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Technical Paper

“OPERAS” In Advanced Diesel Engines for Commercial and Military Applications

Advanced diesel engines developed for the commercial market need to be adapted to the military requirements by OPERAS (Optimizing the injection pressure P, the Exhaust gas recirculation E, injection events Retard and/or Advance and the swirl ratio S). The different after treatment devices, already used or expected to be applied to diesel engines, require feed gases of appropriate properties for their efficient operation. To produce these gases some OPERAS are needed to control the diesel combustion process. Since military vehicles do not need the after treatment devices, the OPERAS of the commercial engines should be modified to meet the military requirements for high power density, better fuel economy, reduction of parasitic losses caused by the cooled EGR system, and reduction of invisible black and white smoke in the field.
Technical Paper

Visualization of Direct-Injection Gasoline Spray and Wall-impingement Inside a Motoring Engine

Two-dimensional pulse-laser Mie scattering visualization of the direct-injection gasoline fuel sprays and wall impingement processes was carried out inside a single-cylinder optically accessible engine under motoring condition. The injectors have been first characterized inside a pressurized chamber using identical technique, as well as high-speed microscopic visualization and phase Doppler measurement techniques. The effects of injector cone angle, location, and injection timings on the wall impingement processes were investigated. It was found that the fuel vaporization is not complete at the constant engine speed tested. Fuel spray droplets were observed to disperse wider in the motored engine when compared with an isothermal quiescent ambient conditions. The extent of wall-impingement varies significantly with the injector mounting position and spray cone angle; however, its effect can be reduced to some extent by optimizing the injection timing.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Analysis of the Impingement Processes of a Narrow-Cone DI Gasoline Spray

The direct injection spray-wall interactions were investigated experimentally using high-speed laser-sheet imaging, shadowgraphy, wetted footprints and phase Doppler interferometry techniques. A narrow-cone high-pressure swirl injector is used to inject iso-octane fuel onto a plate, at three different impact angles inside a pressurized chamber. Heated air and plate conditions were compared with unheated cases. Injection interval was also varied in the heated case to compare dry- and wet- wall impingement behaviors. High-speed macroscopic Mie-scattering images showed that presence of wall and air temperature has only minor effect on the bulk spray structure and penetration speed for the narrow-cone injector tested. The overall bulk motions of the spray plume and its spatial position at a given time are basically unaffected until a few millimeters before impacting the wall.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Public Vehicle Travel Survey Data Sets for Vehicle Driving Pattern and Fuel Economy Studies

Realistic vehicle fuel economy studies require real-world vehicle driving behavior data along with various factors affecting the fuel consumption. Such studies require data with various vehicles usages for prolonged periods of time. A project dedicated to collecting such data is an enormous and costly undertaking. Alternatively, we propose to utilize two publicly available vehicle travel survey data sets. One is Puget Sound Travel Survey collected using GPS devices in 484 vehicles between 2004 and 2006. Over 750,000 trips were recorded with a 10-second time resolution. The data were obtained to study travel behavior changes in response to time-and-location-variable road tolling. The other is Atlanta Regional Commission Travel Survey conducted for a comprehensive study of the demographic and travel behavior characteristics of residents within the study area.
Technical Paper

Transient Simulation of DGI Engine Injector with Needle Movement

Utilization of direct injection systems is one of the most promising technologies for fuel economy improvement for SI engine powered passenger cars. Engine performance is essentially influenced by the characteristics of the injection equipment. This paper will present CFD analyses of a swirl type GDI injector carried out with the Multiphase Module of AVL's FIRE/SWIFT CFD code. The simulations considered three phases (liquid fuel, fuel vapor, air) and mesh movement. Thus the transient behavior of the injector can be observed. The flow phenomena known from measurement and shown by previous simulation work [2, 7, 10, 11] were reproduced. In particular the simulations shown in this paper could explain the cause for the outstanding atomization characteristics of the swirl type injector, which are caused by cavitation in the nozzle hole.
Journal Article

The Effect of HCHO Addition on Combustion in an Optically Accessible Diesel Engine Fueled with JP-8

Under the borderline autoignition conditions experienced during cold-starting of diesel engines, the amount and composition of residual gases may play a deterministic role. Among the intermediate species produced by misfiring and partially firing cycles, formaldehyde (HCHO) is produced in significant enough amounts and is sufficiently stable to persist through the exhaust and intake strokes to kinetically affect autoignition of the following engine cycle. In this work, the effect of HCHO addition at various phases of autoignition of n-heptane-air mixtures is kinetically modeled. Results show that HCHO has a retarding effect on the earliest low-temperature heat release (LTHR) phase, largely by competition for hydroxyl (OH) radicals which inhibits fuel decomposition. Conversely, post-LTHR, the presence of HCHO accelerates the occurrence of high-temperature ignition.
Journal Article

The Combined Effect of HCHO and C2H4 Addition on Combustion in an Optically Accessible Diesel Engine Fueled with JP-8

Misfiring or partial combustion during diesel engine operation results in the production of partial oxidation products such as ethylene (C₂H₄), carbon monoxide and aldehydes, in particular formaldehyde (HCHO). These compounds remain in the cylinder as residual gases to participate in the following engine cycle. Carbon monoxide and formaldehyde have been shown to exhibit a dual nature, retarding ignition in one temperature regime, yet decreasing ignition delay periods of hydrocarbon mixtures as temperatures exceed 1000°K. Largely unknown is the synergistic effects of such species. In this work, varying amounts of C₂H₄ and HCHO are added to the intake air of a naturally aspirated optical diesel engine and their combined effect on autoignition and subsequent combustion is examined. To observe the effect of these dopants on the low-temperature heat release (LTHR), ultraviolet chemiluminescent images are recorded using intensified CCD cameras.
Technical Paper

Temperature Impact on Modeling and Control of Lean NOx Trap

Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine has a significant fuel economy improvement over the traditional port fuel injection engine. The tradeoff for this benefit is excessive exhaust emissions, especially NOx. Three-way-catalyst (TWC) is inefficient to treat NOx emission during lean operation. So Lean NOx Trap (LNT) is invented for NOx aftertreatment and it has both storage mode and purge mode. Research on modeling and control of LNT has been conducted, but it is still lack of the essential information on the temperature effect. This research focuses on the impact of trap temperature on LNT storage time, purge time and fuel economy. The mechanism of temperature effect on LNT is investigated at first. Then the temperature control strategy based on fuel economy improvement is proposed.
Technical Paper

Spray Dynamics of High Pressure Fuel Injectors for DI Gasoline Engines

An experimental study was made to investigate the spray characteristics of high pressure fuel injectors for direct-injection gasoline engines. The global spray development process was visualized using two-dimensional laser Mie scattering technique. The spray atomization process was characterized by Phase Doppler particle analyzer. The transient spray development process was investigated under different fuel injection conditions as a function of the time after the fuel injection start. The effects of injector design, fuel injection pressure, injection duration, ambient pressure, and fuel property on the spray breakup and atomization characteristics were studied in details. Two clear counter-rotating recirculation zones are observed at the later stage or after the end of fuel injection inside the fuel sprays with a small momentum. The circumferential distribution of the spray from the large-angle injector is quite irregular and looks like a star with several wings projected out.
Technical Paper

Spectral Analysis and Chemiluminescence Imaging of Hydrogen Addition to HSDI Diesel Combustion Under Conventional and Low-Temperature Conditions

Late-injection low-temperature diesel combustion is found to further reduce NOx and soot simultaneously. The combustion phenomena and detail chemical kinetics are studied with high speed spray/combustion images and time-resolved spectroscopy analysis in a rapid compression machine (RCM) with a small bowl combustion chamber. High swirl and high EGR condition can be achieved in the RCM; variable injection pressure and injection timing is supplied by the high-pressure common-rail fuel injection system. Effect of small amount of premix hydrogen gas on diesel combustion is also studied in the RCM. A hydrogen injector is located in the upstream of air inlet for delivery small amount and premixed hydrogen gas into cylinder just before the compression stroke. The ignition delay is studied both from the pressure curves and the chemiluminescence images.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Dual-Fuel-CI and Single-Fuel-SI Engine Combustion Fueled with CNG

With increasing interest to reduce the dependency on gasoline and diesel, alternative energy source like compressed natural gas (CNG) is a viable option for internal combustion engines. Spark-ignited (SI) CNG engine is the simplest way to utilize CNG in engines, but direct injection (DI) Diesel-CNG dual-fuel engine is known to offer improvement in combustion efficiency and reduction in exhaust gases. Dual-fuel engine has characteristics similar to both SI engine and diesel engine which makes the combustion process more complex. This paper reports the computational fluid dynamics simulation of both DI dual-fuel compression ignition (CI) and SI CNG engines. In diesel-CNG dual-fuel engine simulations and comparison to experiments, attention was on ignition delay, transition from auto-ignition to flame propagation and heat released from the combustion of diesel and gaseous fuel, as well as relevant pollutants emissions.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurements of Direct-Injection Gasoline Fuel Sprays in Near-Nozzle Region Using Synchrotron X-Ray

A quantitative and time-resolved technique has been developed to probe the dense spray structure of direct-injection (DI) gasoline sprays in near-nozzle region. This technique uses the line-of-sight absorption of monochromatic x-rays from a synchrotron source to measure the fuel mass with time resolution better than 1 μs. The small scattering cross-section of fuel at x-rays regime allows direct measurements of spray structure that are difficult with most visible-light optical techniques. Appropriate models were developed to determine the fuel density as a function of time.
Journal Article

Properties of Butanol-Biodiesel-ULSD Ternary Mixtures

The use of butanol as an alternative biofuel blend component for conventional diesel fuel has been under extensive investigation. However, some fuel properties such as cetane number and lubricity fall below the accepted values as described by the ASTM D 975 diesel specifications. Blending 10% butanol with #2 ULSD decreases the cetane number by 7% (from 41.6 to 39.0). At higher butanol blend levels, i.e., 20% v/v, the cetane number decrease cannot be compensated for; even with the addition of a 2000 ppm level commercial cetane improver. The decreased cetane number, or in other words, increased ignition delay, can be attributed to the increased blend level of low cetane butanol as well as the critical physical properties for better atomization of fuels during auto ignition such as viscosity. The kinematic viscosity dropped sharply with increasing butanol blend level up to 25 % v/v, then increased with further increase of butanol blend level.
Technical Paper

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Reengineering of a Conventional Sedan for EcoCAR2

The Wayne State University student team reengineered a mid-sized sedan into a functional plug-in hybrid electric vehicle as participants in the EcoCAR 2 competition sponsored by the US Department of Energy and managed by Argonne National Laboratory. The competition goals included reducing petroleum usage, emissions, and energy consumption through implementing advanced vehicle technologies. During the competition, the team did plug-in charging of the 19 kWh high voltage traction battery, drove in pure electric mode (engine off) until the battery was depleted, then switched to hybrid mode and continued driving by using E85 from the fuel tank. The pure electric mode vehicle driving range was 48 km [30 miles] while pulling an emissions instrumented test trailer and projected to be 58 km [36 miles] without the test trailer load for the competition's city/highway blend drive cycle.
Journal Article

Performance of an IDI Engine Fueled with Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Formulated from Cotton Seeds Oils

This study evaluates the performance of an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine fueled with cotton seed biodiesel while assessing the engine's multi-fuel capability. Millions of tons of cotton seeds are available in the south of the US every year and approximately 10% of oil contained in the seeds can be extracted and transesterified. An investigation of combustion, emissions, and efficiency was performed using mass ratios of 20-50% cotton seed biodiesel (CS20 and CS50) in ultra-low sulfur diesel #2 (ULSD#2). Each investigation was run at 2400 rpm with loads of 4.2 - 6.3 IMEP and compared to the reference fuel ULDS#2. The ignition delay ranged in a narrow interval of 0.8-0.97ms across the blends and the heat release rate showed comparable values and trends for all fuel blends. The maximum volume averaged cylinder temperature increased by approximately 100K with each increase in 1 bar IMEP load but the maximum remained constants across the blends.
Technical Paper

Performance of JP-8 Unified Fuel in a Small Bore Indirect Injection Diesel Engine for APU Applications

Recent legislation entitled “The Single Fuel Forward Policy” mandates that all vehicles deployed by the US military be operable with aviation fuel (JP-8). Therefore, the authors are conducting an investigation into the influence of JP-8 on a diesel engine's performance. The injection, combustion, and performance of JP-8, 20-50% by weight in ULSD (diesel no.2) mixtures (J20-J50) produced at room temperature, were investigated in a small indirect injection, high compression ratio (24.5), 77mm separate combustion chamber diesel engine. The effectiveness of JP8 for application in an auxiliary power unit (APU) at continuous operation (100% load) of 4.78bar bmep/2400rpm was investigated. The blends had an ignition delay of approximately 1.02ms that increased slightly in relation to the amount of JP-8 introduced. J50 and diesel no.2 exhibited similar characteristics of heat release, the premixed phase being combined with the diffusion combustion.
Journal Article

Particulate Matter Characterization Studies in an HSDI Diesel Engine under Conventional and LTC Regime

Several mechanisms are discussed to understand the particulate matter (PM) characterization in a high speed, direct injection, single cylinder diesel engine using low sulfur diesel fuel. This includes their formation, size distribution and number density. Experiments were conducted over a wide range of injection pressures, EGR rates, injection timings and swirl ratios, therefore covering both conventional and low temperature combustion regimes. A micro dilution tunnel was used to immediately dilute a small part of the exhaust gases by hot air. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) was used to measure the particulate size distribution and number density. Particulate mass was measured with a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM). Analysis was made of the root cause of PM characterization and their relationship with the combustion process under different operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Parallel-Through-The-Road Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Modeling and Simulation by Wayne State University for EcoCAR2

The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR2 student team designed, modeled, Model-In-the-Loop (MIL) tested, Software-In-the-Loop (SIL) simulation tested, and Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation tested the team's conversion design for taking a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu and converting it into a Parallel-Through-The-Road (PTTR) plug-in hybrid. The 2013 Malibu is a conventional Front Wheel Drive (FWD) vehicle and the team's conversion design keeps the conventional FWD and adds a Rear Wheel Drive (RWD) powertrain consisting of an electric motor, a single speed reduction gearbox and a differential to drive the rear wheels -where none of these previously existed on the rear wheels. The RWD addition creates the PTTR hybrid powertrain architecture of two driven axles where the mechanical torque path connection between the two powertrains is through the road, rather than a mechanical torque path through gears, chains, or shafts.
Technical Paper

Parallel-Through-The-Road Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Design Development Process

The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR 2 Team designed the conversion of a GM donated 2013 Chevrolet Malibu to a Parallel-Through-The-Road (PTTR) Plug-In Hybrid vehicle within a 9 month timeframe. This fast prototyping project used the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Development Process (EVDP). Various tradeoffs were made to meet all competition requirements and to make the vehicle as competitive as possible within budget, time and experience limitations. The chosen PTTR architecture, nicknamed by the team as “E2D2” (Ethanol-Electric Dual-Drivetrain), provides up to 35.7 electric only miles and a fuel economy of 60 miles per gallons gasoline equivalent (mpgge) or 3.96 liters gasoline equivalent (lge) per one hundred km. This is accomplished using an E85 engine-driven front traction system and a battery-electric-motors-driven rear traction system. The team developed the control system and designed the packaging and integration of all required components including the Energy Storage System (ESS).
Technical Paper

Optimization for Plug-In Vehicles - Waste Heat Recovery from the Electric Traction Motor

The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR2 student team is investigating powertrain optimizations as a part of their participation in the EcoCAR2 design competition for the conversion of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in hybrid. EcoCAR2 is the current three-year Department of Energy (DoE) Advanced Vehicle Technical Competition (AVTC) for 15 select university student teams competing on designing, building, and then optimizing their Plug-In Hybrid conversions of GM donated vehicles. WSU's powertrain design provides for approximately 56-64 km (35-40 miles) of electric driving before the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) powertrain is needed. When the ICE is started, the ICE traditionally goes through a cold start with the engine, transmission, and final drive all at ambient temperature. The ICE powertrain components are most efficient when warmed up to their normal operating temperature, typically around 90-100 °C.