Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 9 of 9
Technical Paper

Summary of the Effect of Multiple Site Damage on the Linkup Strength of 2024-T3 Aluminum Panels

2002-04-16
2002-01-1534
An aging aircraft accumulates fatigue cracks commonly referred to as multiple site damage (MSD). A simplified engineering fracture mechanics model, generally referred to as the linkup model (or plastic zone touch model), has been used with some success to describe the MSD fracture phenomenon in 2024-T3 aluminum panels. A disadvantage of the linkup model is that it gives excessively inaccurate results for some configurations. A modified linkup model has been developed through empirical analysis of test data taken from unstiffened panels with MSD cracks at open holes. The modified linkup model was then validated with test data from stiffened panels including single-bay panels with the lead crack centered between stiffeners and two-bay panels with the lead crack centered beneath a severed stiffener. Further validation of the modified linkup model was done with test data from panels with bolted lap joints. Test results were obtained from 112 different panels.
Technical Paper

Strength of Stiffened Panels with Multiple Site Damage

1999-04-20
1999-01-1575
Multiple site damage (MSD) on aging aircraft accumulates from fatigue loading over a period of time. For ductile materials such as 2024-T3 aluminum, MSD may lower the strength below that which is predicted by conventional fracture mechanics. An analytical model referred to as the linkup (or plastic zone touch) model has previously been used to describe this phenomenon. However, the linkup model has been shown to produce inaccurate results for many configurations. This paper describes several modifications of the linkup model developed from empirical analyses. These modified linkup models have been shown to produce accurate results over a wide range of configurations for both unstiffened and stiffened flat 2024-T3 panels with MSD at open holes. These modified models are easy to use and give quick and accurate results over a large range of parameters.
Technical Paper

Residual Strength of an Aluminum Panel with a Centric Hole and One Cracked Ligament

1999-04-20
1999-01-1574
The residual strength of an aluminum panel with a centric hole and one cracked ligament was investigated experimentally. Each of the 7075-T6 aluminum panels which were tested included a cracked ligament of varying length on one side of the centric hole and an uncracked ligament on the other side of the hole. The failure of such a panel subjected to uniform tensile loading normally occurs according to the lower of two modes: brittle fracture or a net section type of yielding. On the other hand, the question of whether one or both ligaments fail is not easily answered. Results show that one or two ligament failure depends upon test conditions such as crack length and loading method. For short crack lengths, the uncracked ligament will fail almost simultaneously with the failure of the cracked ligament.
Technical Paper

Refill Friction Stir Spot Joining Rivet Replacement Technology

2016-09-27
2016-01-2130
The Refill Friction Spot Joining (RFSJ) is an emerging solid-state spot welding technology that thermo-mechanically creates a molecular-level bond between the work-pieces. RFSJ does not consume any filler or foreign materials so that no additional weight is introduced to the assembly. As the solid-to-liquid phase transition is not involved in RFSJ in general, there is no lack of fusion or material deterioration caused by liquefaction and solidification. Unlike the conventional friction stir spot welding, RFSJ produces a spot joint with a perfectly flush surface finish without a key or exit hole. Currently, the aerospace industry employs solid rivets for fastening the primary structures as they meet the baseline requirements and have well-established standards and specifications.
Technical Paper

Hole Quality Study in High Speed Drilling of Composite and Aluminum Sheet Metal

1999-04-20
1999-01-1564
Drilling is one of the most widely applied manufacturing operations. Millions of holes are drilled today in manufacturing industries especially in aerospace industry where high quality holes are essential. Rejection and rework rate of the products because of the bad hole is quite high. In this research graphite/honeycomb composite material and aluminum sheet metal has been used. The results show that drill geometry, speed and feed rate have substantial effects on the hole quality and also there was gradual variation of the thrust and lateral forces with feed rates.
Technical Paper

High Speed Drilling of Al-2024-T3 Alloy

2002-04-16
2002-01-1516
The competitive market has forced the industry to develop methodologies to reduce lead-time of the products without sacrificing quality. One of the major metal removal operations in the aerospace industries is drilling. Over 100,000 holes are made for a small single engine aircraft. Naturally, demand for faster production rate results in the demand for high-speed drilling. But the cost of hole-making operations becomes a significant portion of the total manufacturing cost. This paper discusses the high speed drilling of Al-2024-T3 alloy, the effect of feed and speed on hole quality features like oversize, roundness error, burr height and surface roughness.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Hole Quality in Drilling of Titanium Alloy (6AL-4V)

2002-04-16
2002-01-1517
This paper presents the experimental study of hole quality parameters in the drilling of titanium alloy (6Al-4V). Titanium alloy plates were drilled dry using three types of solid carbide drills i.e. 2-flute helical twist drill, straight flute and three-flute drill. The objective was to study the effects of process parameters like feed rate, speed and drill bit geometry on the hole quality features. Typical hole quality features in a drilling process are the hole quality measures such as surface roughness, hole diameter, hole roundness and burr height. The results indicate that proper selection of speed, feed rate, and drill geometry can optimize metal removal rate and hole quality.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Ice Adhesion

1999-04-20
1999-01-1584
An experimental study was conducted to investigate ice-adhesion on clean and coated aluminum surfaces. A test apparatus using the parallel plate linear shear technique was designed along with a data acquisition system for conducting the tests and recording the experimental data. A low pulling rate was applied to specially prepared test specimens for measuring the strength of ice adhesion for a range of test conditions. The effects of surface roughness, surface contamination, and water impurity on ice adhesion were investigated. In addition, tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a low ice-adhesion coating applied to aluminum test specimens. The results obtained showed that the bond between ice and metal was considerably lower for tap water than for distilled water. For the clean and coated aluminum surfaces the strength of ice adhesion varied with specimen roughness. However, no clear trend was established between ice adhesion strength and surface roughness.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Fracture and Fatigue Properties of Clad 7075-T6 Aluminum in Monolithic and Laminated Forms

1975-02-01
750511
Laminated metal-metal composites can have attractive fracture toughness properties; they also offer potentially good fatigue performance. These attributes are reviewed and prospects for improvement discussed. Weak interlaminar bonds are seen to be important, while quite thin layers seem to be most promising for laminates of higher strength materials. The experimental program utilized 0.033 in (0.84 mm) thick laminae of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy, adhesively bonded. Eight-layer composites were compared with solid sheets of nearly the same total metal thickness. Both fracture toughness and fatigue properties were determined. Kc values of more than double the KIc for this alloy were observed in the laminates, while fatigue performance as indicated by comparative S-N curves was found to be slightly improved.
X