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Technical Paper

Spray Dynamics of High Pressure Fuel Injectors for DI Gasoline Engines

An experimental study was made to investigate the spray characteristics of high pressure fuel injectors for direct-injection gasoline engines. The global spray development process was visualized using two-dimensional laser Mie scattering technique. The spray atomization process was characterized by Phase Doppler particle analyzer. The transient spray development process was investigated under different fuel injection conditions as a function of the time after the fuel injection start. The effects of injector design, fuel injection pressure, injection duration, ambient pressure, and fuel property on the spray breakup and atomization characteristics were studied in details. Two clear counter-rotating recirculation zones are observed at the later stage or after the end of fuel injection inside the fuel sprays with a small momentum. The circumferential distribution of the spray from the large-angle injector is quite irregular and looks like a star with several wings projected out.
Technical Paper

Spectral Analysis and Chemiluminescence Imaging of Hydrogen Addition to HSDI Diesel Combustion Under Conventional and Low-Temperature Conditions

Late-injection low-temperature diesel combustion is found to further reduce NOx and soot simultaneously. The combustion phenomena and detail chemical kinetics are studied with high speed spray/combustion images and time-resolved spectroscopy analysis in a rapid compression machine (RCM) with a small bowl combustion chamber. High swirl and high EGR condition can be achieved in the RCM; variable injection pressure and injection timing is supplied by the high-pressure common-rail fuel injection system. Effect of small amount of premix hydrogen gas on diesel combustion is also studied in the RCM. A hydrogen injector is located in the upstream of air inlet for delivery small amount and premixed hydrogen gas into cylinder just before the compression stroke. The ignition delay is studied both from the pressure curves and the chemiluminescence images.
Technical Paper

New Integrated “O.P.E.R.A.S.” Strategies for Low Emissions in HSDI Diesel Engines

Integrated control strategies for the O.P.E.R.A.S. (Optimization of injection Pressure, EGR ratio, injection Retard or Advance and Swirl ratio) are demonstrated. The strategies are based on an investigation of combustion and emissions in a small bore, high speed, direct injection diesel engine. The engine is equipped with a common rail injection system and is tested under simulated turbocharged engine conditions at two loads and speeds that represent two key operating points in a medium size HEV vehicle. A new phenomenological model is developed for the fuel distribution in the combustion chamber and the fractions that are injected prior to the development of the flame, injected in the flame or deposited on the walls. The investigation covered the effect of the different operating parameters on the fuel distribution, combustion and engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of EGR and Injection Pressure on Emissions in a High-Speed Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

Experimental data is used in conjunction with multi-dimensional modeling in a modified version of the KIVA-3V code to characterize the emissions behavior of a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine. Injection pressure and EGR are varied across a range of typical small-bore diesel operating conditions and the resulting soot-NOx tradeoff is analyzed. Good agreement is obtained between experimental and modeling trends; the HSDI engine shows increasing soot and decreasing NOx with higher EGR and lower injection pressure. The model also indicates that most of the NOx is formed in the region where the bulk of the initial heat release first takes place, both for zero and high EGR cases. The mechanism of NOx reduction with high EGR is shown to be primarily through a decrease in thermal NOx formation rate.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Spray Primary Break-up and Development for Different Nozzle Geometries

The nozzle configuration for an injector is known to have an important effect on the fuel atomization. A comprehensive experimental and numerical investigation has been performed to determine the influence of various internal geometries on the primary spray breakup and development using the electronically controlled high-pressure diesel injection systems. Different types of multi-hole minisac and VCO nozzles with cylindrical and tapered geometries, and different types of single-hole nozzles with defined grades of Hydro Grinding (HG) were investigated. The global characteristics of the spray, including spray angle, spray tip penetration and spray pattern were measured from the spray images with a high-speed drum camera. A long-distance microscope with a pulsed-laser as the optical shutter was used to magnify the diesel spray at the nozzle hole vicinity. A CFD analysis of the internal flow through various nozzle geometries has been carried out with a commercial code.
Technical Paper

Implications of 3-D Internal Flow Simulation on the Design of Inward-Opening Pressure-Swirl Injectors

A parametric study on the effects of critical injector design parameters of inwardly-opening pressure-swirl injectors was carried out using 3-D internal flow simulations. The pressure variation and the integrated momentum flux across the injector, as well as the flow distributions and turbulence structure at the nozzle exit were analyzed. The critical flow effects on the injector design identified are the swirler efficiency, discharge coefficient, and turbulence breakup effects on the spray structure. The study shows that as a unique class of injectors, pressure-swirl injectors is complicated in fluid mechanics and not sufficiently characterized or optimized. The swirler efficiency is characterized in terms of the trade-off relationship between the swirl-to-axial momentum-flux ratio and pressure drop across the swirler. The results show that swirl number is inversely proportional to discharge coefficient, and that hole diameter and swirler height is the most dominant parameters.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timings and Intake Port Flow Control on the In-Cylinder Wetted Fuel Footprints during PFI Engine Startup Process

Wall-wetting due to liquid fuel film motion and fuel droplet impingement on combustion chamber walls is a major source of unburned hydrocarbons (UBHC), and is a concern for oil dilution in PFI engines. An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of injection timing, a charge motion control device, and the matching of injector with port geometry, on the “footprints” of liquid fuel inside the combustion chamber during the PFI engine starting process. Using a gasoline-soluble dye and filter paper deployed on the cylinder liner and piston top land surfaces to capture the liquid fuel footprints, the effects of the mixture formation processes on the wetted footprints can be qualitatively and quantitatively examined by comparing the wetted footprint locations and their color intensities. Real-time filming of the development of wetted footprints using a high-speed camera can also show the time history of the fuel wetting process inside an optically accessible engine.
Technical Paper

Development Process of Shock Waves by Supersonic Spray

A numerical simulation of shock wave generation by high-pressure and high-speed spray jet has been conducted to compare to the experimental results obtained by X-ray radiographic technique. Using the space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method and the stochastic particle techniques to account for fuel injections and droplet collisions, supersonic-spray-induced shock waves are successfully simulated. Similar to the experimental condition, a non-evaporating diesel spray in a chamber filled with inert gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) at 1 atm pressure under room temperature (30° C) is simulated. To simulate the needle lift effect in the single-hole diesel injector, various injection-rate profiles were employed. In addition, the effects of discharge coefficients, with Cd ranging from 0.8 to 1.0, were also considered to simulate the shock generation processes in the leading spray front.
Technical Paper

Correlating Port Fuel injection to Wetted Fuel Footprints on Combustion Chamber Walls and UBHC in Engine Start Processes

Unburned hydrocarbon (UBHC) emissions from gasoline engines remain a primary engineering research and development concern due to stricter emission regulations. Gasoline engines produce more UBHC emissions during cold start and warm-up than during any other stage of operation, because of insufficient fuel-air mixing, particularly in view of the additional fuel enrichment used for early starting. Impingement of fuel droplets on the cylinder wall is a major source of UBHC and a concern for oil dilution. This paper describes an experimental study that was carried out to investigate the distribution and “footprint” of fuel droplets impinging on the cylinder wall during the intake stroke under engine starting conditions. Injectors having different targeting and atomization characteristics were used in a 4-Valve engine with optical access to the intake port and combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of a Common Rail Diesel Injection System under Pilot and Post Injection Modes

Experiments were conducted to investigate the characteristics of a common rail fuel injection system using a flow rate test rig and a single cylinder research diesel engine. Experiments covered speeds and loads typical to engine conditions under Hybrid Electric Vehicle operation. Different injection modes were investigated including main injection, main-post injection and pilot-main injection. The analysis indicated that the common rail fuel pressure affects all the injection parameters including the start of fuel delivery, its duration and amount under all modes of injection. Also, the pressure waves produced in the system have an impact on the operation of the nozzle-needle and fuel delivery particularly in the main-post injection mode.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Direct Injection Gasoline Spray Wall Impingement at Elevated Temperature Conditions

The direct injection gasoline spray-wall interaction was characterized inside a heated pressurized chamber using various visualization techniques, including high-speed laser-sheet macroscopic and microscopic movies up to 25,000 frames per second, shadowgraph, and doublespark particle image velocimetry. Two hollow cone high-pressure swirl injectors having different cone angles were used to inject gasoline onto a heated plate at two different impingement angles. Based on the visualization results, the overall transient spray impingement structure, fuel film formation, and preliminary droplet size and velocity were analyzed. The results show that upward spray vortex inside the spray is more obvious at elevated temperature condition, particularly for the wide-cone-angle injector, due to the vaporization of small droplets and decreased air density. Film build-up on the surface is clearly observed at both ambient and elevated temperature, especially for narrow cone spray.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Spray Transfer Processes in an Electrostatic Rotating Bell Applicator

A better understanding is needed of the electrostatic rotating bell (ESRB) application of metallic basecoat paint to automobile exteriors in order to exploit their high transfer efficiency without compromising the coating quality. This paper presents the initial results from experimental investigation of sprays from an ESRB which is designed to apply water-borne paint. Water was used as paint surrogate for simplicity. The atomization and transport regions of the spray were investigated using laser light sheet visualizations and phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). The experiments were conducted at varying levels of the three important operating parameters: liquid flow rate, shaping-air flow rate, and bellcup rotational speed. The results show that bellcup speed dominates atomization, but liquid and shaping-air flow rate settings significantly influence the spray structure. The visualization images showed that the atomization occurs in ligament breakup regime.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Assessment of Turbulence Production, Reynolds Stress and Length Scale (Dissipation) Modeling in a Swirl-Supported DI Diesel Engine

Simultaneous measurements of the radial and the tangential components of velocity are obtained in a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine typical of automotive applications. Results are presented for engine operation with fuel injection, but without combustion, for three different swirl ratios and four injection pressures. With the mean and fluctuating velocities, the r-θ plane shear stress and the mean flow gradients are obtained. Longitudinal and transverse length scales are also estimated via Taylor's hypothesis. The flow is shown to be sufficiently homogeneous and stationary to obtain meaningful length scale estimates. Concurrently, the flow and injection processes are simulated with KIVA-3V employing a RNG k-ε turbulence model. The measured turbulent kinetic energy k, r-θ plane mean strain rates ( 〈Srθ〉, 〈Srr〉, and 〈Sθθ〉 ), deviatoric turbulent stresses , and the r-θ plane turbulence production terms are compared directly to the simulated results.
Technical Paper

A Visualization Study of Liquid Fuel Distribution and Combustion Inside a Port-Injected Gasoline Engine Under Different Start Conditions

High-speed video of combustion processes and cylinder pressure traces were obtained from a single-cylinder optical-accessible engine with a production four-valve cylinder head to study the mixture formation and flame propagation characteristics at near-stoichiometric start condition. Laser-sheet Mie-scattering images were collected for liquid droplet distributions inside the cylinder to correlate the mixture formation process with the combustion results. A dual-stream (DS) injector and a quad-stream (QS) injector were used to study the spray dispersion effect on engine starting, under different injection timings, throttle valve positions, engine speeds, and intake temperatures. It was found that most of the fuel under open-valve injection (OVI) conditions entered the cylinder as droplet mist. A significant part of the fuel droplets hit the far end of the cylinder wall at the exhaust-valve side.