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Technical Paper

Visual Study Focused on the Combustion Problem in Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

Combustion phenomena inside the actual Gasoline-Direct-Injection (GDI) engines have been drawing high attention to its emission characteristics as well as its potential to deal with ultra lean mixture. Although the detailed observation is necessary for its improvement, combustion visualization seems to be strangely overlooked for some reason. This study focuses on the direct observation of GDI combustion to clarify the difficulties behind GDI concept by using a test engine of an actual “wall-guided” configuration and by comparing GDI spray quality with diesel spray in a high-pressure constant volume bomb. The results show that some of the problems about GDI combustion seem to be rather essential than easily conquered, which suggests the necessity for another combustion concept.
Technical Paper

Valve Motion Simulation Method for High-Speed Internal Combustion Engines

Abnormal valve gear vibration is a perennial problem confronting the designer of high-performance 4-stroke engines. It would shorten time and reduce costs if an analytical method could be applied to the prediction of engine valve behavior. This paper describes a method of valve motion simulation for both SOHC and DOHC valve gears through interactive calculation and using computer graphics. The authors tried to set up as simple a simulation model as possible by using modal analysis and modeling techniques. Through setting simulation model parameters and experimental damping factors, a close correlation between calculated and actually measured results was found.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Three-Dimensional Computations of the Penetration Length and Mixing Process of Various Single High-Speed Gas Jets for Engines

For various densities of gas jets including very light hydrogen and relatively heavy ones, the penetration length and diffusion process of a single high-speed gas fuel jet injected into air are computed by performing a large eddy simulation (LES) with fewer arbitrary constants applied for the unsteady three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equation. In contrast, traditional ensemble models such as the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation have several arbitrary constants for fitting purposes. The cubic-interpolated pseudo-particle (CIP) method is employed for discretizing the nonlinear terms. Computations of single-component nitrogen and hydrogen jets were done under initial conditions of a fuel tank pressure of gas fuel = 10 MPa and back pressure of air = 3.5 MPa, i.e., the pressure level inside the combustion chamber after piston compression in the engine.
Journal Article

Torque Control of Rear Wheel by Using Inverse Dynamics of Rubber/Aramid Belt Continuous Variable Transmission

This paper concerns a torque control of a rear wheel of a motorcycle equipped with a rubber/aramid belt electronically-controlled continuous variable transmission where a primary sheave position is controlled by an electric motor. In particular, the paper discusses a method to calculate a required engine torque and a required primary sheave position, given reference values of a rear-wheel torque and an engine rotational velocity. The method forms a foundation of a hierarchized traction control where a higher control layer decides an optimal motorcycle motion (rear-wheel torque and engine rotational velocity) and a lower control layer realizes the motion by actuators (engine torque and primary sheave position). Difficulties of the control are due to large mechanical compliance of the rubber/aramid belt, which leads to an inevitable lag from the primary sheave position to a speed reduction ratio.
Technical Paper

The Relationship Between Port Shape and Engine Performance for Two-Stroke Engines

Measurement using a three-dimensional anemometric-tester was made for the gas flow inside the cylinder of a two-stroke engine while the shape of the transfer port was modified. The relationship between port shape and engine performance was investigated for various factors that characterize the flow in cylinder. In this paper, we focused mainly on two engine running conditions: the maximum output at 11750 rpm and the output at 10000 rpm. As a result, we found that the maximum output is most related to the tangential inclination angles of the main transfer port, and the inner vent radius of the main transfer duct.
Technical Paper

The Investigation of Mixture Formation and Combustion with Port Injection System by Visualization of Flame and Wall Film

Mixture formation is one of the most important factors for the combustion in the spark ignition engine with port fuel injection. The relation between combustion and mixture quality, however, is not quantitatively well established. In this study, the connection of combustion and mixture formation was explored with various measurement techniques. Borescopes were used in order to investigate the flame propagation in the combustion chamber and behavior of spray and fuel film on the wall in the intake port. For the purpose of investigation on the effect of mixture formation, various port fuel injection systems and parameters were tested and compared: direction, timing, and size of droplet. An SI engine for small vehicle was used under condition of 4 000 rpm. The investigation by images obtained has shown that inhomogeneity of mixture causes low combustion stability, especially due to direct introduction of fuel droplets into the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Port Fuel Injection on Combustion of a Small Displacement Engine for Motorcycle

The demands on internal combustion engines for low emissions and fuel consumption are increasing year by year. On the other hand, engines to be used in motorcycles need to provide high output and quick response to meet user desire. In order to realize low fuel consumption while keeping high performance, it is necessary to properly understand cyclic variations during combustion as well as the influence of the injection system on fuel control during transient periods. The current paper reports on the results of a study in the influence of port fuel injection on combustion stability in a small displacement motorcycle engine, using both a series of experiments and CFD. The parameters of the injection systems under study are: (1) injection targeted area, (2) injection timing, and (3) fuel droplet size. The results of the current study show that injection aimed at the upstream wall yielded the best combustion stability.
Technical Paper

The Evaluation Method of Surge on Motorcycles

We studied the mechanism of occurrence and evaluation of the surge that is produced in motorcycles equipped with 2-stroke cycle engines by simultaneously measuring chassis behavior and combustion. When modal analysis was performed by measuring the acceleration of each chassis component while placing the test vehicle on a chassis dynamo, it was found that pitching, in which the tires serve as springs, and resonance, generated from the rear suspension spring, occurred simultaneously during surge generation. The major component that is felt physically is pitching. Although a certain degree of correlation was observed between fluctuations in combustion and occurrence of pitching, since the drive line contains a large amount of back lash, the system has a high degree of non-linearity, thus making it difficult to obtain a well-defined correlation.
Journal Article

The Effect of Surface Morphology of Cylinder Bore Surface on Anti-Scuffing Property made by High Pressure Die-Casting Process using Hyper-Eutectic Al-Si Alloy

A monolithic type aluminum (Al) cylinder made of hypereutectic Aluminum-Silicon alloy has been widely used for motorcycle applications. It has a lightweight structure and a superior cooling ability owing to its material property and surface finishing. Usually the cylinder bore surface of the monolithic type Al cylinder is finished by an etching process or a honing process in order to expose silicon (Si) particles from aluminum (Al) matrix for the improvement of the tribological properties. The morphology of the cylinder bore surface including the exposure of Si particles is supposed to make an important effect on its tribological properties, especially on the anti-scuffing property. In this research, the anti-scuffing property of three kinds of cylinder bore finishing, an etched surface, a Si exposure honed surface and a conventional plateau honed surface is evaluated with using a reciprocated type wear tester. The experimental results are analyzed by using Weibull analysis.
Technical Paper

The Control of the Primary Inertia Force and Moments Produced in Engines with Three Cylinders or Less

All the primary inertia forces and/or moments generated by engines having three cylinders or less are not normally in balance by themselves and thus may be a great source of vibration for the frame supporting the engine. If the mass distribution of the crankwebs is selected in a proper manner, it is possible to determine arbitrarily the directions and the length ratio of principal axes of ellipses, which are obtained as Lissajous diagrams of inertia force and moment. This method can be effectively applied to reduce vibration in the frames. In this paper the appropriate inertia force and moment ellipse equations are developed and the analysis is outlined for optimizing the engine balance. Also the fundamental properties of the linear vibration systems excited by the elliptical forces as well as some experimental examples of elliptical excitation are detailed.
Technical Paper

Temperature Prediction of Actual Contact Portion of the Metal Belt CVT

In a previous study by the authors, austenite (γ phase) formed on the topmost of pulleys after long term operation of continuously variable transmission (CVT) [1]. In general, martensite arising from heat treatment forms on the surface of pulleys and gears. Therefore, the sliding surface has a body-centered cubic (BCC) metal structure, and transformation into and existence of austenite (γ phase) is difficult unless there is a thermal history exceeding the eutectoid point. For the verification of that possibility, it was crucial to obtain temperature variation on the sliding surface. The major problem for such measurements was rotation of parts inside an operating CVT. In this study, uniquely developed measurement system enabled non-contact temperature measurement near the contact portion. Results were substituted to heat conduction equation to predict the temperature at the exact contact portion.
Technical Paper

Study on Characteristics of Gasoline Fueled HCCI Using Negative Valve Overlap

Gasoline fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion with internal exhaust gas re-circulation using Negative Valve Overlap (NOL) was investigated by means of calculation and experiment in order to apply this technology to practical use with sufficient operating range and with acceptable emission and fuel consumption. In this paper we discuss the basic characteristics of NOL-HCCI with emphasis on the influence of intake valve timing on load range, residual gas fraction and induction air flow rate. Emission and fuel consumption under various operation conditions are also discussed. A water-cooled 250cc single cylinder engine with a direct injection system was used for this study. Three sets of valve timing were selected to investigate the effect of intake valve opening duration. Experimental results demonstrated that an engine speed of approximately 2000rpm yields an NMEP (Net Mean Effective Pressure) range from 200kPa to 400kPa.
Technical Paper

Study of bonded valve-seat system (BVS)

The Bonded Valve Seat System is the latest technology to realize drastic reduction in valve temperature in SI engines characterized by the good thermal conductivity of extremely thin valve seats bonded directly on the aluminum cylinder head. A unique and highly rationalized resistance bonding technique was developed to maintain adequate bonding strength and positioning precision in a short bonding period of around one second. Engineering data on optimization of bonding-section geometry, valve seat material and the surface treatment and bonding parameters were presented and discussed regarding the mechanism. The geometry of the bonding section of the cylinder head was optimized by FEM analysis so that the aluminum material should deform to embed the valve seat ring with the action of expelling the surface contamination and the oxide film. The bonding facility was modified so that the electrode axis should move flexibly according to distortion of the cylinder head during bonding.
Technical Paper

Study of NOx Emissions Reduction Strategy for a Naturally Aspirated 4-Cylinder Direct Injection Hydrogen ICE

Hydrogen engines are required to provide high thermal efficiency and low nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions. There are many possible combinations of injection timing, ignition timing, lambda and EGR rate that can be used in a direct-injection system for achieving such performance. In this study, NOX emissions of natural aspirated 4 cylinders engine with management strategies involving the injection timing, ignition timing, lambda and the EGR rate were evaluated under a Japanese JE05 emissions test cycle. Finally, the paper projects the potential of direct injection hydrogen engine for obtaining high output power and attaining low NOX emissions of 0.7 g/kWh under the emission test cycle.
Technical Paper

Study of Influence of MRF Method on the Prediction of the Engine Cooling Fan Performance

MRF method is commonly used for predicting cooling performance to design vehicle engine cooling systems. Especially, the practical prediction of the cooling fan performance is one of the important issues. In the design phase of the vehicle development, combinations of multiple parameters are generally examined. Therefore, the steady RANS coupled with MRF method is indispensable. However, unfortunately, the current method does not always give enough accuracy to practical vehicle design. Thus, this paper describes that the method to determine adequate MRF-region to predict the fan performance in practical accuracy.
Journal Article

Strain Analysis of Belt Element-Pulley Interaction of an Automobile CVT under Actual Vehicle Speed Condition

In order to improve shift response, durability and transmission efficiency of the CVT system, it is essential to precisely understand the behavior of individual belt elements. Although there have been some previous works measuring the strain or load on belt elements, they have been performed for speed ranges that are far below actual vehicle operation speeds due to limits in measurement techniques. We therefore developed measurement equipment that can be fitted on a CVT belt to enable measurement during actual CVT operation, and obtained the strain on belt elements under transient conditions including acceleration and transmission ratio shifts. The results showed that the strain peaks due to normal force on V faces of elements around the entrance and/or exit of the pulleys. The bending component of the strain fluctuated on the straight section from the secondary pulley to the primary pulley.
Technical Paper

Some New Development Aspects of 2-Stroke Cycle Motorcycle Engines

This paper covers certain aspects of the 2-stroke cycle, high-speed, high-output racing engine developed by Yamaha. Based upon design concepts and data from the development of the general racing engine, as well as the development of Grand Prix racing engines, this material is especially concerned with intake, scavenging, and exhaust systems. In addition, data on cooling and lubrication systems are presented.
Technical Paper

Some Development Aspects of Two-Stroke Cycle Motorcycle Engines

This paper describes aspects of YAMAHA 2 cycle, high speed, high output engines. Generally speaking, in order to obtain good results in developing engine performance, high delivery ratios and high thermal and mechanical efficiencies are essential. In addition to these, the most suitable cooling and lubricating systems must be employed. YAMAHA has developed a separate and automatic lubrication system for 2-cycle gasoline engines, which keeps YAMAHA engines well lubricated.
Technical Paper

Simple Prediction for Fuel Consumption and Cruising Distance of Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles with RFD Method

In order to develop various parts and components of vehicles, understanding the effects of their structures and thermal performance on the fuel consumption and cruising distance is important. However, because of the limited information available to parts suppliers, it is not always easy to predict and study vehicle fuel efficiency and cruising range performance under arbitrary driving conditions. In this study, the authors have developed an RFD (Regression Fuel-consumption Diagram) method to predict the cruising performance of internal-combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) based only on the published information given to suppliers by using standard reference vehicles, which had been regressed and identified for control characteristics and fuel consumption diagrams. As an example of the application of the RFD method to realistic situation, the effects of the driving mode and air-conditioning on the fuel consumption of ICEV are studied.
Technical Paper

Section Flow Improvement of Plasma Spray Cylinder in Outboard Motor

The two-stroke engines were in the main stream of the outboard motors, but they have been replaced with the four-stroke counterparts reflecting the environmental protection movement in recent years. However, the replacement with four-stroke engines involves increased number of components and additional displacement, and the outboard motors tend to be larger and heavier. This represents an issue, since the maneuverability of the boat is degraded due to the inappropriate weight distribution on the boat. Yamaha outboard motors F300B and VF250A, of which the production started in the year 2009, are equipped with four-stroke engines, and yet achieved the light weight equivalent to their two-stroke counterparts. The production volume of these models reached 20,000 units.