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Technical Paper

Well to Wheels Analysis of Biofuels vs. Conventional Fossil Fuels : a Proposal for Greenhouse Gases and Energy Savings Accounting in the French Context

2008-04-14
2008-01-0673
The recent development of biofuel production worldwide is closely linked to GHG savings objectives and to regional agricultural policies. Many existing studies intend to evaluate the net non renewable energy and GHG savings associated to the various biofuel production pathways. However, there is no consensus on the results of those studies. The main explanations of variations among the results are the following: energy consumption and GHG emissions of the reference fossil pathway, data used for the representation of farming processes and biofuel production processes, accounting for carbon storage in agricultural soils, reference use of the land, choice of an allocation method in case of coproduction. There is a strong drive in the European Union for a certification on the sustainability of biofuel pathways.
Technical Paper

Validation of Diesel Combustion Models with Turbulence Chemistry Interaction and Detailed Kinetics

2019-09-09
2019-24-0088
Detailed and fast combustion models are necessary to support design of Diesel engines with low emission and fuel consumption. Over the years, the importance of turbulence chemistry interaction to correctly describe the diffusion flame structure was demonstrated by a detailed assessment with optical data from constant-volume vessel experiments. The main objective of this work is to carry out an extensive validation of two different combustion models which are suitable for the simulation of Diesel engine combustion. The first one is the Representative Interactive Flamelet model (RIF) employing direct chemistry integration. A single flamelet formulation is generally used to reduce the computational time but this aspect limits the capability to reproduce the flame stabilization process. To overcome such limitation, a second model called tabulated flamelet progress variable (TFPV) is tested in this work.
Journal Article

Using Multiple Injection Strategies in Diesel Combustion: Potential to Improve Emissions, Noise and Fuel Economy Trade-Off in Low CR Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-1329
In former high compression ratio Diesel engines a single injection was used to introduce the fuel into the combustion chamber. With actual direct injection engines which exhibit a compression ratio between 17:1 and 18:1 single or multiple early injections called “pilot injections” are also added in order to reduce the combustion noise. For after-treatment reasons a late injection during the expansion stroke named “post injection” may also be used in some operating conditions. Investigations have been conducted on lower compression ratio Diesel engine and in high EGR rate operating conditions to evaluate the benefits of multiple injection strategies to improve the trade off between engine emissions, noise and fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Tracer LIF Visualisation Studies of Piston-Top Fuel Films in a Wall-Guided, Low-NOx Diesel Engine

2008-10-06
2008-01-2474
Tracer laser induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging of piston-top fuel films has been performed within the combustion chamber of an optically-accessible, single cylinder Diesel engine. The first objective of the study was to adapt the tracer LIF technique so as to perform in-cylinder imaging of the fuel films under reacting (i.e. combustion) conditions. The results obtained in a wall-guided, combustion chamber operating under highly dilute, Diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) conditions reveal the significant presence of late-cycle piston-top fuel films. Furthermore, it is believed that these fuel films contribute to engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) emissions via a mechanism of flash boiling. An attempt was also made to evaluate the role of fuel volatility on fuel film lifetimes. This was achieved by using a 50/50 fuel mixture of two single component fuels whose boiling points correspond to moderately high and low volatility components of standard Diesel fuel.
Journal Article

Towards the Use of Eulerian Field PDF Methods for Combustion Modeling in IC Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1144
Detailed chemistry and turbulence-chemistry interaction need to be properly taken into account for a realistic combustion simulation of IC engines where advanced combustion modes, multiple injections and stratified combustion involve a wide range of combustion regimes and require a proper description of several phenomena such as auto-ignition, flame stabilization, diffusive combustion and lean premixed flame propagation. To this end, different approaches are applied and the most used ones rely on the well-stirred reactor or flamelet assumption. However, well-mixed models do not describe correctly flame structure, while unsteady flamelet models cannot easily predict premixed flame propagation and triple flames. A possible alternative for them is represented by transported probability density functions (PDF) methods, which have been applied widely and effectively for modeling turbulent reacting flows under a wide range of combustion regimes.
Journal Article

Towards an Innovative Combination of Natural Gas and Liquid Fuel Injection in Spark Ignition Engines

2010-05-05
2010-01-1513
In order to address the CO₂ emissions issue and to diversify the energy for transportation, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) is considered as one of the most promising alternative fuels given its high octane number. However, gaseous injection decreases volumetric efficiency, impacting directly the maximal torque through a reduction of the cylinder fill-up. To overcome this drawback, both independent natural gas and gasoline indirect injection systems with dedicated engine control were fitted on a RENAULT 2.0L turbocharged SI (Spark Ignition) engine and were adapted for simultaneous operation. The main objective of this innovative combination of gas and liquid fuel injections is to increase the volumetric efficiency without losing the high knocking resistance of methane.
Technical Paper

Towards CO and HC Aftertreatment Devices for the Next Generation of Diesel Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1543
The reduction of NOx emissions required by the future Euro 6 standards leads engine manufacturers to develop Diesel Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion processes. Because this concept allows reducing both NOx and particulates simultaneously, it appears as a promising way to meet the next environmental challenges. Unfortunately, HCCI combustion often increases CO and HC emissions. Conventional oxidation catalyst technologies, currently used for Euro 4 vehicles, may not be able to convert these emissions because of the saturation of active catalytic sites. As a result, such increased CO and HC emissions have to be reduced under standard levels using innovative catalysts or emergent technologies. The work reported in this paper has been conducted within the framework of the PAGODE project (PSA, IFP, Chalmers University, APTL, CRF, Johnson Matthey and Supelec) and financed by the European Commission.
Technical Paper

Tire Ply-Steer, Conicity and Rolling Resistance - Analytical Formulae for Accurate Assessment of Vehicle Performance during Straight Running

2019-04-02
2019-01-1237
The aim of the paper is to provide simple and accurate analytical formulae describing the straight motion of a road vehicle. Such formulae can be used to compute either the steering torque or the additional rolling resistance induced by vehicle side-slip angle. The paper introduces a revised formulation of the Handling Diagram Theory to take into account tire ply-steer, conicity and road banking. Pacejka’s Handling Diagram Theory is based on a relatively simple fully non-linear single track model. We will refer to the linear part of the Handling Diagram, since straight motion will be considered only. Both the elastokinematics of suspension system and tire characteristics are taken into account. The validation of the analytical expressions has been performed both theoretically and after a subjective-objective test campaign. By means of the new and unreferenced analytical formulae, practical hints are given to set to zero the steering torque during straight running.
Technical Paper

The Air Assisted Direct Injection ELEVATE Automotive Engine Combustion System

2000-06-19
2000-01-1899
The purpose of the ELEVATE (European Low Emission V4 Automotive Two-stroke Engine) industrial research project is to develop a small, compact, light weight, high torque and highly efficient clean gasoline 2-stroke engine of 120 kW which could industrially replace the relatively big existing automotive spark ignition or diesel 4-stroke engine used in the top of the mid size or in the large size vehicles, including the minivan vehicles used for multi people and family transportation. This new gasoline direct injection engine concept is based on the combined implementation on a 4-stroke bottom end of several 2-stroke engine innovative technologies such as the IAPAC compressed air assisted direct fuel injection, the CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) combustion process, the D2SC (Dual Delivery Screw SuperCharger) for both low pressure engine scavenging and higher pressure IAPAC air assisted DI and the ETV (Exhaust charge Trapping Valve).
Technical Paper

Sulfated and Desulfated Lean NOx-trap Characterization for Optimized Management Strategy in Gasoline Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-1068
Within the framework of the French research program PREDIT, a study was undertaken by ADEME, IFP, LGRE, PSA Peugeot Citroën and Umicore, whose main objective was a better understanding of the NOx storage and reduction phenomena on an aged, sulfated and desulfated NOx-trap. The target of this work was to use the information on catalyst working conditions to optimize catalyst management for a gasoline direct injection engine. The catalysts were characterized on both engine and synthetic gas benches. Aging and poisoning phenomena were studied and a variety of different chemical analytical tools were used. The behavior of two different thermally aged cores was investigated under rich conditions on a synthetic gas test bench. The dependence of the NOx regeneration efficiency of the traps is reported for several operating parameters, including reductant concentrations, durations of the rich pulse and trap loadings.
Journal Article

Study of the Mixing and Combustion Processes of Consecutive Short Double Diesel Injections

2009-04-20
2009-01-1352
The mixing and combustion processes of short double Diesel injections are investigated by optical diagnostics. A single hole Common Rail Diesel injector allowing high injection pressure up to 120MPa is used. The spray is observed in a high pressure, high temperature cell that reproduces the thermodynamic conditions which exist in the combustion chamber of a Diesel engine during injection. Three configurations are studied: a single short injection serving as a reference case and two double short injections with short and long dwell time (time between the injections). Several optical diagnostics were performed successively. The mixing process is studied by normalized Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence giving access to the vapor fuel concentration fields. In addition, the flow fields both inside and outside the jets are characterized by Particle Imaging Velocimetry.
Journal Article

Study of Air Entrainment of Multi-hole Diesel Injection by Particle Image Velocimetry - Effect of Neighboring Jets Interaction and Transient Behavior After End of Injection.

2010-04-12
2010-01-0342
The air entrainment of multi-hole diesel injection is investigated by high speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) using a multi-hole common rail injector with an injection pressure of 100 MPa. The sprays are observed in a high pressure, high temperature cell that reproduces the thermodynamic conditions which exist in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine during injection. Typical ambient temperature of 800K and ambient density of 25 kg/m3 are chosen. The air entrainment is studied with the PIV technique, giving access to the velocity fields in the surrounding air and/or in the interior of two neighboring jets. High acquisition rate of 5000 Hz, corresponding to 200 μs between two consecutive image pairs is obtained by a high-speed camera coupled with a high-speed Nd:YLF laser. The effect of neighboring jets interaction is studied by comparing four injectors with different numbers of holes (4, 6, 8 and 12) with similar static mass flow rate per hole.
Technical Paper

Strategies for the Control of Particulate Trap Regeneration

2000-03-06
2000-01-0472
The reduction of particulate emissions from Diesel engines is a key issue to meet future emission standards. Particulate traps represent an attractive solution to the problem of this source of pollution. However, they have the disadvantage of requiring periodic and safe regeneration to release exhaust back pressure and to recover filtration efficiency. Natural regeneration of the particulate filter may occur. Nevertheless, with light-duty vehicles and their low level of exhaust gas temperature, it may be necessary to facilitate or force the regeneration. The objective of this work is to give an overview of the possibilities offered by the engine management system to increase significantly exhaust gas temperatures. Thus, different engine tunes, through injection timing, boost pressure or EGR rate, may be sufficient to ensure safe regeneration of the trap.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Urea-SCR Process Applied to Lean-burn SI Engines

2009-11-02
2009-01-2776
Lean-burn combustion in SI engines can significantly reduce fuel consumption but NOx reduction becomes challenging because classic three-way catalyst (TWC) is no more efficient. Urea-SCR is then an interesting alternative solution because of its high NOx conversion efficiency without any additional fuel consumption. The coupling between two SI lean-burn engines (stratified and homogeneous combustion) and a urea-SCR catalyst was simulated on the NEDC cycle. Simulation results showed that the SCR efficiency would comply with the limits required by future Euro 5/6 regulations. Associated urea solution consumptions were estimated thanks to a simplified model. Finally, a comparison with a Diesel application was also made. It showed that the required amount of reducing agent remained significantly higher for SI lean-burn engines than for Diesel engine.
Journal Article

Reduction of the Compression Ratio on a HSDI Diesel Engine: Combustion Design Evolution for Compliance the Future Emission Standards

2008-04-14
2008-01-0839
Environment protection issues regarding CO2 emissions as well as customers requirements for fun-to-drive and fuel economy explain the strong increase of Diesel engine on European market share in all passenger car segments. To comply future purposes of emission regulations, particularly dramatic decrease in NOx emissions, technology need to keep upgrading; the reduction of the volumetric compression ratio (VCR) is one of the most promising research ways to allow a simultaneous increase in power at full load and NOx / PM trade-off improvement at part load. This study describes the combustion effects of the reduction of compression ratio and quantifies improvements obtained at full load and part load running conditions on a HSDI Common Rail engine out performance (power, fuel consumption, emissions and noise). Potential and limitations of a reduced compression ratio from 18:1 to 14:1 are underlined.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Fuel Consumption and Engine-out NOx Emissions in a Lean Homogeneous GDI Combustion System, Utilizing Valve Timing and an Advanced Ignition System

2015-04-14
2015-01-0776
This study investigated how the amount of dilution applied can be extended while maintaining normal engine operation in a GDI engine. Adding exhaust gases or air to a stoichiometric air/fuel mixture yields several advantages regarding fuel consumption and engine out emissions. The aim of this paper is to reduce fuel consumption by means of diluted combustion, an advanced ignition system and adjusted valve timing. Tests were performed on a Volvo four-cylinder engine equipped with a dual coil ignition system. This system made it possible to extend the ignition duration and current. Furthermore, a sweep was performed in valve timing and type of dilution, i.e., air or exhaust gases. While maintaining a CoV in IMEP < 5%, the DCI system was able to extend the maximum lambda value by 0.1 - 0.15. Minimizing valve overlap increased lambda by an additional 0.1.
Technical Paper

Reduced Kinetic Mechanisms for Diesel Spray Combustion Simulations

2013-09-08
2013-24-0014
Detailed chemistry represents a fundamental pre-requisite for a realistic simulation of combustion process in Diesel engines to properly reproduce ignition delay and flame structure (lift-off and soot precursors) in a wide range of operating conditions. In this work, the authors developed reduced mechanisms for n-dodecane starting from the comprehensive kinetic mechanism developed at Politecnico di Milano, well validated and tested in a wide range of operating conditions [1]. An algorithm combining Sensitivity and Flux Analysis was employed for the present skeletal reduction. The size of the mechanisms can be limited to less than 100 species and incorporates the most important details of low-temperature kinetics for a proper prediction of the ignition delay. Furthermore, the high-temperature chemistry is also properly described both in terms of reactivity and species formation, including unsaturated compounds such as acetylene, whose concentration controls soot formation.
Technical Paper

Quantifying Benefits of Dual Cam Phasers, Lean Mixture and EGR on the Operating Range and Fuel Economy of a PFI NVO CAI Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0844
Among the existing concepts that help to improve the efficiency of spark-ignition engines at part load, Controlled Auto-Ignition™ (CAI™) is an effective way to lower both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. This combustion concept is based on the auto-ignition of an air-fuel-mixture highly diluted with hot burnt gases to achieve high indicated efficiency and low pollutant emissions through low temperature combustion. To minimize the costs of conversion of a standard spark-ignition engine into a CAI engine, the present study is restricted to a Port Fuel Injection engine with a cam-profile switching system and a cam phaser on both intake and exhaust sides. In a 4-stroke engine, a large amount of burnt gases can be trapped in the cylinder via early closure of the exhaust valves. This so-called Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) strategy has a key parameter to control the amount of trapped burnt gases and consequently the combustion: the exhaust valve-lift profile.
Technical Paper

Present Day Diesel Engine Pollutant Emissions: Proposed Model for Refinery Bases Impact

2000-06-19
2000-01-1852
Air quality improvement, especially in urban areas, is one of the major concerns for the coming years. For this reason, car manufacturers, equipment manufacturers and refiners have been exploring development avenues to comply with increasingly severe anti-pollution requirements. In such a context, the identification of the most promising improvement options is essential. A research program, carried out by IFP (Institut Français du Pétrole), and supported by FSH (Fonds de Soutien aux Hydrocarbures), IFP, PSA-Peugeot-Citroën, Renault and Renault VI (Véhicules Industriels), has been built to study this point. It is a four years programme with different steps which will focus on new engine technologies: some of them are going to be marketed very soon (gasoline direct injection car engine, and diesel common rail injection car and truck engines) to anticipate the Euro 3 (2000) and the Euro 4 (2005) emissions specifications. The original work reported here is part of this research.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Design of a Bio-Regenerative ECLSS Technological Demo Plant for Air and Water Management

2008-06-29
2008-01-2013
Future human exploration roadmaps involve the development of temporary or permanent outposts on Moon and Mars. The capability of providing astronauts with proper conditions for living and working in extraterrestrial environments is therefore a key issue for the sustainability of those roadmaps, and closed-loop Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSSs) and bio-regenerative plants represent the necessary evolution of current technologies for complying with the challenging requirements imposed. This paper presents the architectural design of a terrestrial plant to be exploited to test and validate air and water management technologies for a biological life support system in a closed environment. The plant includes a crew area and a plant growth area. These two spaces can be considered as either a unique volume or two separated environments with reduced contact, e.g. for plant harvesting or other up-keeping activities.
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