A New Approach to Developing Digital 3-D Headforms
Facial measurements were collected during the 2003 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) survey of 3,997 respirator users. In addition to traditional measuring techniques, 1013 subjects were scanned with a Cyberware 3-D Rapid Digitizer. Ten facial dimensions relevant to respirator fit were chosen for defining a principal component analysis (PCA) model which divides the user population into five face-size categories. Mean facial dimensions were then computed as a goal for a representative headform for each size category and used to identify 5 scans in each category. An average of the five scanned subjects was used to develop a single standard headform for each face-size category. Four digital 3-D models were developed: small, medium, large, and long. The new headforms include facial features not found on current standard headforms.