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Technical Paper

and Repeatability of Transient Heat Release Analysis for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1125
Reduced emissions, improved fuel economy, and improved performance are a priority for manufacturers of internal combustion engines. However, these three goals are normally interrelated and difficult to optimize simultaneously. Studying the experimental heat release provides a useful tool for combustion optimization. Heavy-duty diesel engines are inherently transient, even during steady state operation engine controls can vary due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) or aftertreatment requirements. This paper examines the heat release and the derived combustion characteristics during steady state and transient operation for a 1992 DDC series 60 engine and a 2004 Cummins ISM 370 engine. In-cylinder pressure was collected during repeat steady state SET and the heavy-duty transient FTP test cycles.
Technical Paper

Year-Long Evaluation of Trucks and Buses Equipped with Passive Diesel Particulate Filters

2002-03-04
2002-01-0433
A program has been completed to evaluate ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in truck and bus fleets operating in southern California. The fuels, ECD and ECD-1, are produced by ARCO (a BP Company) and have less than 15 ppm sulfur content. Vehicles were retrofitted with two types of catalyzed DPFs, and operated on ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel for over one year. Exhaust emissions, fuel economy and operating cost data were collected for the test vehicles, and compared with baseline control vehicles. Regulated emissions are presented from two rounds of tests. The first round emissions tests were conducted shortly after the vehicles were retrofitted with the DPFs. The second round emissions tests were conducted following approximately one year of operation. Several of the vehicles retrofitted with DPFs accumulated well over 100,000 miles of operation between test rounds.
Technical Paper

Weight Effect on Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Diesel and Lean-Burn Natural Gas Transit Buses

2007-08-05
2007-01-3626
Transit agencies across the United States operate bus fleets primarily powered by diesel, natural gas, and hybrid drive systems. Passenger loading affects the power demanded from the engine, which in turn affects distance-specific emissions and fuel consumption. Analysis shows that the nature of bus activity, taking into account the idle time, tire rolling resistance, wind drag, and acceleration energy, influences the way in which passenger load impacts emissions. Emissions performance and fuel consumption from diesel and natural gas powered buses were characterized by the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory. A comparison matrix for all three bus technologies included three common driving cycles (the Braunschweig Cycle, the OCTA Cycle, and the ADEME-RATP Paris Cycle). Each bus was tested at three different passenger loading conditions (empty weight, half weight, and full weight).
Technical Paper

Two Stroke Direct Injection Jet Ignition Engines for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

2015-09-15
2015-01-2424
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) require simple and reliable engines of high power to weight ratio. Wankel and two stroke engines offer many advantages over four stroke engines. A two stroke engines featuring crank case scavenging, precise oiling, direct injection and jet ignition is analyzed here by using CAD, CFD and CAE tools. Results of simulations of engine performances are shown in details. The CFD analysis is used to study fuel injection, mixing and combustion. The CAE model then returns the engine performances over the full range of loads and speeds with the combustion parameters given as an input. The use of asymmetric rather than symmetric port timing and supercharging scavenging is finally suggested as the best avenue to further improve power density and fuel conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Transient Emissions Comparisons of Alternative Compression Ignition Fuels

1999-03-01
1999-01-1117
The effects of fuel composition on emissions levels from compression ignition engines can be profound, and this understanding has led to mandated reductions in both sulfur and aromatic content of automotive diesel fuels. A Navistar T444E (V8, 7.3 liter) engine was installed on an engine dynamometer and subjected to transient emissions measurement using a variety of fuels, namely federal low sulfur pump diesel; California pump diesel; Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch fuel with very low sulfur and aromatic content; various blends of soy-derived biodiesel; a Fischer-Tropsch fuel with very low sulfur and 10% aromatics; and the same Fischer-Tropsch fuel with 10% isobutanol by volume. The biodiesel blends showed their ability to reduce particulate matter, but at the expense of increasing oxides of nitrogen (NOx), following the simple argument that cetane enhancement led to earlier ignition. However, the Fischer-Tropsch fuels showed their ability to reduce all of the regulated emissions.
Technical Paper

The Optimization of MOP Control Strategy for a Range-Extended Electric Vehicle Based on GA

2017-10-08
2017-01-2464
The range-extended electric vehicle (REEV) is a complex nonlinear system powered by internal combustion engine and electricity stored in battery. This research proposed a Multiple Operation Points (MOP) control strategy of REVV based on operation features of REEV and the universal characteristic curve of the engine. The switching logic rules of MOP strategy are designed for the desired transition of the operation mode, which makes the engine running at high efficiency region. A Genetic algorithm (GA) is adapted to search the optimal solution. The fuel consumption is defined as the target cost function. The demand power of engine is defined as optimal variable. The state of charge (SOC) and vehicle speed are selected as the state variables. The dynamic performance of vehicle and cycling life of battery is set as the constraints. The optimal switching parameters are obtained based on this control strategy. Finally, a dynamic simulation model of REEV is developed in Matlab/Simulink.
Technical Paper

The Influence of High Reactivity Fuel Properties on Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

2017-09-04
2017-24-0080
Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is a form of dual-fuel combustion that exploits the reactivity difference between two fuels to control combustion phasing. This combustion approach limits the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and soot while retaining high thermal efficiency. The research presented herein was performed to determine the influences that high reactivity (diesel) fuel properties have on RCCI combustion characteristics, exhaust emissions, fuel efficiency, and the operable load range. A 4-cylinder, 1.9 liter, light-duty compression-ignition (CI) engine was converted to run on diesel fuel (high reactivity fuel) and compressed natural gas (CNG) (low reactivity fuel). The engine was operated at 2100 revolutions per minute (RPM), and at two different loads, 3.6 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) and 6 bar BMEP.
Journal Article

The Influence of Accelerator Pedal Position Control during Transient Laboratory Testing on Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0619
Pollutants are a major issue of diesel engines, with oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and airborne total particulate matter (TPM) of primary concern. Current emission standards rely on laboratory testing using an engine dynamometer with a standard test procedure. Results are reported as an integrated value for emissions from a transient set of engine speed and load conditions over a length of time or a set of prescribed speed-load points. To be considered a valid test by the US EPA, the measured engine speed and load are compared to the prescribed engine speed and load and must be within prescribed regression limits.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Fourth Generation Hybrid Electric Vehicle at West Virginia University

2001-03-05
2001-01-0682
As a part of the FutureTruck 2000 advanced technology student vehicle competition sponsored by the US Department of Energy and General Motors, West Virginia University has converted a full-size sport utility vehicle into a high fuel efficiency, low emissions vehicle. The environmental impact of the Chevrolet Suburban SUV, in terms of both greenhouse gas emissions and exhaust emissions, was reduced through hybridization without losing any of the functionality and utility of the base vehicle. The approach taken was one of using a high efficiency, state-of-the-art direct injection, turbocharged diesel engine coupled to a high output electric traction motor for power assist and to recover regenerative braking energy. The vehicle employs a state-of-the-art combination lean NOx catalyst, oxidation catalyst and particulate filter to ensure low exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Technological Evaluation of Fuel Efficiency Improvement Concepts to Meet Future Regulatory Requirements in the North American Market

2002-10-21
2002-01-2809
As fuel economy and emissions regulations increase in stringence, automakers face ever increasing difficulty in meeting government imposed standards. In this paper a study of fuel economy improving techniques used to meet these regulations, notably Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE), and the upper limit on the effectiveness of these techniques is presented. The effects of external vehicle improvements, such as lightweighting, rolling resistance and aerodynamic improvements were investigated to illustrate the limitations of these methods to dramatically improve overall vehicle efficiency. Engine efficiency improvements, including the effects of compression ignition (unthrottled) versus spark ignition (throttled) engine types were examined. Other engine efficiency areas that were investigated were the implementation of cylinder deactivation and gasoline direct injection engines.
Technical Paper

System Architecture for Cooperative Vehicle-Pedestrian Safety Applications Using DSRC Communication

2015-04-14
2015-01-0290
Pedestrians account for a significant ratio of traffic fatalities; as a result, research on methods of reducing vehicle-pedestrian crashes is of importance. In this paper, we describe a system architecture that allows the use of vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) communication as a means of generating situational awareness and eventually predicting hazards and warning drivers and pedestrians. In contrast, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication for safety applications, V2P has not received much attention. One major reason for this lack of attention had been the unavailability of communication mechanisms between pedestrians and vehicles. Recent advances in enabling Wi-Fi and dedicated short range communication (DSRC) based communication using smart-phones is changing this picture. As a result, V2P communication can be considered as a possible solution.
Journal Article

Summary of In-use NOx Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-1298
As part of the 1998 Consent Decrees concerning alternative ignition strategies between the six settling heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers and the United States government, the engine manufacturers agreed to perform in-use emissions measurements of their engines. As part of the Consent Decrees, pre- (Phase III, pre-2000 engines) and post- (Phase IV, 2001 to 2003 engines) Consent Decree engines used in over-the-road vehicles were tested to examine the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2). A summary of the emissions of NOx and CO2 and fuel consumption from the Phase III and Phase IV engines are presented for 30 second “Not-to-Exceed” (NTE) window brake-specific values. There were approximately 700 Phase III tests and 850 Phase IV tests evaluated in this study, incorporating over 170 different heavy duty diesel engines spanning 1994 to 2003 model years. Test vehicles were operated over city, suburban, and highway routes.
Technical Paper

Study on the Use of Springs in a Dual Free Piston Engine Alternator

2016-10-17
2016-01-2233
The free piston engine combined with a linear electric alternator has the potential to be a highly efficient converter from fossil fuel energy to electrical power. With only a single major moving part (the translating rod), mechanical friction is reduced compared to conventional crankshaft technology. Instead of crankshaft linkages, the motion of the translator is driven by the force balance between the engine cylinder, alternator, damping losses, and springs. Focusing primarily on mechanical springs, this paper explores the use of springs to increase engine speed and reduce cyclic variability. A numeric model has been constructed in MATLAB®/Simulink to represent the various subsystems, including the engine, alternator, and springs. Within the simulation is a controller that forces the engine to operate at a constant compression ratio by affecting the alternator load.
Technical Paper

Speciation of Organic Compounds from the Exhaust of Trucks and Buses: Effect of Fuel and After-Treatment on Vehicle Emission Profiles

2002-10-21
2002-01-2873
A study was performed in the spring of 2001 to chemically characterize exhaust emissions from trucks and buses fueled by various test fuels and operated with and without diesel particle filters. This study was part of a multi-year technology validation program designed to evaluate the emissions impact of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particle filters (DPF) in several different heavy-duty vehicle fleets operating in Southern California. The overall study of exhaust chemical composition included organic compounds, inorganic ions, individual elements, and particulate matter in various size-cuts. Detailed descriptions of the overall technology validation program and chemical speciation methodology have been provided in previous SAE publications (2002-01-0432 and 2002-01-0433).
Technical Paper

Rotary Engines – A Concept Review

2003-10-27
2003-01-3206
The basic design of a purely rotary motion engine has potentially many advantages over the conventional piston-crank internal combustion engine. Although only one rotary engine has been successfully placed into production, rotary mechanisms still show promise in the market place. A comprehensive review of rotary engine concepts is presented with an emphasis placed on the last 30 years. Suggestions are made as to where research concentrations should be placed to improve the progress of a rotary engine.
Technical Paper

Recommendation of Experimental Setup and use of Standardized Electrohydrodynamic Dimensionless Parameters for Optimization of a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Flow Control Device

2014-09-16
2014-01-2101
The high demand for traditional air traffic as well as increased use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has resulted in researchers examining alternative technologies which would result in safer, more reliable, and better performing aircraft. Active methods of aerodynamic flow control may be the most promising approach to this problem. Research in the area of aerodynamic control is transitioning from traditional mechanical flow control devices to, among other methods, plasma actuators. Plasma actuators offer an inexpensive and energy efficient method of flow control. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD), one of the most widely studied forms of plasma actuation, employs an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) device which uses dominant electric fields for actuation. Unlike traditional flow control methods, a DBD device operates without moving components or mass injection methods.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Energy Pathways and Gas Exchange of a Small Port Injection SI Two-Stroke Natural Gas Engine Operating on Different Exhaust Configurations

2018-04-03
2018-01-1278
This paper examines the energy pathways of a 29cc air-cooled two-stroke engine operating on natural gas with different exhaust geometries. The engine was operated at wide-open-throttle at a constant speed of 5400 RPM with ignition adjusted to yield maximum brake torque while the fueling was adjusted to examine both rich and lean combustion. The exhaust configurations examined included an off-the-shelf (OTS) model and two other custom models designed on Helmholtz resonance theory. The custom designs included both single and multi-cone features. Out of the three exhaust systems tested, the model with maximum trapping efficiency showed a higher overall efficiency due to lower fuel short-circuiting and heat transfer. The heat transfer rate was shown to be 10% lower on the new designs relative to OTS model.
Journal Article

Preliminary Systems Evaluation for a Guidable Extended Range Tube Launched-UAV

2011-10-18
2011-01-2559
Tube Launched-Unmanned Air Vehicles (TL-UAV) are munitions that alter their trajectories during flight to enhance the capabilities by possibly extending range, increasing loiter time through gliding, and/or having guided targeting capabilities. Traditional munition systems, specifically the tube-launched mortar rounds, are not guided. Performance of these "dumb" munitions could be enhanced by updating to TL-UAV and still utilize existing launch platforms with standard propellant detonation firing methods. The ability to actively control the flight path and extend range of a TL-UAV requires multiple onboard systems which need to be identified, integrated, assembled, and tested to meet cooperative function requirements. The main systems, for a mortar-based TL-UAV being developed at West Virginia University (WVU), are considered to be a central hub to process information, aerodynamic control devices, flight sensors, a video camera system, power management, and a wireless transceiver.
Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction of Knock in a Bi-Fuel Engine

1998-10-19
982533
Dedicated natural gas engines suffer the disadvantages of limited vehicle range and relatively few refueling stations. A vehicle capable of operating on either gasoline or natural gas allows alternative fuel usage without sacrificing vehicle range and mobility. However, the bi-fuel engine must be made to provide equal performance on both fuels. Although bi-fuel conversions have existed for a number of years, historically natural gas performance is degraded relative to gasoline due to reduced volumetric efficiency and lower power density of CNG. Much of the performance losses associated with CNG can be overcome by increasing the compression ratio. However, in a bi-fuel application, high compression ratios can result in severe engine knock during gasoline operation. Variable intake valve timing, increased exhaust gas recirculation and retarded ignition timing were explored as a means of controlling knock during gasoline operation of a bi-fuel engine.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Dual Fuel Diesel-CNG Combustion on Engine Performance and Emission

2015-03-10
2015-01-0009
With the purpose of reducing emission level while maintaining the high torque character of diesel engine, various solutions have been proposed by researchers over the world. One of the most attractive methods is to use dual fuel technique with premixed gaseous fuel ignited by a relatively small amount of diesel. In this study, Methane (CH4), which is the main component of natural gas, was premixed with intake air and used as the main fuel, and diesel fuel was used as ignition source to initiate the combustion. By varying the proportion of diesel and CH4, the combustion and emissions characteristics of the dual fuel (diesel/CH4) combustion system were investigated. Different cases of CFD studies with various concentration of CH4 were carried out. A validated 3D quarter chamber model of a single cylinder engine (diesel fuel only) generated by using AVL Fire ESE was modified into dual fuel mode in this study.
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