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Technical Paper

White Smoke Emissions Under Cold Starting of Diesel Engines

1996-02-01
960249
More stringent regulations have been enforced over the past few years on diesel exhaust emissions. White smoke emission, a characteristic of diesel engines during cold starting, needs to be controlled in order to meet these regulations. This study investigates the sources and constituents of white smoke. The effects of fuel properties, design and operating parameters on the formation and emissions of white smoke are discussed. A new technique is developed to measure the real time gaseous hydrocarbons (HC) as well as the solid and liquid particulates. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine in a cold room. The gaseous HC emissions are measured using a high frequency response flame ionization detector. The liquid and solid particulates are collected on a paper filter placed upstream of the sampling line of the FID and their masses are determined.
Technical Paper

Transient Flow and Pressure Characteristics Inside a Closed-Coupled Catalytic Converter

1998-10-19
982548
An experimental study was carried out to characterize the exhaust flow structure inside the closed-coupled catalytic converter, which is installed on a firing four-cylinder 12-valve passenger car gasoline engine. Simultaneous velocity and pressure measurements were taken using cycle-resolved Laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) technique and pressure transducer. A small fraction of titanium (IV) iso-propoxide was dissolved in gasoline to generate titanium dioxide during combustion as seeding particles for the LDA measurements. It was found that the velocity is highly fluctuating due to the pulsating nature of the engine exhaust flow, which strongly depends on the engine operating conditions and the measuring locations. The pressure oscillation is correlated with the transient exhaust flow characteristics. The main exhaust flow event from each cylinder can only be observed at the certain region in front of the monolith brick.
Technical Paper

Transient Flow Characteristics Inside the Catalytic Converter of a Firing Gasoline Engine

1997-02-24
971014
An experimental study was performed, using cycle-resolved laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) technique, to characterize the exhaust flow structure inside a catalytic converter retro-fitted to a firing four-cylinder gasoline engine over different operating conditions. A small fraction of titanium (IV) isopropoxide was dissolved in gasoline to generate titanium dioxide during combustion as seeding particles for LDV measurements. It was found that in the front plane of the catalytic monolith, the velocity is highly fluctuating due to the pulsating nature of the engine exhaust flow, which strongly depends on the engine operating conditions. Under unloaded condition, four pairs of major peaks are clearly observed in the time history of the velocity, which correspond to the main exhaust events of each individual cylinder.
Technical Paper

Starting of Diesel Engines: Uncontrolled Fuel Injection Problems

1986-02-01
860253
Many problems can develop from the uncontrolled fuel injection during cranking and starting of diesel engines. Some of the problems are related to excessive wear as a result of the high peak pressures reached upon combustion after misfiring, the relatively low rotating speeds and the lack of formation of a lubricating oil film between the interacting surfaces. Another problem is the emission of high amounts of unburned hydrocarbons and white smoke. Experimental results are given for a single cylinder and a multicylinder diesel engine, for the instantaneous angular velocity and cylinder pressures from the starter-on point until the engine fires. The causes of misfiring during cranking are investigated. The role of the increased blow-by gases on the autoignition process at the low cranking speeds is analyzed both analytically and experimentally. The contribution of the instantaneous angular velocity at the time of injection, on the autoignition process is investigated.
Journal Article

Role of Volatility in the Development of JP-8 Surrogates for Diesel Engine Application

2014-04-01
2014-01-1389
Surrogates for JP-8 have been developed in the high temperature gas phase environment of gas turbines. In diesel engines, the fuel is introduced in the liquid phase where volatility plays a major role in the formation of the combustible mixture and autoignition reactions that occur at relatively lower temperatures. In this paper, the role of volatility on the combustion of JP-8 and five different surrogate fuels was investigated in the constant volume combustion chamber of the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT). IQT is used to determine the derived cetane number (DCN) of diesel engine fuels according to ASTM D6890. The surrogate fuels were formulated such that their DCNs matched that of JP-8, but with different volatilities. Tests were conducted to investigate the effect of volatility on the autoignition and combustion characteristics of the surrogates using a detailed analysis of the rate of heat release immediately after the start of injection.
Technical Paper

Performance, Durability, and Stability of a Power Generator Fueled with ULSD, S-8, JP-8, and Biodiesel

2010-04-12
2010-01-0636
The feasibility of using ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD), synthetic paraffinic kerosene (S-8), military grade jet fuel (JP-8) and commercial B20 blend (20% v biodiesel in ULSD) in a power generator equipped with a compression ignition (CI) engine was investigated according to the MIL-STD-705C military specifications for engine-driven generator sets. Several properties of these fuels such as cetane number, lubricity, viscosity, cold flow properties, heat of combustion, distillation temperatures, and flash point, were evaluated. All fuels were tested for 240 hours at a stationary load of 30 kW (60% of full load) with no alteration to the engine calibrations. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake thermal efficiency (BTE), frequency, and power of the generator using S-8, JP-8 and B20 were compared with the baseline fuel ULSD.
Journal Article

On-Board Fuel Identification using Artificial Neural Networks

2014-04-01
2014-01-1345
On-board fuel identification is important to ensure engine safe operation, similar power output, fuel economy and emissions levels when different fuels are used. Real-time detection of physical and chemical properties of the fuel requires the development of identifying techniques based on a simple, non-intrusive sensor. The measured crankshaft speed signal is already available on series engine and can be utilized to estimate at least one of the essential combustion parameters such as peak pressure and its location, rate of cylinder pressure rise and start of combustion, which are an indicative of the ignition properties of the fuel. Using a dynamic model of the crankshaft numerous methods have been previously developed to identify the fuel type but all with limited applications in terms of number of cylinders and computational resources for real time control.
Technical Paper

Multi Sensing Fuel Injector for Electronically Controlled Diesel Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0936
Internal combustion engine control requires feedback signals to the ECU in order to meet the increasingly stringent emissions standards. Reducing the number of on-board sensors needed for proper engine performance would reduce the cost and complexity of the electronic system. This paper presents a new technique to enable one engine element, the fuel injector, to perform multiple sensing tasks in addition to its primary task of delivering the fuel into the cylinder. The injector is instrumented within an electric circuit to produce a signal indicative of the ionization produced from the combustion process in electronically controlled diesel engines. The output of the multi sensing fuel injector (MSFI) system can be used as a feedback signal to the engine control unit (ECU) for injection timing and diagnostics of the injection and combustion processes.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Ignition Energy with Visualization on a Spark Ignited Engine powered by CNG

2014-04-01
2014-01-1331
The need for using alternative fuel sources continues to grow as industry looks towards enhancing energy security and lowering emissions levels. In order to capture the potential of these megatrends, this study focuses on the relationship between ignition energy, thermal efficiency, and combustion stability of a 0.5 L single cylinder engine powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) at steady state operation. The goal of the experiment was to increase ignition energy at fixed lambda values to look for gains in thermal efficiency. Secondly, a lambda sweep was performed with criteria of maintaining a 4% COVIMEP by increasing the ignition energy until an appropriate threshold for stable combustion was found. The engine performance was measured with a combustion analysis system (CAS), to understand the effects of thermal efficiency and combustion stability (COVIMEP). Emissions of the engine were measured with an FTIR.
Journal Article

In-Cylinder Wall Temperature Influence on Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions During Transitional Period in an Optical Engine Using a Laser-Induced Phosphorescence Technique

2014-04-01
2014-01-1373
Emissions of Unburned Hydrocarbons (UHC) from diesel engines are a particular concern during the starting process, when after-treatment devices are typically below optimal operating temperatures. Drivability in the subsequent warm-up phase is also impaired by large cyclic fluctuations in mean effective pressure (MEP). This paper discusses in-cylinder wall temperature influence on unburned hydrocarbon emissions and combustion stability during the starting and warm-up process in an optical engine. A laser-induced phosphorescence technique is used for quantitative measurements of in-cylinder wall temperatures just prior to start of injection (SOI), which are correlated to engine out UHC emission mole fractions and combustion phasing during starting sequences over a range of charge densities, at a fixed fueling rate. Squish zone cylinder wall temperature shows significant influence on engine out UHC emissions during the warm-up process.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Understanding of a Multi-Sensing Piezo Fuel Injector Signal and Its Applications in Diagnosis

2014-10-13
2014-01-2590
Electronic controls in internal combustion engines require an in-cylinder combustion sensor to produce a feedback signal to the ECU (Engine Control Unit). Recent research indicated that the ion current sensor has many advantages over the pressure transducer, related mainly to lower cost. Modified glow plugs in diesel engines, and fuel injectors in both gasoline and diesel engines can be utilized as ion current sensors without the addition any part or drilling holes in the cylinder head needed for the pressure transducer. Multi sensing fuel injector (MSFI) system is a new technique which instruments the fuel injector with an electric circuit to perform multiple sensing tasks including functioning as an ion sensor in addition to its primary task of delivering the fuel into the cylinder. It is necessary to fundamentally understand MSFI system.
Journal Article

Efficient Approximate Methods for Predicting Behaviors of Steel Hat Sections Under Axial Impact Loading

2010-04-12
2010-01-1015
Hat sections made of steel are frequently encountered in automotive body structural components such as front rails. These components can absorb significant amount of impact energy during collisions thereby protecting occupants of vehicles from severe injury. In the initial phase of vehicle design, it will be prudent to incorporate the sectional details of such a component based on an engineering target such as peak load, mean load, energy absorption, or total crush, or a combination of these parameters. Such a goal can be accomplished if efficient and reliable data-based models are available for predicting the performance of a section of given geometry as alternatives to time-consuming and detailed engineering analysis typically based on the explicit finite element method.
Technical Paper

Effect of Using Biodiesel (B-20) and Combustion Phasing on Combustion and Emissions in a HSDI Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1203
The use of biodiesel and its blends with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) is gaining significant importance due to its ability to burn in conventional diesel engines with minor modifications. However the chemical and physical properties of biodiesel are different compared to the conventional ULSD. These differences directly impact the injection, spray formation, auto ignition and combustion processes which in turn affect the engine-out emissions. To understand the effect of fueling with B-20, tests were conducted on a single cylinder 0.42L direct injection research diesel engine. The engine is equipped with a common rail injection system, variable EGR and swirl control systems and was operated at a constant engine speed of 1500 rpm and 3 bar IMEP to simulated turbocharged conditions. Injection timing and duration were adjusted with B-20 at different locations of peak premixed combustions (LPPC) and two different swirl ratios to achieve 3 bar IMEP.
Technical Paper

Effect of EGR on Autoignition, Combustion, Regulated Emissions and Aldehydes in DI Diesel Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-1153
In view of the new regulations for diesel engine emissions, EGR is used to reduce the NOx emissions. Diluting the charge with EGR affects the autoignition, combustion as well as the regulated and unregulated emissions of diesel engines, under different operating conditions. This paper presents the results of an investigation on the effect of EGR on the global activation energy and order of the autoignition reactions, premixed and mixing-controlled combustion fractions, the regulated (unburned hydrocarbons, NOx, CO and particulates), aldehydes, CO2 and HC speciation. The experiments were conducted on two different direct injection, four-stroke-cycle, single-cylinder diesel engines over a wide range of operating conditions and EGR ratios.
Technical Paper

Direct Visualization of High Pressure Diesel Spray and Engine Combustion

1999-10-25
1999-01-3496
An experimental study was carried out to visualize the spray and combustion inside an AVL single-cylinder research diesel engine converted for optical access. The injection system was a hydraulically-amplified electronically-controlled unit injector capable of high injection pressure up to 180 MPa and injection rate shaping. The injection characteristics were carefully characterized with injection rate meter and with spray visualization in high-pressure chamber. The intake air was supplied by a compressor and heated with a 40kW electrical heater to simulate turbocharged intake condition. In addition to injection and cylinder pressure measurements, the experiment used 16-mm high-speed movie photography to directly visualize the global structures of the sprays and ignition process. The results showed that optically accessible engines provide very useful information for studying the diesel combustion conditions, which also provided a very critical test for diesel combustion models.
Technical Paper

Diesel Cold-Starting Study Using Optically Accessible Engines

1995-10-01
952366
An experimental and numerical study was carried out to simulate the diesel spray behavior during cold starting conditions inside two single-cylinder optically accessible engines. One is an AVL single-cylinder research diesel engine converted for optical access; the other is a TACOM/LABECO engine retrofitted with mirror-coupled endoscope access. The first engine is suitable for sophisticated optical diagnostics but is constrained to limited consecutive fuel injections or firings. The second one is located inside a micro-processor controlled cold room; therefore it can be operated under a wide range of practical engine conditions and is ideal for cycle-to-cycle variation study. The intake and blow-by flow rates are carefully measured in order to clearly define the operation condition. In addition to cylinder pressure measurement, the experiment used 16-mm high-speed movie photography to directly visualize the global structures of the sprays and ignition process.
Technical Paper

Cycle-by-Cycle Analysis of HC Emissions During Cold Start of Gasoline Engines

1995-10-01
952402
A cycle-by-cycle analysis of HC emissions from each cylinder of a four-stroke V-6, 3.3 L production engine was made during cold start. The HC emissions were measured in the exhaust port using a high frequency flame ionization detector (FID). The effect of the initial startup position of the piston and valves in the cycle on combustion and HC emissions from each cylinder was examined. The mass of fuel injected, burned and emitted was calculated for each cycle. The equivalence ratio of the charge in the firing cycles was determined. The analysis covered the first 120 cycles and included the effect of engine transients on HC emissions.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Small-Bore HSDI Diesel Engine in the Conventional and LTC Combustion Regimes

2005-09-11
2005-24-045
An experimental investigation was conducted on a small-bore, high-speed diesel engine to study the effect of different operating parameters on combustion and engine-out emissions in the conventional and low temperature regimes. For the conventional diesel combustion, the spray behavior is analyzed and a differentiation is made between the conditions in the small-bore and the larger bore quiescent chamber engines. The effects of the injection pressure, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), injection timing and swirl ratio (SR) on combustion and engine-out emission are investigated. The trade-off between NOx and smoke, measured in Bosch smoke unit, (BSU), is investigated with a special attention to the low temperature combustion regime, (LTC). The results showed that the LTC regime could be reached at fairly high EGR rates under all the injection pressures investigated in this work. The margin for the variation in EGR was limited just before the misfiring EGR.
Technical Paper

Combustion Ionization for Resonance Detection and Mitigation Using Pilot Injection in a Diesel Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1360
Advanced injection systems play a major role in reducing engine out emission in modern diesel engines. One interesting technology is the common rail injection system which is becoming more vital in controlling emission due to its flexibility in injection pressure, timing and number of injection events. Many studies have showed the advantages of using such injection parameters to meet the strict emission and improve engine performance. A glow plug/ ion current sensor was used to measure ionization produced during the combustion process. The ion current signal contains many valuable information including combustion phasing, duration and combustion resonance. In prior publications, it was demonstrated the capability of the ion current to control the combustion phasing and the ability to detect combustion resonance. Therefore, the experimental testing was conducted under controlled combustion phasing using the feedback from the ion current sensor.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Ion Current Signals in Compression Ignition and Spark Ignition Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-0567
Ion current sensors have been considered for the feedback electronic control of gasoline and diesel engines and for onboard vehicles powered by both engines, while operating on their conventional cycles or on the HCCI mode. The characteristics of the ion current signal depend on the progression of the combustion process and the properties of the combustion products in each engine. There are large differences in the properties of the combustible mixture, ignition process and combustion in both engines, when they operate on their conventional cycles. In SI engines, the charge is homogeneous with an equivalence ratio close to unity, ignition is initiated by an electric spark and combustion is through a flame propagating from the spark plug into the rest of the charge.
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