Optical Design of an LED Fog Lamp

Traditionally fog lamps use halogen filament light sources. With the emergence of high brightness white LEDs, it is now possible to develop automotive forward lighting systems with LED light sources. Six LEDs are shown to be sufficient for the implementation of a European fog lamp using a faceted reflector optical approach. Each reflector together with the LED light source forms a modular element. The optical parameters of two different lamp designs are compared and correlation between the simulation and prototype measurements is shown. Further, additional forward lighting functions can be implemented through the use of additional elements.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Study of Computational Techniques to Model Engine Air Induction System Response Including BEM, FEM and 1D Methods

Induction noise, which radiates from the open end of the engine air induction system, can be of significant importance in reducing vehicle interior noise and tuning the interior sound to meet customer expectations. This makes understanding the source noise critical to the development of the air induction system and the vehicle interior sound quality. Given the ever-decreasing development times, it is highly desirable to use computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools to accelerate this process. Many tools are available to simulate induction noise or, more generally, duct acoustics. The tools vary in degrees of complexity and inherent assumptions. Three-dimensional tools will account for the most general of geometries. However, it is also possible to model the duct acoustics with quasi-three-dimensional or one-dimensional tools, which may be faster as well.
Technical Paper

A Computer Aided Optimization Tool to Design Electromagnetic Retarders

The work presented here outlines the development of a robust CAO tool for optimal design of electromagnetic retarder machines. The developed EM-CAO tool is then used to perform a wide variety of CAE/CAO tasks, from automatically computing the torque versus rpm performance curves of the EM retarder to performing optimization. Two specific examples of optimal design of the EM retarder are reported. Through the use of a task manager/optimizer repetitive jobs are fully automated thereby making the analysis and optimization of electromagnetic retarders faster and user-friendlier.