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Technical Paper

Vacuum Cleaning Vehicle Dust Subsidence System Design

Vacuum cleaning vehicle is the necessary equipment for the Municipal Sanitation Department to keep the road surface clean and the dust subsidence system is the heart unit for the proper function of the cleaning vehicle. The reasonable design of this system could increase the load capacity of the vehicle and be convenient for the garbage collecting and dumping. Meanwhile, the engine power could be relatively reduced and the influence on the environment duo to the dusty air in the outlet could be also effectively improved. In the study, the gravity dedusting principle is used firstly for structure design to reduce the flow rate of dust particles inside the lower part of the dust subsidence system. The ruleless collision loss among dust particles is reduced and thereby the fan power is saved. By means of a reasonable separated chamber design and the use of inertia baffle, the sort management for dust particles is developed and the work stress of the export filter is released observably.
Technical Paper

Thermoelectric Module Temperature Stability Control for the Vehicle Engine Exhaust Heat Recovery

The vehicle engine exhaust wastes heat. For the conventional scheme, the hot-end of the thermoelectric module is connected with the exhaust pipe, while the cold-end is cooled through the vehicle engine cooling cycle. The variation of vehicle engine operating conditions brings the instability of the hot-end temperature, which affects the power generation performance of thermoelectric materials and increases the damage risk to the thermoelectric materials caused by the high temperature. This research adopts the heat transfer oil circulation as the intermediate fluid to absorb the dynamic heat flux of the vehicle engine exhaust so as to release the heat steadily to the hot-end of the thermoelectric module. The thermal characteristics of the target diesel vehicle engine exhaust gas are evaluated based on the experimental data firstly.
Technical Paper

Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Study of Gasoline Engine Exhaust Manifold Based on Weak Coupling of CFD and FE

This paper combines fluid software STAR-CCM+ and finite element software ABAQUS to solve the temperature field of this Gasoline engine exhaust manifold based on loose coupling method. Through the simulation of car parking cooling - full load condition at full speed, we estimate thermal fatigue life of the exhaust manifold with the plastic strain increment as the evaluation parameters. It can guide the direction of optimal design of the exhaust manifold. Here we also revealed how the bolt force affects the manifold elastic and plastic behavior.
Technical Paper

Thermal Stability Research of Vehicle Exhaust Waste-Heat Recovery System with Intermediate Medium

Vehicle exhaust waste-heat recovery with thermoelectric power generators can improve energy efficiency, as well as vehicle fuel economy. In the conventional structure, the hot-end of thermoelectric module is directly connected with the outer wall of the exhaust pipe, while the cold-end is connected with the water pipe’s outer wall of the vehicle engine cooling cycle. However, the variety of vehicle engine operating conditions leads to the instability of the hot-end temperature, which will reduce the generating efficiency of the thermoelectric modules and also shorten its service life. This research is on the basis of constructing a heat transfer oil circulation, and to study the action principles and implementation methods of it.
Technical Paper

The TEG Hot-End Heat Capacity’s Effect on the Power Output Stability for Harvesting Automobile Exhaust Energy

While the car ownership increasing all over the world, the unutilized thermal energy in automobile exhaust system is gradually being realized and valued by researchers around the world for better driving energy efficiency. For the unexpected urban traffic, the frequent start and stop processes as well as the acceleration and deceleration lead to the temperature fluctuation of the exhaust gas, which means the unstable hot-end temperature of the thermoelectric module generator (TEG). By arranging the heat conduction oil circulation at the hot end, the hot-end temperature’s fluctuation of the TEG can be effectively reduced, at the expense of larger system size and additional energy supply for the circulation. This research improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability by installing solid heat capacity material(SHCM) to the area between the outer wall of the exhaust pipe and the TEG, which has the merits of simple structure, none energy consumption and light weight.
Technical Paper

The Selection of Working Fluid Used in the Organic Rankine Cycle System for Hydraulic Retarder

With the improvement of occupants’ awareness on the driving safety, hydraulic retarder applications increase quickly. The traditional hydraulic retarder, on the one hand, exhausts the waste heat of transmission oil by the engine cooling system; on the other hand, the engine power should be consumed to drive the water pump and the engine cooling fan for maintaining the normal operation of the auxiliary braking system. In this study, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) instead of the traditional hydraulic retarder water-cooling system is applied to achieve the effective temperature control of the hydraulic retarder, while the waste heat of transmission oil could be recovered for saving vehicle energy consumption. The ORC fluid selection needs comprehensive consideration for the net power of the ORC and the optimal temperature range of the retarder transmission oil at both the inlet and outlet end, which is the key issue to ensure the stability and efficiency of the ORC system performance.
Technical Paper

The Research on the Temperature Control Stability of Hydraulic Retarder Oil Based on Organic Rankine Cycle

The hydraulic retarder is an auxiliary braking device generally equipped on commercial vehicles. Its oil temperature change influences the brake performance of hydraulic retarder. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a good means to recover exhausted heat. Moreover, it can cool oil and stably control oil temperature with the help of heat absorption related with evaporation. Comprehensively considering the heat-producing characteristics of hydraulic retarder and the temperature control demand, the aimed boundary conditions are determined. Also the changing rules about the working medium flow rate are obtained. In this work, the heat-producing properties of hydraulic retarder under different conditions and the oil external circulating performance is firstly analyzed. By researching the system’s adaptation to the limiting conditions, the aimed temperature to control is prescribed.
Technical Paper

The Research of the Heavy Truck’s Warming System

It’s not easy to start the engine in winter, especially in frigid highlands, because the low temperature increases the fuel’s viscosity, decreasing the lubricating oil flow ability and the storage performance of battery. Current electrical heating method can improve the engine starting performance in low temperature condition, but this method adds an external power to the engine, leading to the engine cannot maintain an efficient energy utilization. A warming device using the solar energy is designed to conserve the energy during the daytime, and directly warm up the engine at the time when the engine turns off for a long time, especially during the night. A solar collector installed on the top of the vehicle is used to convert the solar energy to the thermal energy, which is then transferred to the heat accumulator that contain the phase-change medium which can increase the heat storage performance.
Technical Paper

The Performance Study of Air-Friction Reduction System for Hydraulic Retarder

The hydraulic retarder, which is an auxiliary brake device for enhancing traffic safety, has been widely used in kinds of heavy commercial vehicles. When the vehicle equipped with the retarder is traveling in non-braking state, the transmission loss would be caused because of the stirring air between working wheels of the rotor and the stator no matter if the retarder connects in parallel or in series with the transmission [1]. This paper introduces an elaborate hydraulic retarder air-friction reduction system (AFRS) which consists of a vacuum generating module and pneumatic control module. AFRS works to reduce the air friction by decreasing the gas density between working wheels when the retarder is in non-braking state. The pneumatic control model of hydraulic retarder is built first. Then various driving conditions are considered to verify the performance of the AFRS. The stability of the AFRS is analyzed based on the complete driveline model.
Technical Paper

The Organic Medium Physical State Analysis for Engine Exhaust Thermal Recovery

The Organic Rankine Cycle System is an effective approach for recovering the engine exhaust thermal energy. The physical characteristic of the Rankine fluid is the key factor for the capacity and the stability of the expander power output. In the research, the influences of the evaporator organic medium state and flow rate on the expander power output are fully analyzed for the sufficient utilization of the waste thermal energy. Firstly, the exhaust characteristics of the diesel engine were processed by the data of the bench test. Then, the integral mathematical model of the Organic Rankine Cycle was built. Based on the comparison for the 2-zone and 3-zone evaporator, the influence for expander output are analyzed especially emphasis on the factors of engine working condition, the flow rate, temperature and state of Rankine fluid.
Technical Paper

The Modeling and Performance Analysis of the Retarder Thermal Management System

In order to obtain the comprehensive evaluation of thermal management system for the retarder, the complete driveline thermal management model is built. The characteristic parameters for the thermal management system are determined and the hydromechanical characteristics for the retarder are fixed by the rig test. On the basis of the same whole vehicle driving cycle, comparing to the traditional mechanical-drive system, the independent-drive system makes the working temperature of the heat source more stable. Meanwhile the parasitic power caused by the radiator fan is decreased markedly on the condition that the heat reject requirement of the heat source is satisfied.
Technical Paper

The Measures of Improving Power Generation Stability for Harvesting Automobile Exhaust Energy

The automobile exhaust energy can be recovered by the thermoelectric module generator(TEG). Owing to the complex urban traffic, the exhaust gas’s temperature fluctuations are resulted, which means the unstable hot-end temperature of the TEG. By installing solid heat capacity material(SHCM) to the area between the outer wall of the exhaust pipe and the TEG, it is possible to appropriately reduce the temperature fluctuation, but there is still a fluctuation of the TEG’s power output. Then by adding voltage filter circuit (VFC) after the TEG, the power output stability can be improved. This research uses SHCM and VFC to improve the stability of the exhaust gas generation. Firstly, the three-dimensional heat transfer model of the exhaust pipe thermoelectric power generation system is established. The heat capacity materials with low thermal resistance and high heat capacity were selected as the research object based on previous research.
Technical Paper

The Experimental Study and Performance Analysis of Air-Friction Reduction System for Hydraulic Retarder

The hydraulic retarder is an important auxiliary braking device for the heavy vehicle, which has some characteristics, such as the big brake torque and long duration braking, when the vehicle is traveling in braking state. However, the transmission power loss will be produced when the vehicle is traveling in non-braking state. This transmission power loss is called Air-friction. Firstly, the air flow distribution characteristics of retarder cavity are studied by computational fluid mechanics, and the Air-friction characteristic in different conditions is analyzed. Then, according to the Air-friction characteristics for the condition of different filling density, a set of vacuum air loss reduction system is designed. Meanwhile, the test bench for retarder Air-friction is set up, the test data of the revolution speed, pressure in cavity and air loss resistance is obtained according to the test bench for hydraulic retarder.
Technical Paper

The Energy Saving of Cooling Fan with Electro-Hydraulic Motors Based on Fuzzy Control

The cooling system with two fans is generally driven by electrical motors in the small cars. Compared with the traditional cars, heavy duty trucks have the larger heat dissipation power of cooling system. The motors power consumption of dual fans will be larger and the two electrical motors will occupy a large space in the engine cabin. Hydrostatic drive refers to the cooling fan is driven by hydraulic motor, but it has the low transmission efficiency. According to the engine water temperature value and the actual working status of the hydraulic system, the actual speed of cooling fan can be controlled by the computer, which guarantees the normal working water temperature of the engine. Hydrostatic drive is generally applied to heavy vehicles, engineering machinery and excavators as driving source of cooling fan which contains the advantages of large output power, overload protection, continuous speed regulation and flexible space arrangements.
Technical Paper

The Effect Factors and Location Planning Method Study of a Novel Car-Sharing Network

With the development of the Internet for vehicles, the Car-sharing has been developed rapidly in recent years. This paper focuses on the network programming and distribution for Car-sharing, which helps to clarify the characteristics and basic law of Car-sharing network development, as well as the main approaches to construct it. Firstly, by analyzing the effect factors and expanding ways of Car-sharing network, characteristics of the development of Car-sharing industry and its network, as well as main Car-sharing users and services, the influence factors of Car-sharing demand and the main demand points in a city are summarized. Secondly, in order to better evaluate the network programming and distribution for Car-sharing, this paper proposes an optimization decision method of the car-sharing network planning by evaluating the possible alternatives in a same scale. The assessment index of Car-sharing network planning is constructed.
Technical Paper

The Application of the PUREM SCR System on YC6L350-40 HD Diesel Engine

In order to meet the Euro IV HD diesel engine emission standard legislation limits, an efficient SCR system is adopted for PM optimized YC6L350-40 HD diesel engine serving in China. This paper presents tests made on the engine. The engine had base NOx emission of 8.8g/kwh over the ESC and 8.7g/kwh over the ETC. Outfitted with a 24.7 liter 300cpsi SCR catalyst, the engine NOx emission dropped to 3.2g/kwh over the ESC and 3.5g/kwh over the ETC.
Journal Article

Study on the Unsteady Heat Transfer of Engine Exhaust Manifold Based on the Analysis Method of Serial

In order to predict the thermal fatigue life of the internal combustion engine exhaust manifold effectively, it was necessary to accurately obtain the unsteady heat transfer process between hot streams and exhaust manifold all the time. This paper began with the establishment of unsteady coupled heat transfer model by using serial coupling method of CFD and FEA numerical simulations, then the bidirectional thermal coupling analysis between fluid and structure was realized, as a result, the difficulty that the transient thermal boundary conditions were applied to the solid boundary was solved. What's more, the specific coupling mode, the physical quantities delivery method on the coupling interface and the surface mesh match were studied. On this basis, the differences between strong coupling method and portioned treatment for solving steady thermal stress numerical analysis were compared, and a more convenient and rapid method for solving static thermal stress was found.
Technical Paper

Study on Variable Combustion Chamber (VCC) Engines

A patented VCC (variable combustion chamber) piston mechanism is presented, by which excess in-cylinder pressure would be able to be limited effectively based on each working cycle while a spark-ignition engine running with higher CR (compression ratio) of 12.0:1. A conventional engine can be converted to a VCC engine just by replacing its typical pistons with VCC pistons. Besides the benefits that VCR (Variable Compression Ratio) has been still pursued so far, there would be other advantages for VCC engine, such as excellent fuel economy at each load not only at light loads, and the improvement of cycle-by-cycle variation of in-cylinder pressure, and high reliability with simple structure. The innovative design of VCC piston is introduced. The main design features of VCC piston are a VCC mechanism assembled between the piston crown and the piston skirt, and a special reset cam assembled at the wrist-pin end of the connecting rod.
Technical Paper

Study on Diesel-LPG Dual Fuel Engines

A new type of dual fuel supply system has been developed. This system is able to economically convert conventional diesel engines into dual-fuel engines like LPG/Diesel engines and CNG/Diesel engines, which are capable of either using single diesel fuel or using dual-fuel including both diesel and CNG fuel or both diesel and LPG fuel. These diesel-LPG engines have been applied to the diesel buses in the public transportation of Guangzhou city, one of the biggest cities in China, owning to their low soot emissions, excellent operating performances and extremely low cost as well. Compared with the diesel baseline engine, it was found that there were a significant reduction in soot emission and an improvement of the fuel consumption with the diesel-LPG engine. Also the strategy on LPG content is discussed in order to meet the demands for soot emission, fuel economy, transient performance and output power at the same time.
Technical Paper

Study of Energy Recovery System Based on Organic Rankine Cycle for Hydraulic Retarder

The hydraulic retarder is an auxiliary braking device used in heavy duty vehicle. It generates braking forceby liquid damping effect and makes inertial energy into thermal energy of the transmission medium when the vehicleis in thedownhill. The traditional thermal management system of the hydraulic retarder dissipates the heat of transmission medium out of the vehicle directly, which causes a big waste of energy, meanwhilethe thermal management system components need to consume engine power. This study applies organic Rankine cycle (ORC)cooling system to meet the high power cooling requirements of the hydraulic retarder and recover waste heat energy from the transmission medium at the same time and then supply energy to the thermal management system, which could save the parasitic power of the engine and improve the comprehensive energy utilization ratio of the vehicle.