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Technical Paper

Vw Lupo, the WorldS First 3-Liter Car

After the success of the 4-cylinder 1.9-liter TDI and SDI direct-injection diesel engines in the Passat, Jetta and Polo classes, a new 3-cylinder TDI has been developed for use in the "Lupo 3L,' a compact car with a fuel consumption of 3 liters per 100 km. A new injection system with unit injectors, together with a fully electronically controlled engine management system featuring drive-by-wire- technology, a turbocharger with variable turbine geometry and a fully automated mechanical gearbox and clutch, for the first time ensures the potential to meet the stringent D4 exhaust emissions level and to achieve excellent fuel economy. The wheel-torque based engine and gearbox management systems optimize engine operation in terms of efficiency and emissions.
Technical Paper

Vapor/Liquid Visualization with Laser-Induced Exciplex Fluorescence in an SI-Engine for Different Fuel Injection Timings

Laser-induced exciplex fluorescence has been applied to the mixture formation process in the combustion chamber of an optically-accessible four-cylinder in-line spark-ignition engine in order to distinguish between liquid and vapor fuel distribution during the intake and compression stroke for different injection timings. The naphthalene/N,N,N′N′-tetramethyl p-phenylene diamine (TMPD) exciplex system excited at 308nm with a broadband XeCl excimer laser is used to obtain spectrally-separated, single-shot fluorescence images of the liquid or vapor phase of the fuel. For different timings of the fuel injector this technique is applied to obtain crank-angle-resolved images of the resulting mixture in the combustion chamber. The fluorescence light is detected with an intensified slow-scan CCD-camera equipped with appropriate filters.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Analysis of Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine for Different EGR-Rates by an Extinction Method

The formation of soot during the first phase and the oxidation of soot during the later phase of the combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine have been investigated in detail by an extinction method. The experiments were performed in a 1.9 l near-production high-speed four-cylinder in-line direct-injection diesel engine for passenger cars for different rates of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and for different fuels. The measurements result in crank angle resolved and cycle-averaged soot mass concentrations in the piston bowl and the combustion chamber. The results show that with increasing EGR-rates the amount of soot formed is increased only slightly but the amount of soot oxidized during combustion decreases significantly. This is assumed to be the main reason for the increase of soot in the exhaust gas with increasing EGR-rates.
Journal Article

The Thermodynamics of Exhaust Gas Condensation

Water vapor is, aside from carbon dioxide, the major fossil fuel combustion by-product. Depending on its concentration in the exhaust gas mixture as well as on the exhaust gas pressure, its condensation temperature can be derived. For typical gasoline engine stoichiometric operating conditions, the water vapor dew point lies at about 53 °C. The exhaust gas mixture does however contain some pollutants coming from the fuel, engine oil, and charge air, which can react with the water vapor and affect the condensation process. For instance, sulfur trioxide present in the exhaust, reacts with water vapor forming sulfuric acid. This acid builds a binary system with water vapor, which presents a dew point often above 100 °C. Exhaust composition after leaving the combustion chamber strongly depends on fuel type, engine concept and operation point. Furthermore, the exhaust undergoes several chemical after treatments.
Technical Paper

The Response of a Closed Loop Controlled Diesel Engine on Fuel Variation

An investigation was conducted to elucidate, how the latest turbocharged, direct injection Volkswagen diesel engine generation with cylinder pressure based closed loop control, to be launched in the US in 2008, reacts to fuel variability. A de-correlated fuels matrix was designed to bracket the range of US market fuel properties, which allowed a clear correlation of individual fuel properties with engine response. The test program consisting of steady state operating points showed that cylinder pressure based closed loop control successfully levels out the influence of fuel ignition quality, showing the effectiveness of this new technology for markets with a wide range of fuel qualities. However, it also showed that within the cetane range tested (39 to 55), despite the constant combustion mid-point, cetane number still has an influence on particulate and gaseous emissions. Volatility and energy density also influence the engine's behavior, but less strongly.
Technical Paper

The New Diesel Engine in the New Beetle

With the introduction of the New Beetle, Volkswagen is offering the next generation of the 1.9l TDI engine. Several evolutionary changes have been made to the TDI concept to further improve its emissions, efficiency and performance. Emissions performance is improved with increased fuel injection pressure, optimized fuel injectors, calibration modifications, EGR cooling and reduced crevice volume in the combustion chamber. Efficiency is improved with new oil pump, vacuum pump and water pump drive systems and the elimination of an auxiliary driveshaft. Performance and efficiency is improved with the addition of a variable geometry turbocharger, which increases torque at lower engine speeds while preserving performance at higher engine speeds. This paper describes the many enhancements found in this latest generation TDI and gives a brief lookout to the future trends in diesel engine development such as a high pressure injection system with unit injectors.
Technical Paper

Research Results on Processes and Catalyst Materials for Lean NOx Conversion

In a joint research project between industrial companies and a number of research institutes, nitrogen oxide conversion in oxygen containing exhaust gas has been investigated according to the following procedure Basic investigations of elementary steps of the chemical reaction Production and prescreening of different catalytic material on laboratory scale Application oriented screening of industrial catalyst material Catalyst testing on a lean bum gasoline engine, passenger car diesel engines (swirl chamber and DI) and on a DI truck engine Although a number of solid body structures show nitrogen oxide reduction by hydrocarbons, only noble metal containing catalysts and transition metal exchanged zeolites gave catalytic efficiencies of industrial relevance. A maximum of 25 % NOx reduction was found in the European driving cycle for passenger cars, about 40 % for truck engines in the respective European test.
Technical Paper

Realizing Future Trends in Diesel Engine Development

Volkswagen is the first automobile manufacturer to supply a passenger car with a direct fuel injection diesel engine to the US market, starting 1996. To meet the stringent US exhaust gas legislation the very successful European 1.9 liter TDI engine has been further developed for the 1996 and 1997 Passat. This TD1 incorporates a number of innovations in advanced diesel technology. Emissions-reducing innovations include: reduced crevice volume higher injection pressures upgraded injection management integrated EGR manifold system EGR cooling diesel catalytic converter This TDI engine configuration is also to be offered in the 1997 Golf and Jetta class and the new Passat in model year 1998. Over the coming years the TDI engine concept will be further optimized by utilizing variations of the above innovations.
Technical Paper

Quantitative In-Cylinder NO LIF Measurements with a KrF Excimer Laser Applied to a Mass-Production SI Engine Fueled with Isooctane and Regular Gasoline

Quantitative 1-D spatially-resolved NO LIF measurements in the combustion chamber of a mass-production SI engine with port-fuel injection using a tunable KrF excimer laser are presented. One of the main advantages of this approach is that KrF laser radiation at 248 nm is only slightly absorbed by the in-cylinder gases during engine combustion and therefore it allows measurements at all crank angles. Multispecies detection turned out to be crucial for this approach since it is possible to calculate the in-cylinder temperature from the detected Rayleigh scattering and the simultaneously acquired pressure traces. Additionally, it allows the monitoring of interfering emissions and spectroscopic effects like fluorescence trapping which turned out to take place. Excitation with 248 nm yields LIF emissions at shorter wavelengths than the laser wavelength (at 237 and 226 nm).
Technical Paper

Optical Coordinate Measuring Techniques for the Determination and Visualization of 3D Displacements in Crash Investigations

The measurement of 3D coordinates using optical techniques is well known for more than 50 years. Today, modern photogrammetric systems are based on handheld digital cameras and are used to identify the location of any circular marker or feature on the object's surface. The ease of use and the accurate and automated derivation of 3D coordinates from 2D digital images helped to establish a powerful tool for position control, assembly checks and reverse engineering. A new application is the analysis of real vehicle crashes. The location of hundreds of markers on the damaged vehicle can easily be determined in vehicle body position. These coordinates are being compared to the undeformed geometry and provide herby 3D information on any displacement. Using reverse engineering techniques, surfaces are created from the 3D points and thus a 3D model of the crashed vehicle is available for an easy visualization of the deformation.
Technical Paper

Non-intrusive Temperature Measurements during the Compression Phase of a DI Diesel Engine

Non-intrusive temperature measurements based on single-line laser-induced fluorescence of molecular oxygen in the transparent IDEA Diesel engine were investigated. Oxygen molecules were excited to fluorescence with a narrowband, tunable ArF excimer laser at 193 nm. The resulting fluorescence signals were recorded with an image-intensified CCD camera. The temperature increase during the compression phase of the four-cylinder direct injection Diesel engine could be evaluated from the LIF signals. In the crank angle range of the measurements, good agreement between measured and calculated temperatures (polytropic compression) was observed.
Technical Paper

NOx Formation in Diesel Engines for Various Fuels and Intake Gases

The NO formation is essentially determined by the flame temperature. In an engine the latter depends on the composition of the fuel and the intake gas. In this study the efficiency of various NO reducing measures is analysed by means of a comparison of measurements and computations for the Most frequent operation point of a 1.9 1 DI Diesel engine. The O2 concentration, which is shown to be the dominant source of influence on the flame temperature and NO formation, is varied using synthetic gas mixtures or by EGR. The molar heat capacity of CO2 and H2O in the recirculated exhaust gas, the intake temperature and the H/C ratio in the fuel are less important for the formation of NO. Measures which reduce the NO formation increase the ignition delay and thereby the fraction of the premixed combustion. The impact of EGR on the combustion process is illustrated by high speed filming.
Technical Paper

NO Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging in the Combustion Chamber of a Spray-Guided Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

In direct-injection gasoline (GDI) engines with charge stratification, minimizing engine-out nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission is crucial since exhaust-gas aftertreatment tolerates only limited amounts of NOx. Reduced NOx production directly lowers the frequency of energy-inefficient catalyst regeneration cycles. In this paper we investigate NO formation in a realistic GDI engine. Quantitative in-cylinder measurements of NO concentrations are carried out via laser-induced fluorescence imaging with excitation of NO (A-X(0,2) band at 248 nm), and subsequent fluorescence detection at 220-240 nm. Engine modifications were kept to a minimum in order to provide results that are representative of practical operating conditions. Optical access via a sapphire ring enabled identical engine geometry as a production line engine. The engine is operated with commercial gasoline (“Super-Plus”, RON 98).
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Adjoint Optimization of Intake Port Geometry

Meeting the stringent efficiency demands of next generation direct injection engines requires not only optimization of the injection system and combustion chamber, but also an optimal in-cylinder swirling charge flow. This charge motion is largely determined by the shape of the intake port arm geometry and the valve position. In this paper, we outline an extensible methodology implemented in OPENFOAM® for multi-objective geometry optimization based on the continuous adjoint. The adjoint method has a large advantage over traditional optimization approaches in that its cost is not dependent upon the number of parameters being optimized. This characteristic can be used to treat every cell in the computational domain as a tunable parameter - effectively switching cells "on" or "off" depending on whether this action will help improve the objectives.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Wall Film Thickness in the Intake Manifold of a Standard Production SI Engine by a Spectroscopic Technique

This paper reports on a non-intrusive method for measuring the liquid fuel film thickness in the intake manifold of a series production SI engine with multi-point fuel injection. The technique is based on laser-induced fluorescence. The optical set-up uses a bifurcated optical fibre bundle for transmission of the laser light for excitation of the fluid and for detecting of the fluorescence light. Due to the special design of the optical probe head it is highly sensitive for thin film measurements and it allows the accurate determination of the fuel film thickness even between a few and 100 μm. Special emphasis is placed on the selection of an adequate tracer added to the iso-octane fuel to achieve the correct film thickness even under vaporizing conditions, and on a detailed study of the parameters influencing the evaluated film thickness.
Technical Paper

Investigation of an Innovative Combustion Process for High-Performance Engines and Its Impact on Emissions

Over the past years, the question as to what may be the powertrain of the future has become ever more apparent. Aiming to improve upon a given technology, the internal combustion engine still offers a number of development paths in order to maintain its position in public and private mobility. In this study, an innovative combustion process is investigated with the goal to further approximate the ideal Otto cycle. Thus far, similar approaches such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) shared the same objective yet were unable to be operated under high load conditions. Highly increased control efforts and excessive mechanical stress on the components are but a few examples of the drawbacks associated with HCCI. The approach employed in this work is the so-called Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) in combination with a pre-chamber spark plug, enabling short combustion durations even at high dilution levels.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Spray Formation of DI Gasoline Hollow-Cone Injectors Inside a Pressure Chamber and a Glass Ring Engine by Multiple Optical Techniques

The paper describes detailed studies about the spray formation of a direct-injection high-pressure gasoline injector and the interaction of the droplets with the surrounding compressed air in pressure chamber experiments and inside an optically accessible research engine. Different optical techniques, like stroboscopic video technique, high-speed filming with flood-light illumination or with light-sheet illumination by a copper vapour laser, particle image velocimetry of the droplets, laser-induced fluorescence of the liquid phase, and spontaneous Raman spectroscopy for the measurement of the fuel/air ratio are used. From the recorded images spray characteristics such as spray penetration and spray cone angle are evaluated for different settings of the chamber pressure and temperature and for different rail pressures. The results show that all techniques are suitable to derive the quantities mentioned above.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Mixture Formation Analysis with Spontaneous Raman Scattering Applied to a Mass-Production SI Engine

Mixture formation analysis in the combustion chamber of a slightly modified mass-production SI engine with port-fuel injection using nonintrusive laser measurement techniques is presented. Laser Raman scattering and planar laser-induced tracer fluorescence are employed to measure air-fuel ratio and residual gas content of the charge with and without spatial resolution. Single-cycle measurements as well as cycle-averaged measurements are performed. Engine operation parameters like load, speed, injection timing, spark timing, coolant temperature, and mean air-fuel ratio are changed to study whether the effects on mixture formation and engine performance can be resolved by the applied laser spectroscopic techniques. Mixture formation is also analyzed by measurement of the charge composition as a function of crank angle. Clear correlations of the charge composition data and engine operating conditions are seen.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurements and Analysis on Fundamental Cold Start and Warm-up Phenomena of SI Engines

A recently developed Laser Raman Scattering system was applied to measure the in-cylinder air-fuel ratio and the residual gas content (via the water content) of the charge simultaneously in a firing spark-ignition engine during cold start and warm-up. It is the main objective of this work to elucidate the origin of misfires and the necessity to over-fuel at cool ambient temperatures. It turns out that the overall air-fuel ratio and residual gas content (in particular the residual water content) of the charge appear to be the most important parameters for the occurrence of misfires (without appropriate fuel enrichment), i.e., the engine behaviour from cycle to cycle becomes rather predictable on the basis of these data. An alternative explanation for the necessity to over-fuel is given.
Journal Article

In-Cylinder LIF Imaging, IR-Absorption Point Measurements, and a CFD Simulation to Evaluate Mixture Formation in a CNG-Fueled Engine

Two optical techniques were developed and combined with a CFD simulation to obtain spatio-temporally resolved information on air/fuel mixing in the cylinder of a methane-fueled, fired, optically accessible engine. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of anisole (methoxybenzene), vaporized in trace amounts into the gaseous fuel upstream of the injector, was captured by a two-camera system, providing one instantaneous image of the air/fuel ratio per cycle. Broadband infrared (IR) absorption by the methane fuel itself was measured in a small probe volume via a spark-plug integrated sensor, yielding time-resolved quasi-point information at kHz-rates. The simulation was based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach with the two-equation k-epsilon turbulence model in a finite volume discretization scheme and included the port-fuel injection event. Commercial CFD software was used to perform engine simulations close to the experimental conditions.