Refine Your Search



Search Results

Technical Paper

White Smoke Emissions Under Cold Starting of Diesel Engines

More stringent regulations have been enforced over the past few years on diesel exhaust emissions. White smoke emission, a characteristic of diesel engines during cold starting, needs to be controlled in order to meet these regulations. This study investigates the sources and constituents of white smoke. The effects of fuel properties, design and operating parameters on the formation and emissions of white smoke are discussed. A new technique is developed to measure the real time gaseous hydrocarbons (HC) as well as the solid and liquid particulates. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine in a cold room. The gaseous HC emissions are measured using a high frequency response flame ionization detector. The liquid and solid particulates are collected on a paper filter placed upstream of the sampling line of the FID and their masses are determined.
Journal Article

Vehicle and Occupant Safety Protection CAE Simulation

The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of the blast load on the vehicle and occupant and identify the sensitivity of the vehicle parameters to the blast load, therefore figure out the design solution to protect the vehicle and occupant. CAE explicit commercial code, LSDYNA, is applied in this research with adopting CONWEP method for the blast load. The LSDYNA 95th percentile Hybrid III dummy model is used for occupant simulation. Seat, seat belt, and underbody and underbody armor are interested areas in the design to meet the survivability and weight target. The results show the protection can be effectively achieved through employing the new design method in three areas mentioned above.
Technical Paper

Upper Extremity Injuries Related to Air Bag Deployments

From our crash investigations of air bag equipped passenger cars, a subset of upper extremity injuries are presented that are related to air bag deployments. Minor hand, wrist or forearm injuries-contusions, abrasions, and sprains are not uncommonly reported. Infrequently, hand fractures have been sustained and, in isolated cases, fractures of the forearm bones or of the thumb and/or adjacent hand. The close proximity of the forearm or hand to the air bag module door is related to most of the fractures identified. Steering wheel air bag deployments can fling the hand-forearm into the instrument panel, rearview mirror or windshield as indicated by contact scuffs or tissue debris or the star burst (spider web) pattern of windshield breakage in front of the steering wheel.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Effect of Spot-Weld/Bolt Joint Distribution on the Sound Radiation from Panel Structures

It is well known that sound radiation from a rectangular panel can be significantly affected by its boundary condition. However, most of the existing investigations are primarily focused on sound radiation from plates with simply supported boundary conditions. The objective of this paper is to study the effect on sound radiation of the boundary supporting conditions generally specified in the form of discrete and/or distributed restraining springs. This will have practical implications. For example, in automotive NVH design, it is of interest to understand how the sound radiation from a body panel can be affected by the number and distribution of spot-welds. It is demonstrated through numerical examples that the distribution of spot-welds can be tuned or optimized, like other conventional design parameters, to achieve maximum sound reduction.
Technical Paper

Ultrafast X-Ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection Process

Propagation-based and phase-enhanced x-ray imaging was developed as a unique metrology technique to visualize the internal structure of high-pressure fuel injection nozzles. We have visualized the microstructures inside 200-μm fuel injection nozzles in a 3-mm-thick steel housing using this novel technique. Furthermore, this new x-ray-based metrology technique has been used to directly study the highly transient needle motion in the nozzles in situ and in real-time, which is virtually impossible by any other means. The needle motion has been shown to have the most direct effect on the fuel jet structure and spray formation immediately outside of the nozzle. In addition, the spray cone-angle has been perfectly correlated with the numerically simulated fuel flow inside the nozzle due to the transient nature of the needle during the injection.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements in Transient Port Injector Sprays

A global characterization of the spray distribution of various current and development types of automotive fuel injectors was obtained. Axial and radial measurement of droplet sizes, velocities and volume fluxes were made with a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) for a transient port injector spray in quiescent atmospheric conditions. Time-resolved measurements involving the time-of-arrival of each droplet associated with its size and velocity components were also acquired. Additionally, the liquid sprays emanating from various types of port fuel injectors were visualized, through planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique, at different time instants. Such detailed study provides an improved understanding of the temporal or unsteady behavior of port injector spray.
Technical Paper

Thoracic Injury Mechanisms and Biomechanical Responses in Lateral Velocity Pulse Impacts

The purpose of this study is to help understand the thoracic response and injury mechanisms in high-energy, limited-stroke, lateral velocity pulse impacts to the human chest wall. To impart such impacts, a linear impactor was developed which had a limited stroke and minimally decreased velocity during impact. The peak impact velocity was 5.6 ± 0.3 m/s. A series of BioSID and cadaver tests were conducted to measure biomechanical response and injury data. The conflicting effects of padding on increased deflection and decreased acceleration were demonstrated in tests with BioSID and cadavers. The results of tests conducted on six cadavers were used to test several proposed injury criteria for side impact. Linear regression was used to correlate each injury criterion to the number of rib fractures. This test methodology captured and supported a contrasting trend of increased chest deflection and decreased TTI when padding was introduced.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Calcium Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Plain Carbon (SAE 1050) Steel

The influence of calcium treatment on the mechanical properties of a plain carbon steel (SAE 1050) was investigated. The mechanical properties investigated were tensile and impact strength, fatigue crack growth rate, and the fatigue threshold. Impact testing was conducted at both room temperature and at -40°C. Several heats of both calcium and non-calcium treated steel (SAE 1050) were tested in both the as hot-rolled condition and in the quenched and tempered condition (with a hardness level of HRC = 45). The results of this investigation show no significant difference in the tensile properties or room temperature impact properties between the calcium treated and the non-calcium treated steels. However, the impact strengths of calcium treated steels were slightly higher than that of non-calcium treated steels at -40°C.
Technical Paper

The Development of an Electronic Control Unit for a High Pressure Common Rail Diesel/Natural Gas Dual-Fuel Engine

Natural gas has been considered to be one of the most promising alternative fuels due to its lower NOx and soot emissions, less carbon footprint as well as attractive price. Furthermore, higher octane number makes it suitable for high compression ratio application compared with other gaseous fuels. For better economical and lower emissions, a turbocharged, four strokes, direct injection, high pressure common rail diesel engine has been converted into a diesel/natural gas dual-fuel engine. For dual-fuel engine operation, natural gas as the main fuel is sequentially injected into intake manifold, and a very small amount of diesel is directly injected into cylinder as the ignition source. In this paper, a dual-fuel electronic control unit (ECU) based on the PowerPC 32-bit microprocessor was developed. It cooperates with the original diesel ECU to control the fuel injection of the diesel/natural gas dual-fuel engine.
Technical Paper

Starting of Diesel Engines: Uncontrolled Fuel Injection Problems

Many problems can develop from the uncontrolled fuel injection during cranking and starting of diesel engines. Some of the problems are related to excessive wear as a result of the high peak pressures reached upon combustion after misfiring, the relatively low rotating speeds and the lack of formation of a lubricating oil film between the interacting surfaces. Another problem is the emission of high amounts of unburned hydrocarbons and white smoke. Experimental results are given for a single cylinder and a multicylinder diesel engine, for the instantaneous angular velocity and cylinder pressures from the starter-on point until the engine fires. The causes of misfiring during cranking are investigated. The role of the increased blow-by gases on the autoignition process at the low cranking speeds is analyzed both analytically and experimentally. The contribution of the instantaneous angular velocity at the time of injection, on the autoignition process is investigated.
Journal Article

Spray Characterization of Ethanol Gasoline Blends and Comparison to a CFD Model for a Gasoline Direct Injector

Operation of flex fuel vehicles requires operation with a range of fuel properties. The significant differences in the heat of vaporization and energy density of E0-E100 fuels and the effect on spray development need to be fully comprehended when developing engine control strategies. Limited enthalpy for fuel vaporization needs to be accounted for when developing injection strategies for cold start, homogeneous and stratified operation. Spray imaging of multi-hole gasoline injectors with fuels ranging from E0 to E100 and environmental conditions that represent engine operating points from ambient cold start to hot conditions was performed in a spray chamber. Schlieren visualization technique was used to characterize the sprays and the results were compared with Laser Mie scattering and Back-lighting technique. Open chamber experiments were utilized to provide input and validation of a CFD model.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous In-Cylinder Surface Temperature Measurements with Thermocouple, Laser-induced Phosphorescence, and Dual Wavelength Infrared Diagnostic Techniques in an Optical Engine

As engine efficiency targets continue to rise, additional improvements must consider reduction of heat transfer losses. The development of advanced heat transfer models and realistic boundary conditions for simulation based engine design both require accurate in-cylinder wall temperature measurements. A novel dual wavelength infrared diagnostic has been developed to measure in-cylinder surface temperatures with high temporal resolution. The diagnostic has the capability to measure low amplitude, high frequency temperature variations, such as those occurring during the gas exchange process. The dual wavelength ratio method has the benefit of correcting for background scattering reflections and the emission from the optical window itself. The assumption that background effects are relatively constant during an engine cycle is shown to be valid over a range of intake conditions during motoring.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Effect of Recirculated Gases on Ignition Delay During Cold Starting of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Simulations using CFD and chemical kinetics models have been applied to gain a better understanding of the effect of the recirculated gases on the autoignition process during cold starting of a direct injection diesel engine. The cranking gases recirculated (CGR) contain fuel vapor and partial oxidation products which affect the autoignition process in different ways. Some hydrocarbons (HCs) species enhance the reaction rates and reduce ignition delay. Meanwhile other HCs species and the partial oxidation products of the autoignition process have an opposing effect. The simulation covered a wide range of the hydrocarbons and aldehydes concentrations and their effect on the ignition delay in a 1.2L Ford DIATA 4-cylinders, water cooled, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. The simulated opposing effects of HCs and HCHO on the ignition delay are validated by experimental results at room temperature.
Journal Article

Self-Regulation Minimizes Crash Risk from Attentional Effects of Cognitive Load during Auditory-Vocal Tasks

This study reanalyzes the data from a recent experimental report from the University of Utah investigating the effect on driving performance of auditory-vocal secondary tasks (such as cell phone and passenger conversations, speech-to-text, and a complex artificial cognitive task). The current objective is to estimate the relative risk of crashes associated with such auditory-vocal tasks. Contrary to the Utah study's assumption of an increase in crash risk from the attentional effects of cognitive load, a deeper analysis of the Utah data shows that driver self-regulation provides an effective countermeasure that offsets possible increases in crash risk. For example, drivers self-regulated their following distances to compensate for the slight increases in brake response time while performing auditory-vocal tasks. This new finding is supported by naturalistic driving data showing that cell phone conversation does not increase crash risk above that of normal baseline driving.
Technical Paper

SID Response Data in a Side Impact Sled Test Series

Heidelberg-type side impact sled tests were conducted using SID side impact dummies. These tests were run under similar conditions to a series of cadaveric sled tests funded by the Centers for Disease Control in the same lab. Tests included 6.7 and 9 m/s (15 and 20 mph) unpadded and 9 m/s padded tests. The following padding was used at the thorax: ARSAN, ARCEL, ARPAK, ARPRO, DYTHERM, 103 and 159 kPa (15 and 23 psi) crush strength paper honeycomb, and an expanded polystyrene. In all padded tests the dummy Thoracic Trauma Index, TTI(d) was below the value of 85 set by federal rulemaking (49 CFR, Part 571 et al., 1990). In contrast, cadavers in 9 m/s sled tests did not tolerate ARSAN 601 (MAIS 5) and 23 psi (159 kPa) paper honeycomb (MAIS 5), and 20 psi (138 kPa) Verticel™ honeycomb (MAIS 4), but tolerated 15 psi (103 kPa) paper honeycomb (average thoracic MAIS 2.3 in six tests).
Journal Article

Role of Volatility in the Development of JP-8 Surrogates for Diesel Engine Application

Surrogates for JP-8 have been developed in the high temperature gas phase environment of gas turbines. In diesel engines, the fuel is introduced in the liquid phase where volatility plays a major role in the formation of the combustible mixture and autoignition reactions that occur at relatively lower temperatures. In this paper, the role of volatility on the combustion of JP-8 and five different surrogate fuels was investigated in the constant volume combustion chamber of the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT). IQT is used to determine the derived cetane number (DCN) of diesel engine fuels according to ASTM D6890. The surrogate fuels were formulated such that their DCNs matched that of JP-8, but with different volatilities. Tests were conducted to investigate the effect of volatility on the autoignition and combustion characteristics of the surrogates using a detailed analysis of the rate of heat release immediately after the start of injection.
Technical Paper

Proposed Provisional Reference Values for the Humerus for Evaluation of Injury Potential

A humerus provisional reference value (PRV) based on human surrogate data was developed to help evaluate upper arm injury potential. The proposed PRV is based on humerus bone bending moments generated by testing pairs of cadaver arms to fracture in three-point bending on an Instron testing machine in either lateral-medial (L-M) or anterior-posterior (A-P) loading, at 218 mm/s and 0.635 mm/s loading rates. The results were then normalized and scaled to 50th and 5th percentile sized occupants. The normalized average L-M bending moment at failure test result was 6 percent more than the normalized average A-P bending moment. The normalized average L-M shear force at failure was 23 percent higher than the normalized average A-P shear force. The faster rate of loading resulted in a higher average bending moment overall - 8 percent in the L-M and 14 percent in the A-P loading directions.
Technical Paper

Performance and Mechanical Properties of Various Padding Materials Used in Cadaveric Side Impact Sled Tests

Various types of padding have been used in side impact sled tests with cadavers. This paper presents a summary of performance of the padding used in NHTSA and WSU/CDC sled tests, and a summary of material properties of padding used in cadaveric sled tests. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on padding performance in cadavers, rather than optimum padding performance in dummies.
Technical Paper

On the Role of Cervical Facet Joints in Rear End Impact Neck Injury Mechanisms

After a rear end impact, various clinical symptoms are often seen in car occupants (e.g. neck stiffness, strain, headache). Although many different injury mechanisms of the cervical spine have been identified thus far, the extent to which a single mechanism of injury is responsible remains uncertain. Apart from hyperextension or excessive shearing, a compression of the cervical spine can also be seen in the first phase of the impact due to ramping or other mechanical interactions between the seat back and the spine. It is hypothesized that this axial compression, together with the shear force, are responsible for the higher observed frequency of neck injuries in rear end impacts versus frontal impacts of comparable severity. The axial compression first causes loosening of cervical ligaments making it easier for shear type soft tissue injuries to occur.
Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction and Validation of Fuel Spray Behavior in a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine

Analysis of flow field and charge distribution in a gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine is performed by a modified version of the KIVA code. A particle-based spray model is proposed to simulate a swirl-type hollow-cone spray in a GDI engine. Spray droplets are assumed to be fully atomized and introduced at the sheet breakup locations as determined by experimental correlations and energy conservation. The effects of the fuel injection parameters such as spray cone angle and ambient pressure are examined for different injectors and injection conditions. Results show reasonable agreement with the measurements for penetration, dispersion, global shape, droplet velocity and size distribution by Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry(PDPA) in a constant-volume chamber. The test engine is a 4-stroke 4-valve optically accessible single-cylinder engine with a pent-roof head and tumble ports.