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Technical Paper

“OPERAS” In Advanced Diesel Engines for Commercial and Military Applications

Advanced diesel engines developed for the commercial market need to be adapted to the military requirements by OPERAS (Optimizing the injection pressure P, the Exhaust gas recirculation E, injection events Retard and/or Advance and the swirl ratio S). The different after treatment devices, already used or expected to be applied to diesel engines, require feed gases of appropriate properties for their efficient operation. To produce these gases some OPERAS are needed to control the diesel combustion process. Since military vehicles do not need the after treatment devices, the OPERAS of the commercial engines should be modified to meet the military requirements for high power density, better fuel economy, reduction of parasitic losses caused by the cooled EGR system, and reduction of invisible black and white smoke in the field.
Technical Paper

Volunteer, Anthropometric Dummy, and Cadaver Responses with Three and Four Point Restraints

The paper gives an evaluation of the performance of lap and shoulder belt restraint systems currently being used in American-built automobiles. Comparisons are made of the response characteristics of a volunteer, an anthropometric dummy, and a cadaver when subjected to identical collision environments while wearing a three or four point torso restraint system as occupants of the right front seat. Simulated frontal force barrier collisions in a modified automobile provided the realistic environment for the restraint system performance study. Human tolerances, interior vehicle geometry, and the interaction of the restrained occupant with the vehicle during the collision are reported in detail.
Technical Paper

Visualizing Automobile Disk Brake Squeals and Corresponding Out-of-Plane Vibration Modes

Automobile disk brake squeal has always been one of the major customer complaints because of its extremely unpleasant, very high pitch and intense sound. Currently, diagnostics of vehicle brake squeals are conducted using a scanning laser vibrometer synchronized with squeals. This process is time consuming, especially when there is a hard-to-reach area for a laser beam to shine or when squeals have multiple frequencies for which filtering must be used so that individual out-of-plane vibration modes can be obtained. In this paper, a different method known as Helmholtz equation least squares (HELS) method based nearfield acoustical holography (NAH) is used to reconstruct all acoustic quantities, including the acoustic pressure, normal components of the surface velocity and acoustic intensity. In particular, the locations from which squeal is originated are identified and the out-of-plane vibration modes that are responsible for squeal sounds are established.
Technical Paper

Visualization of Direct-Injection Gasoline Spray and Wall-impingement Inside a Motoring Engine

Two-dimensional pulse-laser Mie scattering visualization of the direct-injection gasoline fuel sprays and wall impingement processes was carried out inside a single-cylinder optically accessible engine under motoring condition. The injectors have been first characterized inside a pressurized chamber using identical technique, as well as high-speed microscopic visualization and phase Doppler measurement techniques. The effects of injector cone angle, location, and injection timings on the wall impingement processes were investigated. It was found that the fuel vaporization is not complete at the constant engine speed tested. Fuel spray droplets were observed to disperse wider in the motored engine when compared with an isothermal quiescent ambient conditions. The extent of wall-impingement varies significantly with the injector mounting position and spray cone angle; however, its effect can be reduced to some extent by optimizing the injection timing.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Analysis of the Impingement Processes of a Narrow-Cone DI Gasoline Spray

The direct injection spray-wall interactions were investigated experimentally using high-speed laser-sheet imaging, shadowgraphy, wetted footprints and phase Doppler interferometry techniques. A narrow-cone high-pressure swirl injector is used to inject iso-octane fuel onto a plate, at three different impact angles inside a pressurized chamber. Heated air and plate conditions were compared with unheated cases. Injection interval was also varied in the heated case to compare dry- and wet- wall impingement behaviors. High-speed macroscopic Mie-scattering images showed that presence of wall and air temperature has only minor effect on the bulk spray structure and penetration speed for the narrow-cone injector tested. The overall bulk motions of the spray plume and its spatial position at a given time are basically unaffected until a few millimeters before impacting the wall.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Public Vehicle Travel Survey Data Sets for Vehicle Driving Pattern and Fuel Economy Studies

Abstract Realistic vehicle fuel economy studies require real-world vehicle driving behavior data along with various factors affecting the fuel consumption. Such studies require data with various vehicles usages for prolonged periods of time. A project dedicated to collecting such data is an enormous and costly undertaking. Alternatively, we propose to utilize two publicly available vehicle travel survey data sets. One is Puget Sound Travel Survey collected using GPS devices in 484 vehicles between 2004 and 2006. Over 750,000 trips were recorded with a 10-second time resolution. The data were obtained to study travel behavior changes in response to time-and-location-variable road tolling. The other is Atlanta Regional Commission Travel Survey conducted for a comprehensive study of the demographic and travel behavior characteristics of residents within the study area.
Technical Paper

Use of Truncated Finite Element Modeling for Efficient Design Optimization of an Automotive Front End Structure

The present work is concerned with the objective of multi disciplinary design optimization (MDO) of an automotive front end structure using truncated finite element model. A truncated finite element model of a real world vehicle is developed and its efficacy for use in design optimization is demonstrated. The main goal adopted here is minimizing the weight of the front end structure meeting NVH, durability and crash safety targets. Using the Response Surface Method (RSM) and the Design Of Experiments (DOE) technique, second order polynomial response surfaces are generated for prediction of the structural performance parameters such as lowest modal frequency, fatigue life, and peak deceleration value.
Technical Paper

Transient Simulation of DGI Engine Injector with Needle Movement

Utilization of direct injection systems is one of the most promising technologies for fuel economy improvement for SI engine powered passenger cars. Engine performance is essentially influenced by the characteristics of the injection equipment. This paper will present CFD analyses of a swirl type GDI injector carried out with the Multiphase Module of AVL's FIRE/SWIFT CFD code. The simulations considered three phases (liquid fuel, fuel vapor, air) and mesh movement. Thus the transient behavior of the injector can be observed. The flow phenomena known from measurement and shown by previous simulation work [2, 7, 10, 11] were reproduced. In particular the simulations shown in this paper could explain the cause for the outstanding atomization characteristics of the swirl type injector, which are caused by cavitation in the nozzle hole.
Journal Article

Transient Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in the EGR Cooler

EGR is a proven technology used to reduce NOx formation in both compression and spark ignition engines by reducing the combustion temperature. In order to further increase its efficiency the recirculated gases are subjected to cooling. However, this leads to a higher load on the cooling system of the engine, thus requiring a larger radiator. In the case of turbocharged engines the large variations of the pressures, especially in the exhaust manifold, produce a highly pulsating EGR flow leading to non-steady-state heat transfer in the cooler. The current research presents a method of determining the pulsating flow field and the instantaneous heat transfer in the EGR heat exchanger. The processes are simulated using the CFD code FIRE (AVL) and the results are subjected to validation by comparison with the experimental data obtained on a 2.5 liter, four cylinder, common rail and turbocharged diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Transient Cavitating Flow Simulations Inside a 2-D VCO Nozzle Using the Space-Time CE/SE Method

Cavitating flows inside a two-dimensional valve covered orifice (VCO) nozzle were simulated by using the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CE/SE) method in conjunction with a homogeneous equilibrium cavitation model. As a validation for present model, cavitation over a NACA0015 hydrofoil was predicted and compared with previous simulation results as well as experimental observations. The model was then used to investigate the effects on internal cavitating flows of different nozzle design parameters, such as the hole size, hole aspect-ratio, hydro-erosion radius, and orifice inclination. Under different conditions, cavitating flows through fuel injectors generated hydraulic flip, supercavitation, full cavitation, and cyclical cavitation phenomena, which are commonly observed in experiments.
Technical Paper

Transfer Function Development in Design for Six Sigma Framework - Part I

Abstract Transfer functions, one of core components in Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), provide the needed relationships between design, process and materials parameters and the CTQs (Critical-to-Quality characteristics) in the product and process development cycle. Transfer function provides direct method for understanding and representing an over all product and process function. Transfer function also provides a strategy for customer voice cascade, function decomposition, physical modeling and concept generation. The concept of transfer function is not new. However, the development of transfer function is not trivial and is a creative and challenging task. In part I of this paper, we will discuss how to develop a transfer function in the DFSS framework. In part II of this paper, we devote our efforts in the discussion of selecting the best transfer function for design evaluation and optimization.
Technical Paper

Time Series Modeling of Terrain Profiles

Every time we measure the terrain profiles we would get a different set of data due to the measuring errors and due to the fact that the linear tracks on which the measuring vehicle travels can not be exactly the same every time. However the data collected at different times from the same terrain should share the similar intrinsic properties. Hence it is natural to consider statistical modeling of the terrain profiles. In this paper we shall use the time series models with time being the distance from the starting point. We receive data from the Belgian Block and the Perryman3 testing tracks. The Belgian Block data are shown to behave like a uniformly modulated process([7]), i.e. it is the product of a deterministic function and a stationary process. The modeling of the profiles can be done by estimating the deterministic function and fit the stationary process with a well-known ARMA model. The Perryman3 data are more irregular.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Variable Load Energy Absorbers on the Biodynamic Response of Cadavers

Abstract Several types of energy absorbers were tested on a sled simulating a crash deceleration using instrumented, seated erect dummies and cadavers. The energy absorbers were mechanical load limiting devices which attenuated the impact by yielding or tearing of metal. Their principal effects were to reduce the peak deceleration sustained by the occupant with the expected reduction in restraint forces. Constant load level energy absorbers were found to be unattractive because they can easily “bottom out” causing forces and body strains which could be much higher than those without absorbers. Head accelerations were significantly reduced by the energy absorbers as well as some body strain. However, spinal strains in the cadaver were not significantly reduced. They appear to be not only a function of the peak deceleration level but also of the duration of the pulse.
Journal Article

The Effect of HCHO Addition on Combustion in an Optically Accessible Diesel Engine Fueled with JP-8

Under the borderline autoignition conditions experienced during cold-starting of diesel engines, the amount and composition of residual gases may play a deterministic role. Among the intermediate species produced by misfiring and partially firing cycles, formaldehyde (HCHO) is produced in significant enough amounts and is sufficiently stable to persist through the exhaust and intake strokes to kinetically affect autoignition of the following engine cycle. In this work, the effect of HCHO addition at various phases of autoignition of n-heptane-air mixtures is kinetically modeled. Results show that HCHO has a retarding effect on the earliest low-temperature heat release (LTHR) phase, largely by competition for hydroxyl (OH) radicals which inhibits fuel decomposition. Conversely, post-LTHR, the presence of HCHO accelerates the occurrence of high-temperature ignition.
Journal Article

The Dimensional Model of Driver Demand: Visual-Manual Tasks

Abstract Many metrics have been used in an attempt to predict the effects of secondary tasks on driving behavior. Such metrics often give rise to seemingly paradoxical results, with one metric suggesting increased demand and another metric suggesting decreased demand for the same task. For example, for some tasks, drivers maintain their lane well yet detect events relatively poorly. For other tasks, drivers maintain their lane relatively poorly yet detect events relatively well. These seeming paradoxes are not time-accuracy trade-offs or experimental artifacts, because for other tasks, drivers do both well. The paradoxes are resolved if driver demand is modeled in two orthogonal dimensions rather than a single “driver workload” dimension. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the published data from four simulator, track, and open road studies of visual-manual secondary task effects on driving.
Journal Article

The Dimensional Model of Driver Demand: Extension to Auditory-Vocal and Mixed-Mode Tasks

Abstract The Dimensional Model of Driver Demand is extended to include Auditory-Vocal (i.e., pure “voice” tasks), and Mixed-Mode tasks (i.e., a combination of Auditory-Vocal mode with visual-only, or with Visual-Manual modes). The extended model was validated with data from 24 participants using the 2014 Toyota Corolla infotainment system in a video-based surrogate driving venue. Twenty-two driver performance metrics were collected, including total eyes-off-road time (TEORT), mean single glance duration (MSGD), and proportion of long single glances (LGP). Other key metrics included response time (RT) and miss rate to a Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT). The 22 metrics were simplified using Principal Component Analysis to two dimensions. The major dimension, explaining 60% of total variance, we interpret as the attentional effects of cognitive demand. The minor dimension, explaining 20% of total variance, we interpret as physical demand.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Model for the Study of Head Injury

Experiments have revealed that the brain of the experimental animal behaves elastically in response to dynamic forces in situ. The response of the skull of the human cadaver has been investigated by means of static load-deflection tests and impact and mechanical impedance tests. This information has been used to construct a two-dimensional head model consisting of a polyester resin shell reinforced with fiberglas with plexiglass sides; a clear silicone gel brain; and spinal cord simulated by a plexiglass tube containing silicone gel supported by a piston-spring assembly. Several frames taken from motion pictures recorded at 7,000 frames/sec. show how pressure gradients in the model are displayed by observing the growth and location of bubbles during impact.
Technical Paper

The Determination of Response Characteristics of the Head with Emphasis on Mechanical Impedance Techniques

Certain physical characteristics such as apparent mass and stiffness influence the dynamic response of the head and thereby the degree of trauma suffered from impact with another body. These characteristics are a function of frequency and can be determined by mechanical impedance measurement techniques. A force generator was attached directly to the skull and the force input and resulting motion at the point of attachment were measured respectively by a force and acceleration transducer. The magnitude as well as phase angle between these two vectors were measured over the frequency range from 5 to 5,000 Hz. A plot of the ratio of force and acceleration vs. frequency and phase angle vs. frequency on a nomograph reveal that both the apparent mass and stiffness of the head vary markedly from static values, and with location.
Journal Article

The Combined Effect of HCHO and C2H4 Addition on Combustion in an Optically Accessible Diesel Engine Fueled with JP-8

Misfiring or partial combustion during diesel engine operation results in the production of partial oxidation products such as ethylene (C₂H₄), carbon monoxide and aldehydes, in particular formaldehyde (HCHO). These compounds remain in the cylinder as residual gases to participate in the following engine cycle. Carbon monoxide and formaldehyde have been shown to exhibit a dual nature, retarding ignition in one temperature regime, yet decreasing ignition delay periods of hydrocarbon mixtures as temperatures exceed 1000°K. Largely unknown is the synergistic effects of such species. In this work, varying amounts of C₂H₄ and HCHO are added to the intake air of a naturally aspirated optical diesel engine and their combined effect on autoignition and subsequent combustion is examined. To observe the effect of these dopants on the low-temperature heat release (LTHR), ultraviolet chemiluminescent images are recorded using intensified CCD cameras.
Technical Paper

The Burning Velocity in a CFR Engine with Different Turbulent Flow Fields Generated by Intake Valves

An equation has been derived to calculate the burning velocity in a CFR engine from the measured flame speed under different turbulent flow fields. The turbulence is generated during the intake stroke as the fresh charge flows through different perforated 360° shrouded intake valves. The shrouds have holes of different sizes, but of the same total flow area. Results show that these valves decrease the cycle-to-cycle variation and produce higher burning velocities than conventional valves, particularly at higher engine speeds. The burning velocity depends on the Reynolds number as well as the turbulence scale.