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Technical Paper

Visual Study Focused on the Combustion Problem in Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

Combustion phenomena inside the actual Gasoline-Direct-Injection (GDI) engines have been drawing high attention to its emission characteristics as well as its potential to deal with ultra lean mixture. Although the detailed observation is necessary for its improvement, combustion visualization seems to be strangely overlooked for some reason. This study focuses on the direct observation of GDI combustion to clarify the difficulties behind GDI concept by using a test engine of an actual “wall-guided” configuration and by comparing GDI spray quality with diesel spray in a high-pressure constant volume bomb. The results show that some of the problems about GDI combustion seem to be rather essential than easily conquered, which suggests the necessity for another combustion concept.
Technical Paper

The Relationship Between Port Shape and Engine Performance for Two-Stroke Engines

Measurement using a three-dimensional anemometric-tester was made for the gas flow inside the cylinder of a two-stroke engine while the shape of the transfer port was modified. The relationship between port shape and engine performance was investigated for various factors that characterize the flow in cylinder. In this paper, we focused mainly on two engine running conditions: the maximum output at 11750 rpm and the output at 10000 rpm. As a result, we found that the maximum output is most related to the tangential inclination angles of the main transfer port, and the inner vent radius of the main transfer duct.
Technical Paper

The Investigation of Mixture Formation and Combustion with Port Injection System by Visualization of Flame and Wall Film

Mixture formation is one of the most important factors for the combustion in the spark ignition engine with port fuel injection. The relation between combustion and mixture quality, however, is not quantitatively well established. In this study, the connection of combustion and mixture formation was explored with various measurement techniques. Borescopes were used in order to investigate the flame propagation in the combustion chamber and behavior of spray and fuel film on the wall in the intake port. For the purpose of investigation on the effect of mixture formation, various port fuel injection systems and parameters were tested and compared: direction, timing, and size of droplet. An SI engine for small vehicle was used under condition of 4 000 rpm. The investigation by images obtained has shown that inhomogeneity of mixture causes low combustion stability, especially due to direct introduction of fuel droplets into the combustion chamber.
Journal Article

The Effect of Surface Morphology of Cylinder Bore Surface on Anti-Scuffing Property made by High Pressure Die-Casting Process using Hyper-Eutectic Al-Si Alloy

A monolithic type aluminum (Al) cylinder made of hypereutectic Aluminum-Silicon alloy has been widely used for motorcycle applications. It has a lightweight structure and a superior cooling ability owing to its material property and surface finishing. Usually the cylinder bore surface of the monolithic type Al cylinder is finished by an etching process or a honing process in order to expose silicon (Si) particles from aluminum (Al) matrix for the improvement of the tribological properties. The morphology of the cylinder bore surface including the exposure of Si particles is supposed to make an important effect on its tribological properties, especially on the anti-scuffing property. In this research, the anti-scuffing property of three kinds of cylinder bore finishing, an etched surface, a Si exposure honed surface and a conventional plateau honed surface is evaluated with using a reciprocated type wear tester. The experimental results are analyzed by using Weibull analysis.
Technical Paper

The Control of the Primary Inertia Force and Moments Produced in Engines with Three Cylinders or Less

All the primary inertia forces and/or moments generated by engines having three cylinders or less are not normally in balance by themselves and thus may be a great source of vibration for the frame supporting the engine. If the mass distribution of the crankwebs is selected in a proper manner, it is possible to determine arbitrarily the directions and the length ratio of principal axes of ellipses, which are obtained as Lissajous diagrams of inertia force and moment. This method can be effectively applied to reduce vibration in the frames. In this paper the appropriate inertia force and moment ellipse equations are developed and the analysis is outlined for optimizing the engine balance. Also the fundamental properties of the linear vibration systems excited by the elliptical forces as well as some experimental examples of elliptical excitation are detailed.
Technical Paper

Study of bonded valve-seat system (BVS)

The Bonded Valve Seat System is the latest technology to realize drastic reduction in valve temperature in SI engines characterized by the good thermal conductivity of extremely thin valve seats bonded directly on the aluminum cylinder head. A unique and highly rationalized resistance bonding technique was developed to maintain adequate bonding strength and positioning precision in a short bonding period of around one second. Engineering data on optimization of bonding-section geometry, valve seat material and the surface treatment and bonding parameters were presented and discussed regarding the mechanism. The geometry of the bonding section of the cylinder head was optimized by FEM analysis so that the aluminum material should deform to embed the valve seat ring with the action of expelling the surface contamination and the oxide film. The bonding facility was modified so that the electrode axis should move flexibly according to distortion of the cylinder head during bonding.
Technical Paper

Section Flow Improvement of Plasma Spray Cylinder in Outboard Motor

The two-stroke engines were in the main stream of the outboard motors, but they have been replaced with the four-stroke counterparts reflecting the environmental protection movement in recent years. However, the replacement with four-stroke engines involves increased number of components and additional displacement, and the outboard motors tend to be larger and heavier. This represents an issue, since the maneuverability of the boat is degraded due to the inappropriate weight distribution on the boat. Yamaha outboard motors F300B and VF250A, of which the production started in the year 2009, are equipped with four-stroke engines, and yet achieved the light weight equivalent to their two-stroke counterparts. The production volume of these models reached 20,000 units.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Disagreeable Idle Sound in Two-Stroke Engines

A periodic impulsive sound at idle is occasionally described as ‘disagreeable’ in two-stroke engines. The relation between combustion conditions, piston vibrations, and the disagreeable sound is analyzed to clarify the phenomena. Some means to alleviate disagreeable sound are then proposed through stabilized combustion, high rigidity sound transfer systems, and refined skirt profiles. Experimental results are shown for the effects on main three factors evaluating disagreeable sound-loudness, impulsiveness, and frequency characteristics. In addition, piston behavior is measured, and the relation between piston motion and disagreeable sound is discussed in this paper.
Journal Article

Reduced-Order Modeling of Intake Air Dynamics in Single-Cylinder Four-Stroke Engine

This study deals with reduced-order modeling of intake air dynamics in single-cylinder four-stroke naturally-aspirated spark-ignited engines without surge tanks. It provides an approximate calculation method for embedded micro computers to estimate intake manifold pressures in real time. The calculation method is also applicable to multi-cylinder engines with individual throttle bodies since the engines can be equated with parallelization of the single-cylinder engines. In this paper, we illustrate the intake air dynamics, describe a method to estimate the intake manifold pressures, and show experimental results of the method.
Technical Paper

Prototype of Centralized Control System Utilizing Optical Communication for Motorcycles

A centralized control system utilizing optical communication has been developed. Except for the ignition system, almost all electrical functions are under the centralized control. As a method of simplifying wire harness, the time division multiplex communication system using optical communication is adopted. As a result, this new system has made it possible to reduce the number of wires in wire harness from 174 to 123, that of connectors from 60 to 50, and the weight of the wire harness from 1,600 g to 1,350 g. In addition, this system has allowed to reduce the control units (relays) from 11 to 2 (excluding the ignition system).
Technical Paper

Piston Friction Losses in High-Speed Engines

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the piston shape and weight on the friction losses. The motoring test was conducted on pistons with various shapes, rigidities, and weights at 3000-16000 rpm. The test results suggested that the piston friction loss would be abruptly increased mainly because of the increase in the skirt friction caused by the change of the piston attitude. Then, the piston behavioral simulation was conducted using a two-dimensional rigid model in consideration of the skirt rigidity, which proved the above suggestion. This paper consists of the paper presented at 1990 JSAE Autumn Convention and the results of the investigation we conducted based on the calculation of piston behavioral simulation.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Multi-Valve Four Cycle Engine Design-The Benefit of Five-Valve Technology

THE MULTI-VALVE FOUR STROKE CYCLE engine design trend is Coward increased engine power and higher fuel efficiency. While a four-valve system is the most common direction, problems occur when the valve area is widened by increasing the cylinder bore for a higher engine output. The layout of four larger valves causes the combustion chamber shape to flatten and the combustion time period to increase. In pursuit of the optimum multi-valve engine we have studied four, five, six and seven-valve per cylinder design. Performance targets and design constraints led us toward the successful five-valve engine technology. This technology develops high engine torque and efficient combustion over a wide range of engine speeds.
Technical Paper

L.D.V. Measurements of Pipe Flows in a Small-Two-Cycle Spark-lgnition Engine

A laser Doppler velocimeter is used to measure in real time the velocities of pipe flows in a crankcase-scavenged small two-cycle engine with piston and reed valves. Consequently the optical windows in each pipe must be exchanged instantly by using rotary window systems. The flows in both the inlet and exhaust pipes show different patterns in the motored and firing conditions, but the flows in the scavenging pipe are in a similar pattern regardless of the operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection and Flame Propagation on Combustion in Motorcycle Engine - Investigation by Visualization Technique

This paper reports visualization of behavior of spray, wall film, and initial flame propagation in an SI engine with port fuel injection system for motorcycle in order to directly investigate their influences on combustion and relations among them. Borescopes were used to visualize the flame propagation in the combustion chamber and wall film in the intake port. Various injection systems and injection parameters were tested: injection direction, timing, and size of droplets to investigate the effect of mixture formation. It is concluded that combustion stability under low load condition is greatly influenced by mixture inhomogeneity in the combustion chamber whose evidence is the luminous emission. It is caused by direct induction of considerable amount of liquid fuel with large size of droplets into combustion chamber or too inhomogeneous mixture in the intake port.
Technical Paper

Improving the Fuel Consumption of Small Motorcycle Engine with YMJET-FI

A construction of the technology concerning fuel consumption improvement is an important problem not only for the four-wheeled vehicle but also for the motorcycle in recent years when petroleum resources are depleted rapidly. Yamaha originally developed a new fuel injection system (YMJET-FI) and applied the system to a single cylinder, water-cooled and small-displacement engine. In this paper, we would introduce the results of improving the fuel economy with keeping high performance. Improvements were noted in three matters, namely, in the lower load range, 1.Strengthening of in-cylinder flow, 2.Atomization of fuel spray, and 3.Reduction of wall film quantity.
Journal Article

Improvement of the Startability with Reverse Stroke Intake Devices for a Motorcycle Engine

This paper proposes a novel engine starter system composed of a small-power electric motor and a simple mechanical valve train. The system makes it possible to design more efficient starters than conventional systems, and it is especially effective to restart engines equipped with idling stop systems. Recently, several idling stop systems, having intelligent start-up functions and highly-efficient generate capabilities have been proposed for motorcycles. One of challenges of the idling stop systems is the downsizing of electric motors for starting-up. However, there are many limitations to downsize the electric motors in the conventional idling stop systems, since the systems utilize the forward-rotational torque of the electric motors to compress the air-fuel mixture gas in the cylinders. Our studies exceeded the limitations of downsizing the electric motors by mainly using the engine combustion energy instead of the electric energy to go over the first compression top dead center.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection System for Small Motorcycles

Attempts have been made to develop an electronically controlled fuel injection system that is ideal for small motorcycles, cost-efficient, compact, and electric power-saving while maintaining accuracy. For reducing the number of sensors and cost, highly accurate methods have been developed for the measurement of intake air mass, detection of acceleration, distinction of engine stroke, and estimation of atmospheric pressure without using a throttle position sensor, cam timing sensor, and barometric sensor in such a manner as to carry out sampling with the intake manifold pressure of single-cylinder engines synchronizing with the crank angle. For compactness and electric power saving, an injector and in-tank fuel pump module have been developed for small motorcycles.
Journal Article

Friction Measurement of Al-17%Si Monolithic Cylinder with using Newly Developed Floating Liner Device

The improvement of fuel consumption is the most important issue for engine manufactures from the viewpoint of energy and environment conservation. A piston-cylinder system plays an important role for the reduction of an engine friction. For the improvement of the frictional behavior of the piston-cylinder system, it is beneficial to observe and analyze the frictional waveforms during an engine operation. To meet the above-mentioned demand, frictional waveforms were measured with using the renewed floating liner device. In the newly developed floating liner device, an actual cylinder block itself was used as a test specimen. The measured single cylinder was an aluminum monolithic type made of hypereutectic Al-17%Si alloy using a high pressure die casting process. The combined piston was a light weight forged piston and a DLC coated piston ring was used. For the measurement, 110cc air cooled single cylinder engine was used.
Technical Paper

Flow, Combustion and Emissions in a Five-Valve Research Gasoline Engine

The in-cylinder flow, mixture distribution, combustion and exhaust emissions in a research, five-valve purpose-built gasoline engine are discussed on the basis of measurements obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), fast spark-plug hydrocarbon sampling, flame imaging and NOx/HC emissions using fast chemiluminescent and flame ionisation detectors/analysers. These measurements have been complemented by steady flow testing of various cylinder head configurations, involving single- and three-valve operation, in terms of flow capacity and in-cylinder tumble strength.
Technical Paper

Development of a Piston Secondary Motion Analysis Program with Elastically Deformable Piston Skirt

An original multi-body dynamics simulation program for reciprocating engine system with elastically deformable piston skirt was developed in order to understand and examine the secondary motion of piston. This program uses specialized equations of motion using only the rotational degree of freedom of each components taking the valiation of rotating speed of crank into account. In order to validate the practical use of this program, the calculations were compared with the measurements on the piston motion of a two-stroke engine for motorcycles and a four-stroke engine for automobiles, and good agreements were obtained between them.