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Technical Paper

The Investigation of Mixture Formation and Combustion with Port Injection System by Visualization of Flame and Wall Film

Mixture formation is one of the most important factors for the combustion in the spark ignition engine with port fuel injection. The relation between combustion and mixture quality, however, is not quantitatively well established. In this study, the connection of combustion and mixture formation was explored with various measurement techniques. Borescopes were used in order to investigate the flame propagation in the combustion chamber and behavior of spray and fuel film on the wall in the intake port. For the purpose of investigation on the effect of mixture formation, various port fuel injection systems and parameters were tested and compared: direction, timing, and size of droplet. An SI engine for small vehicle was used under condition of 4 000 rpm. The investigation by images obtained has shown that inhomogeneity of mixture causes low combustion stability, especially due to direct introduction of fuel droplets into the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Port Fuel Injection on Combustion of a Small Displacement Engine for Motorcycle

The demands on internal combustion engines for low emissions and fuel consumption are increasing year by year. On the other hand, engines to be used in motorcycles need to provide high output and quick response to meet user desire. In order to realize low fuel consumption while keeping high performance, it is necessary to properly understand cyclic variations during combustion as well as the influence of the injection system on fuel control during transient periods. The current paper reports on the results of a study in the influence of port fuel injection on combustion stability in a small displacement motorcycle engine, using both a series of experiments and CFD. The parameters of the injection systems under study are: (1) injection targeted area, (2) injection timing, and (3) fuel droplet size. The results of the current study show that injection aimed at the upstream wall yielded the best combustion stability.
Technical Paper

Study on Characteristics of Gasoline Fueled HCCI Using Negative Valve Overlap

Gasoline fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion with internal exhaust gas re-circulation using Negative Valve Overlap (NOL) was investigated by means of calculation and experiment in order to apply this technology to practical use with sufficient operating range and with acceptable emission and fuel consumption. In this paper we discuss the basic characteristics of NOL-HCCI with emphasis on the influence of intake valve timing on load range, residual gas fraction and induction air flow rate. Emission and fuel consumption under various operation conditions are also discussed. A water-cooled 250cc single cylinder engine with a direct injection system was used for this study. Three sets of valve timing were selected to investigate the effect of intake valve opening duration. Experimental results demonstrated that an engine speed of approximately 2000rpm yields an NMEP (Net Mean Effective Pressure) range from 200kPa to 400kPa.
Technical Paper

Predictive Simulation of PFI Engine Combustion and Emission

This paper reports a methodology to estimate combustion pattern and emission by predictive simple simulation with good accuracy on various conditions of PFI engine. 3D-CFD cord VECTIS has been applied for this simulation, its settings and methods are as follows. RANS equation with liner k-epsilon model has been used as the turbulence model. Turbulent burning velocity equation contains not only turbulent velocity term but also laminar burning velocity term. For ignition model, we use a predictive model called DPIK. We iterate cycle calculation until wallfilm behavior is stabilized to get the reasonable mixture formation. We have applied this methodology to 125cc engine of motorcycle. As a result, we have obtained heat release curve and pressure curve with good accuracy on various operating conditions such as engine speed, engine load, air fuel ratio, wall temperature, and spray direction. CO and NOx calculated simultaneously have also been acceptable.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection and Flame Propagation on Combustion in Motorcycle Engine - Investigation by Visualization Technique

This paper reports visualization of behavior of spray, wall film, and initial flame propagation in an SI engine with port fuel injection system for motorcycle in order to directly investigate their influences on combustion and relations among them. Borescopes were used to visualize the flame propagation in the combustion chamber and wall film in the intake port. Various injection systems and injection parameters were tested: injection direction, timing, and size of droplets to investigate the effect of mixture formation. It is concluded that combustion stability under low load condition is greatly influenced by mixture inhomogeneity in the combustion chamber whose evidence is the luminous emission. It is caused by direct induction of considerable amount of liquid fuel with large size of droplets into combustion chamber or too inhomogeneous mixture in the intake port.
Technical Paper

Development of Motorcycle Engine Starting System Simulation Considering Air-Fuel Ratio Control

Recently the response of the engine speed at starting has more importance than ever for quick start satisfying rider’s needs, as well as exhaust emissions. We have developed a simulation for studying engine and starter specifications, engine control algorithm and other engine control parameters. This system can be utilized to realize appropriate starting time by considering air-fuel ratio under various conditions. This paper addresses what are taken account of in our method. Examples applying this to a conventional motorcycle engine are shown.
Technical Paper

Analyses of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation of Combustion and In-Cylinder Flow in a Port Injection Gasoline Engine Using PIV and PLIF Techniques

Reduction in the cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of combustion in internal combustion engines is required to reduce fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, and improve drivability. CCV increases at low load operations and lean/dilute burn conditions. Specifically, the factors that cause CCV of combustion are the cyclic variations of in-cylinder flow, in-cylinder distributions of fuel concentration, temperature and residual gas, and ignition energy. However, it is difficult to measure and analyze these factors in a production engine. This study used an optically accessible single-cylinder engine in which combustion and optical measurements were performed for 45 consecutive cycles. CCVs of the combustion and in-cylinder phenomena were investigated for the same cycle. Using this optically accessible engine, the volume inside the combustion chamber, including the pent-roof region can be observed through a quartz cylinder.