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Journal Article

Torque Control of Rear Wheel by Using Inverse Dynamics of Rubber/Aramid Belt Continuous Variable Transmission

This paper concerns a torque control of a rear wheel of a motorcycle equipped with a rubber/aramid belt electronically-controlled continuous variable transmission where a primary sheave position is controlled by an electric motor. In particular, the paper discusses a method to calculate a required engine torque and a required primary sheave position, given reference values of a rear-wheel torque and an engine rotational velocity. The method forms a foundation of a hierarchized traction control where a higher control layer decides an optimal motorcycle motion (rear-wheel torque and engine rotational velocity) and a lower control layer realizes the motion by actuators (engine torque and primary sheave position). Difficulties of the control are due to large mechanical compliance of the rubber/aramid belt, which leads to an inevitable lag from the primary sheave position to a speed reduction ratio.
Journal Article

Reduced-Order Modeling of Intake Air Dynamics in Single-Cylinder Four-Stroke Engine

This study deals with reduced-order modeling of intake air dynamics in single-cylinder four-stroke naturally-aspirated spark-ignited engines without surge tanks. It provides an approximate calculation method for embedded micro computers to estimate intake manifold pressures in real time. The calculation method is also applicable to multi-cylinder engines with individual throttle bodies since the engines can be equated with parallelization of the single-cylinder engines. In this paper, we illustrate the intake air dynamics, describe a method to estimate the intake manifold pressures, and show experimental results of the method.