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Technical Paper

Vapor/Liquid Visualization with Laser-Induced Exciplex Fluorescence in an SI-Engine for Different Fuel Injection Timings

1996-05-01
961122
Laser-induced exciplex fluorescence has been applied to the mixture formation process in the combustion chamber of an optically-accessible four-cylinder in-line spark-ignition engine in order to distinguish between liquid and vapor fuel distribution during the intake and compression stroke for different injection timings. The naphthalene/N,N,N′N′-tetramethyl p-phenylene diamine (TMPD) exciplex system excited at 308nm with a broadband XeCl excimer laser is used to obtain spectrally-separated, single-shot fluorescence images of the liquid or vapor phase of the fuel. For different timings of the fuel injector this technique is applied to obtain crank-angle-resolved images of the resulting mixture in the combustion chamber. The fluorescence light is detected with an intensified slow-scan CCD-camera equipped with appropriate filters.
Technical Paper

Quantitative In-Cylinder NO LIF Measurements with a KrF Excimer Laser Applied to a Mass-Production SI Engine Fueled with Isooctane and Regular Gasoline

1997-02-24
970824
Quantitative 1-D spatially-resolved NO LIF measurements in the combustion chamber of a mass-production SI engine with port-fuel injection using a tunable KrF excimer laser are presented. One of the main advantages of this approach is that KrF laser radiation at 248 nm is only slightly absorbed by the in-cylinder gases during engine combustion and therefore it allows measurements at all crank angles. Multispecies detection turned out to be crucial for this approach since it is possible to calculate the in-cylinder temperature from the detected Rayleigh scattering and the simultaneously acquired pressure traces. Additionally, it allows the monitoring of interfering emissions and spectroscopic effects like fluorescence trapping which turned out to take place. Excitation with 248 nm yields LIF emissions at shorter wavelengths than the laser wavelength (at 237 and 226 nm).
Technical Paper

Optical Coordinate Measuring Techniques for the Determination and Visualization of 3D Displacements in Crash Investigations

2003-03-03
2003-01-0891
The measurement of 3D coordinates using optical techniques is well known for more than 50 years. Today, modern photogrammetric systems are based on handheld digital cameras and are used to identify the location of any circular marker or feature on the object's surface. The ease of use and the accurate and automated derivation of 3D coordinates from 2D digital images helped to establish a powerful tool for position control, assembly checks and reverse engineering. A new application is the analysis of real vehicle crashes. The location of hundreds of markers on the damaged vehicle can easily be determined in vehicle body position. These coordinates are being compared to the undeformed geometry and provide herby 3D information on any displacement. Using reverse engineering techniques, surfaces are created from the 3D points and thus a 3D model of the crashed vehicle is available for an easy visualization of the deformation.
Technical Paper

On Timing Requirements and a Critical Gap between Function Development and ECU Integration

2015-04-14
2015-01-0180
With the increasing complexity of electronic vehicle systems, one particular “gap” between function development and ECU integration becomes more and more apparent, and critical; albeit not new. The core of the problem is: as more functions are integrated and share the same E/E resources, they increasingly mutually influence and disturb each other in terms of memory, peripherals, and also timing and performance. This has two consequences: The amount of timing-related errors increases (because of the disturbance) and it becomes more difficult to find root causes of timing errors (because of the mutual influences). This calls for more systematic methods to deal with timing requirements in general and their transformation from function timing requirements to software architecture timing requirements in particular.
Technical Paper

NO Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging in the Combustion Chamber of a Spray-Guided Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1918
In direct-injection gasoline (GDI) engines with charge stratification, minimizing engine-out nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission is crucial since exhaust-gas aftertreatment tolerates only limited amounts of NOx. Reduced NOx production directly lowers the frequency of energy-inefficient catalyst regeneration cycles. In this paper we investigate NO formation in a realistic GDI engine. Quantitative in-cylinder measurements of NO concentrations are carried out via laser-induced fluorescence imaging with excitation of NO (A-X(0,2) band at 248 nm), and subsequent fluorescence detection at 220-240 nm. Engine modifications were kept to a minimum in order to provide results that are representative of practical operating conditions. Optical access via a sapphire ring enabled identical engine geometry as a production line engine. The engine is operated with commercial gasoline (“Super-Plus”, RON 98).
Technical Paper

Measurement of Wall Film Thickness in the Intake Manifold of a Standard Production SI Engine by a Spectroscopic Technique

1997-10-01
972832
This paper reports on a non-intrusive method for measuring the liquid fuel film thickness in the intake manifold of a series production SI engine with multi-point fuel injection. The technique is based on laser-induced fluorescence. The optical set-up uses a bifurcated optical fibre bundle for transmission of the laser light for excitation of the fluid and for detecting of the fluorescence light. Due to the special design of the optical probe head it is highly sensitive for thin film measurements and it allows the accurate determination of the fuel film thickness even between a few and 100 μm. Special emphasis is placed on the selection of an adequate tracer added to the iso-octane fuel to achieve the correct film thickness even under vaporizing conditions, and on a detailed study of the parameters influencing the evaluated film thickness.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Mixture Formation Analysis with Spontaneous Raman Scattering Applied to a Mass-Production SI Engine

1997-02-24
970827
Mixture formation analysis in the combustion chamber of a slightly modified mass-production SI engine with port-fuel injection using nonintrusive laser measurement techniques is presented. Laser Raman scattering and planar laser-induced tracer fluorescence are employed to measure air-fuel ratio and residual gas content of the charge with and without spatial resolution. Single-cycle measurements as well as cycle-averaged measurements are performed. Engine operation parameters like load, speed, injection timing, spark timing, coolant temperature, and mean air-fuel ratio are changed to study whether the effects on mixture formation and engine performance can be resolved by the applied laser spectroscopic techniques. Mixture formation is also analyzed by measurement of the charge composition as a function of crank angle. Clear correlations of the charge composition data and engine operating conditions are seen.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurements and Analysis on Fundamental Cold Start and Warm-up Phenomena of SI Engines

1995-10-01
952394
A recently developed Laser Raman Scattering system was applied to measure the in-cylinder air-fuel ratio and the residual gas content (via the water content) of the charge simultaneously in a firing spark-ignition engine during cold start and warm-up. It is the main objective of this work to elucidate the origin of misfires and the necessity to over-fuel at cool ambient temperatures. It turns out that the overall air-fuel ratio and residual gas content (in particular the residual water content) of the charge appear to be the most important parameters for the occurrence of misfires (without appropriate fuel enrichment), i.e., the engine behaviour from cycle to cycle becomes rather predictable on the basis of these data. An alternative explanation for the necessity to over-fuel is given.
Journal Article

In-Cylinder LIF Imaging, IR-Absorption Point Measurements, and a CFD Simulation to Evaluate Mixture Formation in a CNG-Fueled Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0633
Two optical techniques were developed and combined with a CFD simulation to obtain spatio-temporally resolved information on air/fuel mixing in the cylinder of a methane-fueled, fired, optically accessible engine. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of anisole (methoxybenzene), vaporized in trace amounts into the gaseous fuel upstream of the injector, was captured by a two-camera system, providing one instantaneous image of the air/fuel ratio per cycle. Broadband infrared (IR) absorption by the methane fuel itself was measured in a small probe volume via a spark-plug integrated sensor, yielding time-resolved quasi-point information at kHz-rates. The simulation was based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach with the two-equation k-epsilon turbulence model in a finite volume discretization scheme and included the port-fuel injection event. Commercial CFD software was used to perform engine simulations close to the experimental conditions.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Mg Alloys for Sand and Permanent Mold Casting Applications

2004-03-08
2004-01-0656
The need to reduce weight of large and heavy components used by the automotive and aerospace industries such as engine block, cylinder head cover and helicopter gearbox housing has led to the development of new Mg gravity casting alloys that provide adequate properties and cost effective solution. The new Mg gravity casting alloys are designed for high stressed components that operate at a temperature up to 300°C. These new alloys exhibit excellent mechanical properties and creep resistance in T-6 conditions. The present paper aims at introducing three new Mg gravity casting alloys designated MRI 201S, MRI 202S and MRI 203S, which were recently developed by the Magnesium Research Institute of DSM and VW. Apart from the excellent high temperature performance of these alloys, they provide adequate castability and dimension stability along with good weldability and corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

From Adaptive Cruise Control to Active Safety Systems

2001-10-01
2001-01-3245
Once the adaptive cruise control systems are already in the market in Japan and Europe, the evolution of these comfort systems is logically going towards implementing new additional functions and safety strategies in order to detect and actuate in case of emergency. This transition has to be done in clear and precise steps to assure an easy adaptation to each improvement. Driver assistance systems will play a major role in the future to minimise the risk and consequences of accidents and to increase the driving comfort level. The impact of such systems on traffic and society is briefly commented. This paper discusses the need of new driver assistance systems and a possible roadmap for them. After a short introduction of present Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), and based on them, next possible functions are described.
Technical Paper

Development and Verification of In-Vehicle Networks in a Virtual Environment

2005-04-11
2005-01-1534
Due to the increase in demand for comfort and safety features in today's automobiles, the internal vehicle communication networks necessary to accommodate these features are very complex. These networks represent a heterogeneous architecture consisting of several ECUs exchanging information via bus systems such as CAN, LIN, MOST, or FlexRay buses. Development and verification of internal vehicle networks include multiple design layers. These layers are the logical layer represented by the software application, the associated data link layer, and the physical connection layer containing bus interfaces, wires, and termination. Verification of these systems in the early stages of the design process (before a physical network is available for testing) has become a critical need. As a result, the need to simulate these designs at all their levels of complexity has become critically important.
Technical Paper

Architectural Leadership in the Automotive Industry

2000-11-01
2000-01-C067
In the new century the automotive industry is transforming itself from an entirely mechanical industry to an industry that is driven by electronics and services. The companies who will be most successful are those who are able to control, drive and renew the architectural concepts enabling the introduction of state-of-the-art information technology to the car and its supporting infrastructure. This paper will first define the term architecture and will elaborate about the increasing relevance of architectural thinking in the automotive domain. Architectural leadership will be defined to mean control (proprietary ownership of components and/or interfaces), creation of a de-facto or legal standard as well as renewal (creation of new products and markets utilizing new linkages of existing architectures). In the second part examples of successful and less successful approaches for establishing architectural leadership in the automotive industry are discussed.
Technical Paper

Application of Detached-Eddy Simulation for Automotive Aerodynamics Development

2009-04-20
2009-01-0333
This paper presents a complete methodology for performing finite-volume-based detached-eddy simulation for the prediction of aerodynamic forces and detailed flow structures of passenger vehicles developed using the open-source CFD toolbox OpenFOAM®. The main components of the methodology consist of an automatic mesh generator, a setup and initialisation utility, a DES flow solver and analysis and post-processing routines. Validation of the predictions is done on the basis of detailed comparisons to experimental wind-tunnel data. Results for lift and drag are found to compare favourably to the experiments, with some moderate discrepancies in predicted rear lift. Point surface-pressure measurements, oil-streak images and maps of total pressure in the flow field demonstrate the approach's capabilities to predict the fine detail of complex flow regimes found in automotive aerodynamics.
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