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Technical Paper

The Effect of Intake, Injection Parameters and Fuel Properties on Diesel Combustion and Emissions

2003-05-19
2003-01-1793
To improve urban air pollution, stringent emissions regulations for heavy-duty diesel engines have been proposed and will become effective in Japan, the EU, and the United States in a few years. To comply with such future regulations, it is critical to investigate the effects of intake and injection parameters and fuel properties on engine performance, efficiency and emissions characteristics, associated with the use of aftertreatment systems. An experimental study was carried out to identify such effects. In addition, the KIVA-3 code was used to gain insight into cylinder events. The results showed improvements in NOx-Smoke and BSFC trade-offs at high-pressure injection in conjunction with EGR and supercharging.
Technical Paper

Mixture formation and combustion characteristics of directly injected LPG spray

2003-05-19
2003-01-1917
It has been recognized that alternative fuels such as liquid petroleum gas (LPG) has less polluting combustion characteristics than diesel fuel. Direct-injection stratified-charge combustion LPG engines with spark-ignition can potentially replace conventional diesel engines by achieving a more efficient combustion with less pollution. However, there are many unknowns regarding LPG spray mixture formation and combustion in the engine cylinder thus making the development of high-efficiency LPG engines difficult. In this study, LPG was injected into a high pressure and temperature atmosphere inside a constant volume chamber to reproduce the stratification processes in the engine cylinder. The spray was made to hit an impingement wall with a similar profile as a piston bowl. Spray images were taken using the Schlieren and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) method to analyze spray penetration and evaporation characteristics.
Journal Article

Miller-PCCI Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine with VVT

2008-04-14
2008-01-0644
A variable valve timing (VVT) mechanism has been applied in a high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine. The effective compression ratio (εeff) was lowered by means of late intake valve closing (LIVC), while keeping the expansion ratio constant. Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion, adopting the Miller-cycle, was experimentally realized and numerically analyzed. Significant improvements of NOx and soot emissions were achieved for a wide range of engine speeds and loads, frequently used in a transient mode test. The operating range of the Miller-PCCI combustion has been expanded up to an IMEP of 1.30 MPa.
Technical Paper

Improvement of NOx Reduction Rate of Urea-SCR System by NH3 Adsorption Quantity Control

2008-10-06
2008-01-2498
A urea SCR system was combined with a DPF system to reduce NOx and PM in a four liters turbocharged with intercooler diesel engine. Significant reduction in NOx was observed at low exhaust gas temperatures by increasing NH3 adsorption quantity in the SCR catalyst. Control logic of the NH3 adsorption quantity for transient operation was developed based on the NH3 adsorption characteristics on the SCR catalyst. It has been shown that NOx can be reduced by 75% at the average SCR inlet gas temperature of 158 deg.C by adopting the NH3 adsorption quantity control in the JE05 Mode.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Combustion and Exhaust Gas Emissions in a Passenger Car Diesel Engine by Modification of Combustion Chamber Design

2006-10-16
2006-01-3435
Three types of combustion chamber configurations (Types A, B, and C) with compression ratio lower than that of the baseline were tested for improved performance and exhaust gas emissions from an inline-four-cylinder 1.7-liter common-rail diesel engine manufactured for use with passenger cars. First, three combustion chambers were examined numerically using CFD code. Second, engine tests were conducted by using Type B combustion chamber, which is expected to have the best performance and exhaust gas emissions of all. As a result, 80% of NOx emissions at both low and medium loads at 1500 rpm, the engine speed used frequently in the actual city driving, improved with nearly no degradation in smoke emissions and brake thermal efficiency. It was shown that a large amount of cooled EGR enables NOx-free combustion with long ignition delay.
Technical Paper

Ignition and Combustion Control of Diesel HCCI

2005-05-11
2005-01-2132
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is effective for the simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions in diesel engine. In general, high octane number fuels (gasoline components or gaseous fuels) are used for HCCI operation, because these fuels briefly form lean homogeneous mixture because of long ignition delay and high volatility. However, it is necessary to improve injection systems, when these high octane number fuels are used in diesel engine. In addition, the difficulty of controlling auto-ignition timing must be resolved. On the other hand, HCCI using diesel fuel (diesel HCCI) also needs ignition control, because diesel fuel which has a low octane number causes the early ignition before TDC. The purpose of this study is the ignition and combustion control of diesel HCCI. The effects of parameters (injection timing, injection pressure, internal/external EGR, boost pressure, and variable valve timing (VVT)) on the ignition timing of diesel HCCI were investigated.
Technical Paper

High Thermal Efficiency Obtained with a Single-Point Autoignition Gasoline Engine Prototype Having Pulsed Supermulti-Jets Colliding in an Asymmetric Double Piston Unit

2016-10-17
2016-01-2336
A single-point autoignition gasoline engine (Fugine) proposed by us previously has a strongly asymmetric double piston unit without poppet valves, in which pulsed multi-jets injected from eight suction nozzles collide around the combustion chamber center. Combustion experiments conducted on this engine at a low operating speed of 2000 rpm using gasoline as the test fuel under lean burn conditions showed both high thermal efficiency comparable to that of diesel engines and silent combustion comparable to that of conventional spark-ignition gasoline engines. This gasoline engine was tested with a weak level of point compression generated by negative pressure of about 0.04 MPa and also at an additional mechanical homogeneous compression ratio of about 8:1 without throttle valves. After single-point autoignition, turbulent flame propagation may occur at the later stage of heat release.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Combustion Experiments of a Piston-Less Single-Point Autoignition Gasoline Engine Based on Compression Due to Colliding of Pulsed Supermulti-Jets

2016-10-17
2016-01-2337
Computational and theoretical analyses for a new type of engine (Fugine), which was proposed by us based on the colliding of pulsed supermulti-jets, indicate a potential for very high thermal efficiencies and also less combustion noise. Three types of prototype engines were developed. One of them has a low-cost gasoline injector installed in the suction port and a double piston system in which eight octagonal supermulti-jets are injected and collide. Combustion experiments conducted on the prototype gasoline engine show high thermal efficiency comparable to that of diesel engines and less combustion noise comparable to that of traditional spark-ignition gasoline engines. This paper presents some combustion experiments of one of the other piston-less prototype engines having bi-octagonal pulsed multi-jets injected from fourteen nozzles.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Unregulated Emission Characteristics of Turbocharged DI Diesel Engine with Common Rail Fuel Injection System

2003-10-27
2003-01-3158
In this study, we selected four unregulated emissions species, formaldehyde, benzene, 1,3-butadiene and benzo[a]pyrene to research the emission characteristics of these unregulated components experimentally. The engine used was a water-cooled, 8-liter, 6-cylinder, 4-stroke-cycle, turbocharged DI diesel engine with a common rail fuel injection system manufactured for the use of medium-duty trucks, and the fuel used was JIS second-class light gas oil, which is commercially available as diesel fuel. The results of experiments indicate as follows: formaldehyde tends to be emitted under the low load condition, while 1,3-butadiene is emitted at the low engine speed. This is believed to be because 1,3-butadiene decomposes in a short time, and the exhaust gas stays much longer in a cylinder under the low speed condition than under the high engine speed one. Benzene is emitted under the low load condition, as it is easily oxidized in high temperature.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Spark-Assisted Auto-Ignition Gasoline Engine with Octagonal Colliding Pulsed Supermulti-Jets and Asymmetric Double Piston Unit

2018-10-30
2018-32-0004
Much effort has been devoted to studies on auto-ignition engines of gasoline including homogeneous-charge combustion ignition engines over 30 years, which will lead to lower exhaust energy loss due to high-compression ratio and less dissipation loss due to throttle-less device. However, the big problem underlying gasoline auto-ignition is knocking phenomenon leading to strong noise and vibration. In order to overcome this problem, we propose the principle of colliding pulsed supermulti-jets. In a prototype engine developed by us, octagonal pulsed supermulti-jets collide and compress the air around the center point of combustion chamber, which leads to a hot spot area far from chamber walls. After generating the hot spot area, the mechanical compression of an asymmetric double piston unit is added in four-stroke operation, which brings auto-ignition of gasoline.
Journal Article

Detailed Diesel Combustion and Soot Formation Analysis with Improved Wall Model Using Large Eddy Simulation

2015-11-17
2015-32-0715
A mixed time-scale subgrid large eddy simulation was used to simulate mixture formation, combustion and soot formation under the influence of turbulence during diesel engine combustion. To account for the effects of engine wall heat transfer on combustion, the KIVA code's standard wall model was replaced to accommodate more realistic boundary conditions. This were carried out by implementing the non-isothermal wall model of Angelberger et al. with modifications and incorporating the log law from Pope's method to account for the wall surface roughness. Soot and NOx emissions predicted with the new model are compared to experimental data acquired under various EGR conditions.
Technical Paper

Control Strategy for Urea-SCR System in Single Step Load Transition

2006-10-16
2006-01-3308
Urea-SCR system has a high NOx reduction potential in the steady-state diesel engine operation. In complicated transient operations, however, there are certain problems with the urea-SCR system in that NOx reduction performance degrades and adsorbed NH3 would be emitted. Here, optimum urea injection methods and exhaust bypass control to overcome these problems are studied. This exhaust bypass control enables NO/NOx ratio at the inlet of SCR catalyst to be decreased widely, which prevents over production of NO2 at the pre-oxidation catalyst. Steady-state and simple transient engine tests were conducted to clarify NOx reduction characteristics when optimum urea injection pattern and exhaust bypass control were applied. In simple transient test, only the engine load was rapidly changed for obtaining the fundamental knowledge concerning the effect of those techniques.
Technical Paper

Computations and Experiments of Single-Point Autoignition Gasoline Engine with Colliding Pulsed Supermulti-Jets, Single Piston and Rotary Valve

2016-10-17
2016-01-2334
A new engine concept (Fugine) based on colliding pulsed supermulti-jets was proposed in recent years, which is expected to provide high thermal efficiencies over 50% and less combustion noise. Theoretical analyses indicate a high potential for thermal efficiency over 60%. Three types of prototype engines have been developed. The first prototype engine based only on the colliding of pulsed supermulti-jets with fourteen nozzles has no piston compression, while the second type equipped with a low-cost gasoline injector in the suction port has a double piston system and eight jet nozzles. Combustion experiments conducted on the second prototype gasoline engine show high thermal efficiency similar to that of traditional diesel engines and lower combustion noise comparable to that of traditional spark-ignition gasoline engines.
Technical Paper

Computations and Experiments for Clarifying Compression Level and Stability of Colliding Pulsed Supermulti-Jets in a Piston-Less Single-Point Autoignition Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2331
In recent years, a new type of engine (Fugine) based on the colliding of pulsed supermulti-jets was proposed by us, which indicates the potential for attaining very high thermal efficiencies and also less combustion noise. A prototype engine with eight nozzles for injecting octagonal pulsed supermulti-jets, which was developed with a low-cost gasoline injector and a double piston system, showed high thermal efficiency comparable to that of diesel engines and also less combustion noise comparable to that of traditional spark-ignition gasoline engines. Another type of prototype piston-less engine having fourteen bioctagonal nozzles was also developed and test results confirmed the occurrence of combustion, albeit it was unstable. In this work, time histories of pressure were measured in the combustion chamber of the piston-less prototype engine under a cold flow condition without combustion in order to examine the compression level obtained with the colliding supermulti-jets.
Technical Paper

Achievement of Medium Engine Speed and Load Premixed Diesel Combustion with Variable Valve Timing

2006-04-03
2006-01-0203
A variable valve timing (VVT) mechanism was applied to achieve premixed diesel combustion at higher load for low emissions and high thermal efficiency in a light duty diesel engine. By means of late intake valve closing (LIVC), compressed gas temperatures near the top dead center are lowered, thereby preventing too early ignition and increasing ignition delay to enhance fuel-air mixing. The variability of effective compression ratio has significant potential for ignition timing control of conventional diesel fuel mixtures. At the same time, the expansion ratio is kept constant to ensure thermal efficiency. Combining the control of LIVC, EGR, supercharging systems and high-pressure fuel injection equipment can simultaneously reduce NOx and smoke. The NOx and smoke suppression mechanism in the premixed diesel combustion was analyzed using the 3D-CFD code combined with detailed chemistry.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Mechanism of Lubricating Oil Consumption of Diesel Engines -2nd report: Mechanism of Oil Film Generation on Piston Skirt-

2005-05-11
2005-01-2167
The requirement for the reduction of lubricating oil consumption of diesel engines has become increasingly important in reducing the effect of exhausted oil on after treatment devices for exhaust gas. In our first report, findings indicated that piston skirt length affected oil consumption, and they clearly showed that the oil film on the piston skirt should be considered in the calculation for oil consumption. In this report, the mechanism of oil film generation on the piston skirt is investigated. The oil film on the piston skirt is calculated and the effect of piston motion on the oil film region is clarified, i.e., considering the piston rotation around the top of the piston skirt at the anti-thrust side is important for the calculation of the oil film region.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Mechanism of Lubricating Oil Consumption of Diesel Engines - 4th Report: The Measurement of Oil Pressure Under the Piston Oil Ring -

2006-10-16
2006-01-3440
Clarifying the mechanism of the oil consumption of engines is necessary for developing its estimation method. Oil moves upwards on the piston to the combustion chamber through ring sliding surfaces, ring backs and ring gaps. The mechanisms of oil upwards transport through the ring gaps are hardly analyzed. In this report, oil pressure just under the oil ring was successfully measured by newly developed method to clarify the oil transport mechanism at the ring gap. It was showed that the generated oil pressure pushed up the oil at the ring gap.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Mechanism of Lubricating Oil Consumption of Diesel Engines - 3rd Report: Effect of Piston Motion on Piston Skirt Oil Film Behavior

2006-10-16
2006-01-3349
The necessity of the reduction of the lubricating oil consumption of diesel engines has been increasing its importance to reduce the negative effect of exhausted oil on after treatment devices for exhausted gas. The final purpose of the studies is clarifying the mechanism of the oil consumption and developing the method of its estimation. For the basic study, the mechanism of oil film generation on the piston skirt could be explained by hydrodynamic lubrication in our first and second reports [1, 2]. In this paper, the piston skirt was calculated using the measured piston motion to clarify the effect of the piston motion to the piston skirt oil film behavior.
Technical Paper

A Study on N2O Formation Mechanism and Its Reduction in a Urea SCR System Employed in a DI Diesel Engine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1745
N₂O is known to have a significantly high global warming potential. We measured N₂O emissions in engine-bench tests by changing the NO/NH₃ ratio and exhaust gas temperature at the oxidation catalyst inlet in a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with a urea SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system. The results showed that the peak N₂O production ratio occurred at an exhaust gas temperature of around 200°C and the maximum value was 84%. Moreover, the N₂O production ratio increased with increasing NO/NH₃. Thus, we concluded that N₂O is produced via the NO branching reaction. Based on our results, two methods were proposed to decrease N₂O formation. At low temperatures ~200°C, NO should be reduced by controlling diesel combustion to lower the contribution of NO to N₂O production. This is essential because the SCR system cannot reduce NOx at low temperatures.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach to Improve the Accuracy of the DPF Simulation Model under Transient Conditions

2019-01-15
2019-01-0027
Cars with diesel engines are commonly equipped with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) to reduce their emissions of particulate matter (PM). Because the pressure drop within the DPF reduces engine performance, it must be predicted with accuracy. The purpose of this study was to improve the accuracy of a DPF simulation model under transient conditions by parameter optimization. The DPF model under consideration consists of an inlet channel, a cake layer, wall layer, and an outlet channel. The pressure drop is influenced by the location, mass, and density of the deposited soot. Therefore, the model includes the following sub-models: Sub-model 1: Calculates the soot density deposited in the wall layer Sub-model 2: Computes the filtration efficiency and mass of the wall and cake layer Sub-model 3: Calculates the soot density deposited in the cake layer Because the sub-models include some empirical formulae, the first step in refining the model was to optimize their fitting parameters.
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