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Technical Paper

“OPERAS” In Advanced Diesel Engines for Commercial and Military Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0927
Advanced diesel engines developed for the commercial market need to be adapted to the military requirements by OPERAS (Optimizing the injection pressure P, the Exhaust gas recirculation E, injection events Retard and/or Advance and the swirl ratio S). The different after treatment devices, already used or expected to be applied to diesel engines, require feed gases of appropriate properties for their efficient operation. To produce these gases some OPERAS are needed to control the diesel combustion process. Since military vehicles do not need the after treatment devices, the OPERAS of the commercial engines should be modified to meet the military requirements for high power density, better fuel economy, reduction of parasitic losses caused by the cooled EGR system, and reduction of invisible black and white smoke in the field.
Technical Paper

Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0354
As Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (EVs and HEVs) become more prevalent, there is a need to change the power source from gasoline on the vehicle to electricity from the grid in order to mitigate requirements for onboard energy storage (battery weight) as well as to reduce dependency on oil by increasing dependency on the grid (our coal, gas, and renewable energy instead of their oil). Traditional systems for trains and buses rely on physical contact to transfer electrical energy to vehicles in motion. Until recently, conventional magnetically coupled systems required a gap of less than a centimeter. This is not practical for vehicles of the future.
Technical Paper

What Fuel Economy Improvement Technologies Could Aid the Competitiveness of Light-Duty Natural Gas Vehicles?

1999-05-03
1999-01-1511
The question of whether increasing the fuel economy of light-duty natural gas fueled vehicles can improve their economic competitiveness in the U.S. market, and help the US Department of Energy meet stated goals for such vehicles is explored. Key trade-offs concerning costs, exhaust emissions and other issues are presented for a number of possible advanced engine designs. Projections of fuel economy improvements for a wide range of lean-burn engine technologies have been developed. It appears that compression ignition technologies can give the best potential fuel economy, but are less competitive for light-duty vehicles due to high engine cost. Lean-burn spark ignition technologies are more applicable to light-duty vehicles due to lower overall cost. Meeting Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle standards with efficient lean-burn natural gas engines is a key challenge.
Technical Paper

Visualization of Direct-Injection Gasoline Spray and Wall-impingement Inside a Motoring Engine

1998-10-19
982702
Two-dimensional pulse-laser Mie scattering visualization of the direct-injection gasoline fuel sprays and wall impingement processes was carried out inside a single-cylinder optically accessible engine under motoring condition. The injectors have been first characterized inside a pressurized chamber using identical technique, as well as high-speed microscopic visualization and phase Doppler measurement techniques. The effects of injector cone angle, location, and injection timings on the wall impingement processes were investigated. It was found that the fuel vaporization is not complete at the constant engine speed tested. Fuel spray droplets were observed to disperse wider in the motored engine when compared with an isothermal quiescent ambient conditions. The extent of wall-impingement varies significantly with the injector mounting position and spray cone angle; however, its effect can be reduced to some extent by optimizing the injection timing.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Analysis of the Impingement Processes of a Narrow-Cone DI Gasoline Spray

2001-05-07
2001-01-2023
The direct injection spray-wall interactions were investigated experimentally using high-speed laser-sheet imaging, shadowgraphy, wetted footprints and phase Doppler interferometry techniques. A narrow-cone high-pressure swirl injector is used to inject iso-octane fuel onto a plate, at three different impact angles inside a pressurized chamber. Heated air and plate conditions were compared with unheated cases. Injection interval was also varied in the heated case to compare dry- and wet- wall impingement behaviors. High-speed macroscopic Mie-scattering images showed that presence of wall and air temperature has only minor effect on the bulk spray structure and penetration speed for the narrow-cone injector tested. The overall bulk motions of the spray plume and its spatial position at a given time are basically unaffected until a few millimeters before impacting the wall.
Journal Article

Vehicle Efficiency and Tractive Work: Rate of Change for the Past Decade and Accelerated Progress Required for U.S. Fuel Economy and CO2 Regulations

2016-04-05
2016-01-0909
A major driving force for change in light-duty vehicle design and technology is the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) joint final rules concerning Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for model years 2017 (MY17) through 2025 (MY25) passenger cars and light trucks. The chief goal of this current study is to compare the already rapid pace of fuel economy improvement and technological change over the previous decade to the required rate of change to meet regulations over the next decade. EPA and NHTSA comparisons of the model year 2005 (MY05) US light-duty vehicle fleet to the model year 2015 (MY15) fleet shows improved fuel economy (FE) of approximately 26% using the same FE estimating method mandated for CAFE regulations. Future predictions by EPA and NHTSA concerning ensemble fleet fuel economy are examined as an indicator of required vehicle rate-of-change.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Public Vehicle Travel Survey Data Sets for Vehicle Driving Pattern and Fuel Economy Studies

2017-03-28
2017-01-0232
Realistic vehicle fuel economy studies require real-world vehicle driving behavior data along with various factors affecting the fuel consumption. Such studies require data with various vehicles usages for prolonged periods of time. A project dedicated to collecting such data is an enormous and costly undertaking. Alternatively, we propose to utilize two publicly available vehicle travel survey data sets. One is Puget Sound Travel Survey collected using GPS devices in 484 vehicles between 2004 and 2006. Over 750,000 trips were recorded with a 10-second time resolution. The data were obtained to study travel behavior changes in response to time-and-location-variable road tolling. The other is Atlanta Regional Commission Travel Survey conducted for a comprehensive study of the demographic and travel behavior characteristics of residents within the study area.
Technical Paper

ULSD and B20 Hydrocarbon Impacts on EGR Cooler Performance and Degradation

2009-11-02
2009-01-2802
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has emerged as an important issue in diesel engine development. Uncertainty about the level of impact that fuel chemistry may have upon this issue has resulted in a need to investigate the cooler fouling process with emerging non-traditional fuel sources to gage their impact on the process. This study reports experiments using both ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel (B20) at elevated exhaust hydrocarbon conditions to investigate the EGR cooler fouling process. The results show that there is little difference between the degradation in cooler effectiveness for ULSD and B20 at identical conditions. At lower coolant temperatures, B20 exhibits elevated organic fractions in the deposits compared with ULSD, but this does not appear to lead to incremental performance degradation under the conditions studied.
Technical Paper

Transient Simulation of DGI Engine Injector with Needle Movement

2002-10-21
2002-01-2663
Utilization of direct injection systems is one of the most promising technologies for fuel economy improvement for SI engine powered passenger cars. Engine performance is essentially influenced by the characteristics of the injection equipment. This paper will present CFD analyses of a swirl type GDI injector carried out with the Multiphase Module of AVL's FIRE/SWIFT CFD code. The simulations considered three phases (liquid fuel, fuel vapor, air) and mesh movement. Thus the transient behavior of the injector can be observed. The flow phenomena known from measurement and shown by previous simulation work [2, 7, 10, 11] were reproduced. In particular the simulations shown in this paper could explain the cause for the outstanding atomization characteristics of the swirl type injector, which are caused by cavitation in the nozzle hole.
Technical Paper

The Use of Small Engines as Surrogates for Research in Aftertreatment, Combustion, and Fuels

2006-11-13
2006-32-0035
In this research, small, single cylinder engines have been used to simulate larger engines in the areas of aftertreatment, combustion, and fuel formulation effects. The use of small engines reduces overall research cost and allows more rapid experiments to be run. Because component costs are lower, it is also possible to investigate more variations and to sacrifice components for materials characterization and for subsequent experiments. Using small engines in this way is very successful in some cases. In other cases, limitations of the engines influence the results and need to be accounted for in the experimental design and data analysis. Some of the results achieved or limitations found may be of interest to the small engine market, and this paper is offered as a summary of the authors' research in these areas. Research is being conducted in two areas. First, small engines are being used to study the rapid aging and poisoning of exhaust aftertreatment catalysts.
Technical Paper

The Use of Fuel Chemistry and Property Variations to Evaluate the Robustness of Variable Compression Ratio as a Control Method for Gasoline HCCI

2007-04-16
2007-01-0224
On a gasoline engine platform, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) holds the promise of improved fuel economy and greatly reduced engine-out NOx emissions, without an increase in particulate matter emissions. In this investigation, a variable compression ratio (CR) engine equipped with a throttle and intake air heating was used to test the robustness of these control parameters to accommodate a series of fuels blended from reference gasoline, straight run refinery naphtha, and ethanol. Higher compression ratios allowed for operation with higher octane fuels, but operation could not be achieved with the reference gasoline, even at the highest compression ratio. Compression ratio and intake heat could be used separately or together to modulate combustion. A lambda of 2 provided optimum fuel efficiency, even though some throttling was necessary to achieve this condition. Ethanol did not appear to assist combustion, although only two ethanol-containing fuels were evaluated.
Technical Paper

The Roles of Phosphorus and Soot on the Deactivation of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

2009-04-20
2009-01-0628
The deactivation of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) by soot contamination and lube-oil derived phosphorus poisoning is investigated. Pt/CeO2/γ-AI2O3 DOCs aged using three different protocols developed by the authors and six high mileage field-returned DOCs of similar formulation are evaluated for THC and CO oxidation performance using a bench-flow reactor. Collectively, these catalysts exhibit a variety of phosphorus and soot morphologies contributing to performance deactivation.
Technical Paper

The Relationships of Diesel Fuel Properties, Chemistry, and HCCI Engine Performance as Determined by Principal Components Analysis

2007-10-29
2007-01-4059
In order to meet common fuel specifications such as cetane number and volatility, a refinery must blend a number of refinery stocks derived from various process units in the refinery. Fuel chemistry can be significantly altered in meeting fuel specifications. Additionally, fuel specifications are seldom changed in isolation, and the drive to meet one specification may alter other specifications. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines depend on the kinetic behavior of a fuel to achieve reliable ignition and are expected to be more dependent on fuel specifications and chemistry than today's conventional engines. Regression analysis can help in determining the underlying relationships between fuel specifications, chemistry, and engine performance. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used as an adjunct to regression analysis in this work, because of its ability to deal with co-linear variables and potential to uncover ‘hidden’ relationships between the variables.
Journal Article

The Reduced Effectiveness of EGR to Mitigate Knock at High Loads in Boosted SI Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0061
Numerous studies have demonstrated that exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can attenuate knock propensity in spark ignition (SI) engines at naturally aspirated or lightly boosted conditions [1]. In this study, we investigate the role of cooled EGR under higher load conditions with multiple fuel compositions, where highly retarded combustion phasing typical of modern SI engines was used. It was found that under these conditions, EGR attenuation of knock is greatly reduced, where EGR doesn’t allow significant combustion phasing advance as it does under lighter load conditions. Detailed combustion analysis shows that when EGR is added, the polytropic coefficient increases causing the compressive pressure and temperature to increase. At sufficiently highly boosted conditions, the increase in polytropic coefficient and additional trapped mass from EGR can sufficiently reduce fuel ignition delay to overcome knock attenuation effects.
Journal Article

The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on the Knock Limit of “E85”

2013-04-08
2013-01-0888
Ethanol is a very attractive fuel from an end-use perspective because it has a high chemical octane number and a high latent heat of vaporization. When an engine is optimized to take advantage of these fuel properties, both efficiency and power can be increased through higher compression ratio, direct fuel injection, higher levels of boost, and a reduced need for enrichment to mitigate knock or protect the engine and aftertreatment system from overheating. The ASTM D5798 specification for high level ethanol blends, commonly called “E85,” underwent a major revision in 2011. The minimum ethanol content was revised downward from 68 vol% to 51 vol%, which combined with the use of low octane blending streams such as natural gasoline introduces the possibility of a lower octane “E85” fuel.
Technical Paper

The Electric Drive Advanced Battery (EDAB) Project: Development and Utilization of an On-Road Energy Storage System Testbed

2013-04-08
2013-01-1533
As energy storage system (ESS) technology advances, vehicle testing in both laboratory and on-road settings is needed to characterize the performance of state-of-the-art technology and also identify areas for future improvement. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), through its support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), is collaborating with ECOtality North America and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to conduct on-road testing of advanced ESSs for the Electric Drive Advanced Battery (EDAB) project. The project objective is to test a variety of advanced ESSs that are close to commercialization in a controlled environment that simulates usage within the intended application with the variability of on-road driving to quantify the ESS capabilities, limitations, and performance fade over cycling of the ESS.
Journal Article

The Effect of HCHO Addition on Combustion in an Optically Accessible Diesel Engine Fueled with JP-8

2010-10-25
2010-01-2136
Under the borderline autoignition conditions experienced during cold-starting of diesel engines, the amount and composition of residual gases may play a deterministic role. Among the intermediate species produced by misfiring and partially firing cycles, formaldehyde (HCHO) is produced in significant enough amounts and is sufficiently stable to persist through the exhaust and intake strokes to kinetically affect autoignition of the following engine cycle. In this work, the effect of HCHO addition at various phases of autoignition of n-heptane-air mixtures is kinetically modeled. Results show that HCHO has a retarding effect on the earliest low-temperature heat release (LTHR) phase, largely by competition for hydroxyl (OH) radicals which inhibits fuel decomposition. Conversely, post-LTHR, the presence of HCHO accelerates the occurrence of high-temperature ignition.
Journal Article

The Combined Effect of HCHO and C2H4 Addition on Combustion in an Optically Accessible Diesel Engine Fueled with JP-8

2011-04-12
2011-01-1392
Misfiring or partial combustion during diesel engine operation results in the production of partial oxidation products such as ethylene (C₂H₄), carbon monoxide and aldehydes, in particular formaldehyde (HCHO). These compounds remain in the cylinder as residual gases to participate in the following engine cycle. Carbon monoxide and formaldehyde have been shown to exhibit a dual nature, retarding ignition in one temperature regime, yet decreasing ignition delay periods of hydrocarbon mixtures as temperatures exceed 1000°K. Largely unknown is the synergistic effects of such species. In this work, varying amounts of C₂H₄ and HCHO are added to the intake air of a naturally aspirated optical diesel engine and their combined effect on autoignition and subsequent combustion is examined. To observe the effect of these dopants on the low-temperature heat release (LTHR), ultraviolet chemiluminescent images are recorded using intensified CCD cameras.
Technical Paper

The Chemistry, Properties, and HCCI Combustion Behavior of Refinery Streams Derived from Canadian Oil Sands Crude

2008-10-06
2008-01-2406
Diesel fuels derived from different types of crude oil can exhibit different chemistry while still meeting market requirements and specifications. Oil sands derived fuels typically contain a larger proportion of cycloparaffinic compounds, which result from the cracking and hydrotreating of bitumens in the crude. In the current study, 17 refinery streams consisting of finished fuels and process streams were obtained from a refinery using 100% oil sands derived crude oil. All samples except one met the ULSD standard of 15 ppm sulfur. The samples were characterized for properties and chemistry and run in a simple premixed HCCI engine using intake heating for combustion phasing control. Results indicate that the streams could be equally well characterized by chemistry or properties, and some simple correlations are presented. Cetane number was found to relate mainly to mono-aromatic content and the cycloparaffins did not appear to possess any unique diesel related chemical effects.
Technical Paper

Temperature Impact on Modeling and Control of Lean NOx Trap

2003-03-03
2003-01-1163
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine has a significant fuel economy improvement over the traditional port fuel injection engine. The tradeoff for this benefit is excessive exhaust emissions, especially NOx. Three-way-catalyst (TWC) is inefficient to treat NOx emission during lean operation. So Lean NOx Trap (LNT) is invented for NOx aftertreatment and it has both storage mode and purge mode. Research on modeling and control of LNT has been conducted, but it is still lack of the essential information on the temperature effect. This research focuses on the impact of trap temperature on LNT storage time, purge time and fuel economy. The mechanism of temperature effect on LNT is investigated at first. Then the temperature control strategy based on fuel economy improvement is proposed.
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