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Technical Paper

Supporting Welding Methods for Future Light Weight Steel Car Body Structures

2002-07-09
2002-01-2091
In the continuous struggle to improve car body properties, and at the same time reduce the weight of the structure, new materials and body concepts are being evaluated. In competition with more self-evident lightweight materials such as aluminium and plastic composites, new and different grades of high-strength steels with various surface coatings are being introduced. From experience it is known that to be able to weld and join these steel grades under high-volume conditions, it is necessary to perform comprehensive testing to establish those assembly parameters which give a superior and reliable weld quality. To meet the demands of cost-effective low volume production, we can notice a tendency to move away from traditional uni-body concepts and into the direction of space-frame structures. These can preferably be manufactured out of high-strength steels by using production methods like roll-forming, hydro-forming and hot-forming.
Technical Paper

Multi-material Approach with Integrated Joining Technologies in the New Volvo S80

1999-09-28
1999-01-3147
In May 1998 Volvo launched its most exclusive car model so far, the Volvo S80, which is aimed to compete with upper luxury segment products. The car is produced in the new production facility in the Torslanda plant in Sweden. Among the more highlighted features were a transversely mounted in-line six cylinder engine with a specially designed gearbox, electronic multiplex technology with 18 computers in the network, and safety features like stability and traction control (STC), front seats with integrated antiwhiplash system (WHIPS) and inflatable curtain (IC) for improved side impact protection. To fulfill the product's high demands on safety, quality and environmental care, the design, materials selection and assembly of the car body with high precision had to be very carefully engineered. As in previous product-/process development a holistic and concurrent engineering approach was necessary.
Technical Paper

Mid-Ranging Scheme for Idle Speed Control of SI Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-0608
The article describes a model-based control method for idle speed of spark-ignition (SI) engines. It is based on mid-ranging, a multivariable control strategy that is more commonly used in process control. The basic building blocks of the control structure are two PI controllers.
Technical Paper

Low Cycle Fatigue of Spot Welds Under Constant and Variable Amplitude Loading

2003-03-03
2003-01-0913
Experience from several car projects shows that S-N curves for spot welds generated under load control in the high cycle fatigue regime might be very conservative when used in the low cycle fatigue regime. Therefore, force and displacement controlled low cycle fatigue tests were carried out on peel and shear loaded specimens. Both constant (CA) and variable amplitude (VA) load signals were used. Finally, a method for predicting fatigue life of spot welds with increased accuracy in the low cycle fatigue regime is proposed. The method is simple, fast and accurate and can be used together with linear finite element analysis (FEA) and existing fatigue packages.
Technical Paper

Location of the First Auto-Ignition Sites for Two HCCI Systems in a Direct Injection Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0564
To elucidate the processes controlling the auto-ignition timing and overall combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, the distribution of the auto-ignition sites, in both space and time, was studied. The auto-ignition locations were investigated using optical diagnosis of HCCI combustion, based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of formaldehyde in an optical engine with fully variable valve actuation. This engine was operated in two different modes of HCCI. In the first, auto-ignition temperatures were reached by heating the inlet air, while in the second, residual mass from the previous combustion cycle was trapped using a negative valve overlap. The fuel was introduced directly into the combustion chamber in both approaches. To complement these experiments, 3-D numerical modeling of the gas exchange and compression stroke events was done for both HCCI-generating approaches.
Technical Paper

Galvanic Corrosion of Die Cast Magnesium Exposed on Vehicles and in Accelerated Laboratory Tests

2006-04-03
2006-01-0255
Galvanic corrosion between die cast AZ91D and AM60B and different fastener systems has been evaluated by exposure on trucks and in accelerated laboratory tests. The exposure time on the trucks was 3 years, corresponding to a mileage of about 300000 km. Samples were retracted and evaluated after 1 and 2 years exposure. Similar samples were also exposed to the Volvo Indoor Corrosion Test and the General Motors GM9540P-cycle B test. The correlation between the field data and the laboratory tests was evaluated, as was the sharp difference in the performance of the fastener systems in the two accelerated laboratory tests.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction of MAG-Welded Thin-Sheet Structures

1998-09-29
982311
A finite-element (FE) based method for numerically predicting fatigue life of MAG-welded thin-sheet structures has been established and tested. The method uses nodal forces and moments calculated along the weld line, together with an analytical expression for the structural stress at the weld toe. The calculated stress is used together with an experimentally determined Wöhler, or S-N, curve. A “stiff” welded joint with structural stress dominated by membrane forces is found to have a steeper S-N curve than a “flexible” joint with structural stress dominated by bending moment. All test results were seen to lie close to one of two different S-N curves. The proportion of bending stress over total structural stress could be used for choosing the appropriate S-N curve.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Novel Thermal Barrier Coatings in a Single Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0062
The objective of this investigation was to improve the thermal properties of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBC) for internal combustion engines. There is a need for further reduction of thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity and the negative effects on heat loss and combustion phasing of surface roughness and permeable porosity, typical for plasma sprayed coatings, should be minimized. Four measures for improvement of TBC properties were evaluated: i) modification of the coating's microstructure by using a novel suspension plasma spraying method, ii) application of gadolinium-zirconate, a novel ceramic material with low thermal conductivity, iii) polishing of the coating to achieve low surface roughness, and iv) sealing of the porous coating surface with a polysilazane. Six coating variants with different combinations of the selected measures were applied on the piston crown and evaluated in a single cylinder light duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Designing Based on Thermal Loads

2005-05-10
2005-01-2051
When designing components, systems and fluid characteristics, thermal loads gathered over the life cycle of an automobile are of great interest. Ageing and deterioration based on the temperature/time distribution that a component or fluid is exposed to, affects the functionality and/or durability of electronics, polymers and lubricants. Optimal design in terms of quality and cost are two of the most governing parameters at Volvo Cars at present. To meet this need, designing terms of life cycles from a thermal perspective has been developed during recent years. This paper presents a methodology for designing components and choosing system solutions from life span thermal loads in Volvo Car's vehicles. The fundamental ideas behind the method, design criteria and examples of usage are discussed from a holistic point of view.
Technical Paper

Body and Component Accuracy in Assembly Systems

1998-09-29
982269
To give the customer an immediate impression of quality several of criteria must be fulfilled such as styling, paint finish and fitting of outer panels/closures. Therefore, higher demands on geometrical quality e.g. stability for both exterior and interior are needed. The structural part of the car body is the key element for success. Beside the visual impression, lack of noise and vibrations during driving can convince a potential buyer to become an actual customer. To achieve this, car manufacturers have to draw up an overall strategy in combination with proper working methods to be able to guarantee a stable geometrical output throughout the entire development process and during series production over the lifetime of the vehicle. On a simultaneous engineering basis, the OEM, the system/component- and the process suppliers (for the industrial system from press shop to final assembly) have to adopt a common measurement strategy.
Technical Paper

Analytical Methods for Durability in the Automotive Industry - The Engineering Process, Past, Present and Future

2001-03-05
2001-01-4075
In the early days of the automotive industry, durability and reliability were hit or miss affairs, with end-users often being the first to know about any durability problems - and in many cases forming an essential part of the development process. More recently, automotive companies have developed proving ground and laboratory test procedures that aim to simulate typical or severe customer usage. These test procedures have been used to develop the products through a series of prototypes and to prove the durability of the product prior to release in the marketplace. Now, commercial pressures and legal requirements have led to increasing reliance on CAE methods, with fatigue life prediction having a central role in the durability engineering process.
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