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Technical Paper

and Repeatability of Transient Heat Release Analysis for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

Reduced emissions, improved fuel economy, and improved performance are a priority for manufacturers of internal combustion engines. However, these three goals are normally interrelated and difficult to optimize simultaneously. Studying the experimental heat release provides a useful tool for combustion optimization. Heavy-duty diesel engines are inherently transient, even during steady state operation engine controls can vary due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) or aftertreatment requirements. This paper examines the heat release and the derived combustion characteristics during steady state and transient operation for a 1992 DDC series 60 engine and a 2004 Cummins ISM 370 engine. In-cylinder pressure was collected during repeat steady state SET and the heavy-duty transient FTP test cycles.
Technical Paper

Year-Long Evaluation of Trucks and Buses Equipped with Passive Diesel Particulate Filters

A program has been completed to evaluate ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in truck and bus fleets operating in southern California. The fuels, ECD and ECD-1, are produced by ARCO (a BP Company) and have less than 15 ppm sulfur content. Vehicles were retrofitted with two types of catalyzed DPFs, and operated on ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel for over one year. Exhaust emissions, fuel economy and operating cost data were collected for the test vehicles, and compared with baseline control vehicles. Regulated emissions are presented from two rounds of tests. The first round emissions tests were conducted shortly after the vehicles were retrofitted with the DPFs. The second round emissions tests were conducted following approximately one year of operation. Several of the vehicles retrofitted with DPFs accumulated well over 100,000 miles of operation between test rounds.
Technical Paper

Weight Effect on Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Diesel and Lean-Burn Natural Gas Transit Buses

Transit agencies across the United States operate bus fleets primarily powered by diesel, natural gas, and hybrid drive systems. Passenger loading affects the power demanded from the engine, which in turn affects distance-specific emissions and fuel consumption. Analysis shows that the nature of bus activity, taking into account the idle time, tire rolling resistance, wind drag, and acceleration energy, influences the way in which passenger load impacts emissions. Emissions performance and fuel consumption from diesel and natural gas powered buses were characterized by the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory. A comparison matrix for all three bus technologies included three common driving cycles (the Braunschweig Cycle, the OCTA Cycle, and the ADEME-RATP Paris Cycle). Each bus was tested at three different passenger loading conditions (empty weight, half weight, and full weight).
Technical Paper

Two Stroke Direct Injection Jet Ignition Engines for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) require simple and reliable engines of high power to weight ratio. Wankel and two stroke engines offer many advantages over four stroke engines. A two stroke engines featuring crank case scavenging, precise oiling, direct injection and jet ignition is analyzed here by using CAD, CFD and CAE tools. Results of simulations of engine performances are shown in details. The CFD analysis is used to study fuel injection, mixing and combustion. The CAE model then returns the engine performances over the full range of loads and speeds with the combustion parameters given as an input. The use of asymmetric rather than symmetric port timing and supercharging scavenging is finally suggested as the best avenue to further improve power density and fuel conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Transient Emissions Comparisons of Alternative Compression Ignition Fuels

The effects of fuel composition on emissions levels from compression ignition engines can be profound, and this understanding has led to mandated reductions in both sulfur and aromatic content of automotive diesel fuels. A Navistar T444E (V8, 7.3 liter) engine was installed on an engine dynamometer and subjected to transient emissions measurement using a variety of fuels, namely federal low sulfur pump diesel; California pump diesel; Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch fuel with very low sulfur and aromatic content; various blends of soy-derived biodiesel; a Fischer-Tropsch fuel with very low sulfur and 10% aromatics; and the same Fischer-Tropsch fuel with 10% isobutanol by volume. The biodiesel blends showed their ability to reduce particulate matter, but at the expense of increasing oxides of nitrogen (NOx), following the simple argument that cetane enhancement led to earlier ignition. However, the Fischer-Tropsch fuels showed their ability to reduce all of the regulated emissions.
Technical Paper

Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW)

This paper presents on-going finite element modeling efforts of friction stir spot welding (FSSW) process using Abaqus/Explicit as a finite element solver. Three-dimensional coupled thermal-stress model was used to calculate thermo-mechanical response of FSSW process. Adaptive meshing and advection schemes, which makes it possible to maintain mesh quality under large deformations, is utilized to simulate the material flow and temperature distribution in FSSW process. The predicted overall deformation shape of the weld joint resembles that experimentally observed. Temperature and stress graphs in the radial direction as well as temperature-deformation distribution plots are presented.
Technical Paper

The Study of Modelling and Development Environment for Virtual Manufacturing Systems

For adapting the demands of the rapid changing and enhancing the competing capability of enterprise in the international market, various modern manufacturing systems have been put forward, which are aimed at various specifications, perfect performance and high quality, low production cost and short manufacturing cycle of products, virtual manufacturing system ( VMS) has been emerged as the times require, which is effective technology to meet the challenge of 21 century's manufacturing industries. Based on analyzing modern manufacturing systems, according to the characteristics and requirement of VMS, in this paper, the architecture, the key technologies and the implement way of VMS were explored, and development environment for VMS was put forward, which is a powerful tool for building VMS.
Technical Paper

The Optimization of MOP Control Strategy for a Range-Extended Electric Vehicle Based on GA

The range-extended electric vehicle (REEV) is a complex nonlinear system powered by internal combustion engine and electricity stored in battery. This research proposed a Multiple Operation Points (MOP) control strategy of REVV based on operation features of REEV and the universal characteristic curve of the engine. The switching logic rules of MOP strategy are designed for the desired transition of the operation mode, which makes the engine running at high efficiency region. A Genetic algorithm (GA) is adapted to search the optimal solution. The fuel consumption is defined as the target cost function. The demand power of engine is defined as optimal variable. The state of charge (SOC) and vehicle speed are selected as the state variables. The dynamic performance of vehicle and cycling life of battery is set as the constraints. The optimal switching parameters are obtained based on this control strategy. Finally, a dynamic simulation model of REEV is developed in Matlab/Simulink.
Technical Paper

The Influence of High Reactivity Fuel Properties on Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is a form of dual-fuel combustion that exploits the reactivity difference between two fuels to control combustion phasing. This combustion approach limits the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and soot while retaining high thermal efficiency. The research presented herein was performed to determine the influences that high reactivity (diesel) fuel properties have on RCCI combustion characteristics, exhaust emissions, fuel efficiency, and the operable load range. A 4-cylinder, 1.9 liter, light-duty compression-ignition (CI) engine was converted to run on diesel fuel (high reactivity fuel) and compressed natural gas (CNG) (low reactivity fuel). The engine was operated at 2100 revolutions per minute (RPM), and at two different loads, 3.6 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) and 6 bar BMEP.
Journal Article

The Influence of Accelerator Pedal Position Control during Transient Laboratory Testing on Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

Pollutants are a major issue of diesel engines, with oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and airborne total particulate matter (TPM) of primary concern. Current emission standards rely on laboratory testing using an engine dynamometer with a standard test procedure. Results are reported as an integrated value for emissions from a transient set of engine speed and load conditions over a length of time or a set of prescribed speed-load points. To be considered a valid test by the US EPA, the measured engine speed and load are compared to the prescribed engine speed and load and must be within prescribed regression limits.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Fourth Generation Hybrid Electric Vehicle at West Virginia University

As a part of the FutureTruck 2000 advanced technology student vehicle competition sponsored by the US Department of Energy and General Motors, West Virginia University has converted a full-size sport utility vehicle into a high fuel efficiency, low emissions vehicle. The environmental impact of the Chevrolet Suburban SUV, in terms of both greenhouse gas emissions and exhaust emissions, was reduced through hybridization without losing any of the functionality and utility of the base vehicle. The approach taken was one of using a high efficiency, state-of-the-art direct injection, turbocharged diesel engine coupled to a high output electric traction motor for power assist and to recover regenerative braking energy. The vehicle employs a state-of-the-art combination lean NOx catalyst, oxidation catalyst and particulate filter to ensure low exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

The Coaxial Cavity Resonator as a RF IC Engine Ignition Source

The Quarter Wave Coaxial Cavity Resonator (QWCCR) plasma igniter is designed, from previous theoretical work, as an ignition source for an internal combustion engine. The present research has explored the implementation of the QWCCR into an internal combustion (IC) engine. The QWCCR design parameters of inner conductor length, loop geometry, and loop position were varied for two igniters of differing operating frequency. Variations of the QWCCR radio frequency (RF) parameters, as a function of engine geometry, were studied by placing the igniter in a combustion chamber and manually varying the crank position. Three identical igniters were fitted with dielectric inserts and the parameters were studied before and after ignition was sustained in a twin-cylinder engine. Optimal resonator geometries were determined. Radio frequency parameter invariance was found with respect to crank angle and piston distance. The first successful IC engine ignition using a QWCCR was achieved.
Technical Paper

Technological Evaluation of Fuel Efficiency Improvement Concepts to Meet Future Regulatory Requirements in the North American Market

As fuel economy and emissions regulations increase in stringence, automakers face ever increasing difficulty in meeting government imposed standards. In this paper a study of fuel economy improving techniques used to meet these regulations, notably Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE), and the upper limit on the effectiveness of these techniques is presented. The effects of external vehicle improvements, such as lightweighting, rolling resistance and aerodynamic improvements were investigated to illustrate the limitations of these methods to dramatically improve overall vehicle efficiency. Engine efficiency improvements, including the effects of compression ignition (unthrottled) versus spark ignition (throttled) engine types were examined. Other engine efficiency areas that were investigated were the implementation of cylinder deactivation and gasoline direct injection engines.
Technical Paper

System Level RBDO for Military Ground Vehicles using High Performance Computing

The Army continues to improve its Reliability-based Design Optimization (RBDO) process, expanding from component optimization to system optimization. We are using the massively parallel computing power of the Department of Defense (DoD) High Performance Computing (HPC) systems to simultaneously optimize multiple components which interact with each other in a mechanical system. Specifically, we have a subsystem of a military ground vehicle, consisting of more than four components and are simultaneously optimizing five components of that subsystem using RBDO methods. We do not simply optimize one component at a time, sequentially, and iterate until convergence. We actually simultaneously optimize all components together. This can be done efficiently using the parallel computing environment. We will discuss the results of this optimization, and the advantages and disadvantages of using HPC systems for this work.
Technical Paper

System Architecture for Cooperative Vehicle-Pedestrian Safety Applications Using DSRC Communication

Pedestrians account for a significant ratio of traffic fatalities; as a result, research on methods of reducing vehicle-pedestrian crashes is of importance. In this paper, we describe a system architecture that allows the use of vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) communication as a means of generating situational awareness and eventually predicting hazards and warning drivers and pedestrians. In contrast, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication for safety applications, V2P has not received much attention. One major reason for this lack of attention had been the unavailability of communication mechanisms between pedestrians and vehicles. Recent advances in enabling Wi-Fi and dedicated short range communication (DSRC) based communication using smart-phones is changing this picture. As a result, V2P communication can be considered as a possible solution.
Journal Article

Summary of In-use NOx Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

As part of the 1998 Consent Decrees concerning alternative ignition strategies between the six settling heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers and the United States government, the engine manufacturers agreed to perform in-use emissions measurements of their engines. As part of the Consent Decrees, pre- (Phase III, pre-2000 engines) and post- (Phase IV, 2001 to 2003 engines) Consent Decree engines used in over-the-road vehicles were tested to examine the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2). A summary of the emissions of NOx and CO2 and fuel consumption from the Phase III and Phase IV engines are presented for 30 second “Not-to-Exceed” (NTE) window brake-specific values. There were approximately 700 Phase III tests and 850 Phase IV tests evaluated in this study, incorporating over 170 different heavy duty diesel engines spanning 1994 to 2003 model years. Test vehicles were operated over city, suburban, and highway routes.
Technical Paper

Study on the Use of Springs in a Dual Free Piston Engine Alternator

The free piston engine combined with a linear electric alternator has the potential to be a highly efficient converter from fossil fuel energy to electrical power. With only a single major moving part (the translating rod), mechanical friction is reduced compared to conventional crankshaft technology. Instead of crankshaft linkages, the motion of the translator is driven by the force balance between the engine cylinder, alternator, damping losses, and springs. Focusing primarily on mechanical springs, this paper explores the use of springs to increase engine speed and reduce cyclic variability. A numeric model has been constructed in MATLAB®/Simulink to represent the various subsystems, including the engine, alternator, and springs. Within the simulation is a controller that forces the engine to operate at a constant compression ratio by affecting the alternator load.
Technical Paper

Speed and Power Regressions for Quality Control of Heavy Duty Vehicle Chassis Dynamometer Research

When performing a transient test on a heavy-duty engine as outlined in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), defined regression values of engine speed, torque and power must meet specific tolerances for the test to be considered valid. Regression of actual engine feedback data against target points from a schedule defined from an engine map is performed using the method of least squares to determine the slope, intercept, coefficient of regression and standard error of the estimate. To minimize the biasing effects of time lag between actual and schedule data, shifting of the data in the time domain prior to analysis and certain point deletions are permitted. There are presently no regression criteria available for heavy duty chassis testing. This leaves facilities performing these chassis tests with no suitable guidelines to validate individual tests. This study applies the regression analysis used in engine testing to chassis testing and examines the difficulties encountered.
Technical Paper

Speciation of Organic Compounds from the Exhaust of Trucks and Buses: Effect of Fuel and After-Treatment on Vehicle Emission Profiles

A study was performed in the spring of 2001 to chemically characterize exhaust emissions from trucks and buses fueled by various test fuels and operated with and without diesel particle filters. This study was part of a multi-year technology validation program designed to evaluate the emissions impact of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particle filters (DPF) in several different heavy-duty vehicle fleets operating in Southern California. The overall study of exhaust chemical composition included organic compounds, inorganic ions, individual elements, and particulate matter in various size-cuts. Detailed descriptions of the overall technology validation program and chemical speciation methodology have been provided in previous SAE publications (2002-01-0432 and 2002-01-0433).
Technical Paper

Some Developments in DES Modeling for Engine Flow Simulation

Scale-resolving turbulence modeling for engine flow simulation has constantly increased its popularity in the last decade. In contrast to classical RANS modeling, LES-like approaches are able to resolve a larger number of unsteady flow features. In principle, this capability allows to accurately predict some of the key parameters involved in the development and optimization of modern engines such as cycle-to-cycle variations in a DI engine. However, since multiple simulated engine cycles are required to extract reliable flow statistics, the spatial and temporal resolution requirements of pure LES still represent a severe limit for its wider application on realistic engine geometries. In this context, Hybrid URANS-LES methodologies can therefore become a potentially attractive option. In fact, their task is to preserve the turbulence scale-resolving in the flow core regions but at a significantly lower computational cost compared to standard LES.