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Technical Paper

Use of Hydrogen Peroxide to Improve the Performance and Reduce Emissions of a CI Engine Fuelled with Water Diesel Emulsions

Use of water diesel emulsions in diesel engines reduces simultaneously smoke and NOx emissions. However the ignition delay increases and there is a rise in the HC and CO levels as well. In this work hydrogen peroxide was added to water diesel emulsion and tested in a diesel engine. Initially the engine was run with water diesel emulsion (water to diesel ratio of 0.4:1). The water diesel emulsion with a H2O2/diesel ratio of 0.05 was used. The single cylinder diesel engine was tested at the rated speed of 1500 rpm. Brake thermal efficiency increased with hydrogen peroxide from 32.6% to 33.5% as compared to the plain emulsion at full load. These values are even better than neat diesel operation. CO and HC levels decreased significantly with the addition of H2O2. HC with the neat diesel engine at full load was 50 ppm. It rose to 75 ppm with water diesel emulsion and was controlled to 50 ppm when H2O2 was used. This is due to the strong oxidizing nature of H2O2.
Technical Paper

Studies on Reducing Cycle by Cycle Variations and Improving Performance of a Small Carbureted Gasoline Engine

Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder 160cc, four stroke gasoline SI engine. Preliminary experiments were conducted on the base engine to characterize the nature of CBC (cycle by cycle) variations and the influencing parameters. The results have indicated that as the ignition advances, Peak pressure increases and its COV (Coefficient of variation) reduces. IMEP increases up to MBT (Minimum advance for Best Torque) timing and its COV reduces. HC emission and BSFC are minimum at MBT timing. The best AFR (main jet) and spark timing are selected based on low CBC variations and good performance. The engine behavior with this best timing and AFR were taken as the base line data for comparison. The combustion geometry improvement method like dual spark plug and swirl chamber (SC) with multi torch ignition is considered to be more effective for combustion rate enhancement.
Technical Paper

Studies on Dual Fuel Operation of Karanja Oil and Its Bio-Diesel with LPG as the Inducted Fuel

A diesel engine was operated with karanja oil, bio-diesel obtained from karanja oil (BDK) and diesel as pilot fuels while LPG was used as primary fuel. LPG supply was varied from zero to the maximum value that the engine could tolerate. The engine output was kept at different constant levels of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of full load. The thermal efficiency improved at high loads. Smoke level was reduced drastically at all loads. CO and HC levels were reduced at full load. There was a slight increase in the NO level. Combustion parameters indicated an increase in the ignition delay. Peak pressure and rate of pressure rise were not unfavorably affected. There was an increase in the peak heat release rate with LPG induction. The amount of LPG that could be tolerated with out knock at full load was 49%, 53% and 61% on energy basis with karanja oil, BDK and diesel as pilots.
Technical Paper

Studies On An Electronic Governor With A Stepper Motor Actuator For A Diesel Engine

A personal computer (PC) based electronic governor was developed in this work for a diesel engine. A stepper motor was used to actuate the rack of the inline fuel pump of the engine with a bell crank lever. The digital output of the system was used to control the stepper motor using special hardware. This governor was tested under different steady and transient operating conditions. The electronic governor performed satisfactorily. In most cases the speed settled down in time duration comparable to that with the mechanical governor. The electronic governor could operate with no change in the mean speed with engine output. The performance was very sensitive to the P, I and D parameters of the control software. It was felt that the system could be improved with a stepper motor of finer steps and higher torque.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of a Mini I.C. Engine

In this work, a 7.45 cc capacity glow plug based two-stroke engine for mini aircraft applications was evaluated for its performance, emissions and combustion. It uses a fuel containing 65% methanol, 25% castor oil and 10% nitromethane by volume. Since test rigs are not readily available for such small engines, a reaction type test bed with low friction linear and rolling element bearings was developed and used successfully. The propeller of the engine acted as the load and also the flywheel. Pressure time diagrams were recorded using a small piezoelectric pressure transducer. Tests were conducted at two different throttle positions and at various equivalence ratios. The brake thermal efficiency was generally in the range of 4 to 17.5% depending on the equivalence ratio and throttle position. IMEP was between 2 and 4 bar. It was found that only a part of the castor oil that was supplied participated in the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Experimental Study of Internal EGR System for NOx Control on an Off-Road Diesel Engine

This study deals with the development of an internal EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) system for NOx reduction on a six cylinder, turbocharged intercooled, off-road diesel engine based on a modified cam with secondary lift. One dimensional thermodynamic simulation model was developed using a commercially available code. MCC heat release model was refined in the present work by considering wall impingement of the fuel as given by Lakshminarayanan et al. The NOx prediction accuracy was improved to a level of 90% by a generic polynomial fit between air excess ratio and prediction constants. Simulation results of base model were correlating to more than 95% with experimental results for ISO 8178 C1 test cycle. Parametric study of intake and exhaust valve events was conducted with 2IVO (Secondary Intake Valve Opening) and 2EVO (Secondary Exhaust Valve Opening) methods. Combinations of different opening angles and lifts were chosen in both 2IVO and 2EVO methods for the study.
Technical Paper

Investigations on the Design and Performance of Two Types of Hot Surface Ignition Engines

Use of methanol and ethanol in conventional diesel engines is associated with problems on account of the high self ignition temperature of these fuels. The Hot Surface Ignition (HSI) method wherein a part of the injected fuel is made to touch an electrically heated hot surface for ignition, is an effective way of utilizing these fuels in conventional diesel engines. In the present work two types of HSI engines, one using a large ceramic base and the other using a conventional glowplug were developed. These engines were tested with methanol, M.spirit (about 90 % methanol and 10 % ethanol) and diesel. The results of performance, fuel economy emissions and combustion parameters including heat release rates for these fuels with both the types of HSI engines are presented. Diesel engines are commonly used as primemovers in the mass transportation and agricultural sectors because of their high brake thermal efficiency and reliability.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Combustion and Performance Characteristics of a Turbocharged Natural gas and Pilot Ignition Dual Fuel Engine

The increasing use of natural gas as a vehicle fuel has generated considerable research activity to characterize the performance of engines utilizing this fuel. A light duty prechamber diesel engine was run under naturally aspirated and turbocharged CNG- Diesel dual fuel mode at four engine speeds 1100, 1400, 1700 and 2000 rpm. The maximum percentage of CNG substitution continues up to the engine knock limited power. The experimental results indicate a fall in brake power under naturally aspirated CNG-Diesel dual fuel mode compared to neat diesel operation. It was due to decrease in volumetric efficiency and slower combustion. Although turbocharged dual fuel operation shows an increase in brake power as well as an improvement in brake specific energy consumption as it provides a better air/fuel mixing and improves the homogeneous natural gas/air charge.
Technical Paper

Ignition Enhancement in a Two-Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine

Conventional two-stroke spark-ignition (SI) engines have difficulty meeting the ignition requirements of lean fuel-air mixtures and high compression ratios, due to their breaker-operated, magneto-coil ignition systems. In the present work, a breakerless, high-energy electronic ignition system was developed and tested with and without a platinum-tipped-electrode spark plug. The high-energy ignition system showed an improved lean-burn capability at high compression ratios relative to the conventional ignition system. At a high compression ratio of 9:1 with lean fuel-air mixtures, the maximum percentage improvement in the brake thermal efficiency was about 16.5% at 2.7 kW and 3000 rpm. Cylinder peak pressures were higher, ignition delay was lower, and combustion duration was shorter at both normal and high compression ratios. Combustion stability as measured by the coefficient of variation in peak cylinder pressure was also considerably improved with the high-energy ignition system.
Technical Paper

HCCI Engine Operation with Acetylene the Fuel

The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines emit low levels of smoke and NOx emissions. However, control of ignition, which is mainly controlled by fuel composition, the equivalence ratio and the thermodynamic state of the mixture, is a problem. In this work, acetylene was as the fuel for operating a compression ignition engine in the HCCI mode at different outputs. The results of thermal efficiency and emissions have been compared with base diesel operation in the (compression ignition) CI mode. The relatively low self ignition temperature, wide flammability limits and gaseous nature were the reasons for selecting this fuel. Charge temperature was varied from 40 to 110°C. Thermal efficiencies were almost equal to that of CI engine operation at the correct intake charge temperature. NO levels never exceeded 20 ppm and smoke levels were always lower than 0.1 BSU. HC emissions were higher and were sensitive to charge temperature and output.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations on a Jatropha Oil Methanol Dual Fuel Engine

Use of vegetable oils in diesel engines results in increased smoke and reduced brake thermal efficiency. Dual fuel engines can use a wide range of fuels and yet operate with low smoke emissions and high thermal efficiency. In this work, a single cylinder diesel engine was converted to use vegetable oil (Jatropha oil) as the pilot fuel and methanol as the inducted primary fuel. Tests were conducted at 1500 rev/min and full load. Different quantities of methanol and Jatropha oil were used. Results of experiments with diesel as the pilot fuel and methanol as the primary fuel were used for comparison. Brake thermal efficiency increased in the dual fuel mode when both Jatropha oil and diesel were used as pilot fuels. The maximum brake thermal efficiency was 30.6% with Jatropha oil and 32.8% with diesel. Smoke was drastically reduced from 4.4 BSU with pure Jatropha oil operation to 1.6 BSU in the dual fuel mode.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations of Different Parameters Affecting the Performance of a CNG - Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

In a dual fuel engine a primary fuel that is generally a gas is mixed with air, compressed and ignited by a small pilot- spray of diesel as in a diesel engine. Dual fuel engines generally suffer from the problem of lower brake power and lower peak engine cylinder pressure due to lower volumetric efficiency, although an improvement in brake specific energy consumption is observed compared to pure diesel mode. Results indicate that with an increase in percentage of CNG substitution the brake power decreases. The exhaust gas temperature and peak cylinder pressure also decrease. The rate of pressure rise is higher at lower engine speeds (1100, 1400 rev/min), although at 1700 and 2000 rev/min it is lower. The delay period throughout the engine speed shows an increasing trend. The coefficient of variation is also higher throughout the engine speeds and shows an increasing trend. The brake specific energy consumption is lower at 1100, 1400 and 1700 rev/min and at 2000 rev/min it is higher.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Use of Water Diesel Emulsion with Oxygen Enriched Air in a DI Diesel Engine

A single cylinder, direct injection diesel engine was run on water diesel emulsion at a constant speed of 1500 rpm under variable load conditions. Water to diesel ratio of 0.4 on the mass basis was used. Tests indicated a considerable reduction in smoke and NO levels. This was accompanied by an increase in brake thermal efficiency at high outputs. HC & CO levels, ignition delay and rate of pressure rise went up. The heat release rate in the premixed burn period was higher. When the oxygen concentration in the intake air was enhanced in steps up to 25% along with the use of water diesel emulsion, the brake thermal efficiency was improved and there was a further reduction in the smoke level. HC and CO levels also dropped. NO emission went up due to increased temperature and oxygen availability. An oxygen concentration of 24% by volume was optimal as the NO levels were near about base diesel values.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Multiple Injection Strategies on Combustion Stability, Performance and Emissions in a Methanol-Diesel Dual Fuel Non-Road Engine

In this work methanol was port injected while diesel was injected using a common rail system in a single cylinder non-road CI engine. Experiments were conducted with single (SPI) and double (DPI - pilot and main) injection of the directly injected diesel at 75% load and at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The effects of methanol to diesel energy share (MDES) and injection scheduling on combustion stability, efficiency and emissions were evaluated. Initially, in the SPI mode, the methanol to diesel Energy Share (MDES) was varied, while the injection timing of diesel was always fixed for best brake thermal efficiency (BTE). Increase in the MDES resulted in a reduction in NOx and smoke emissions because of the high latent heat of vaporization of methanol and the oxygen available. Enhanced premixed combustion led to a raise in brake thermal efficiency (BTE). Coefficient of variation of IMEP, peak pressure and BTE were deteriorated which limited the usable MDES to 43%.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation and Modeling of Cycle by Cycle Variations in a Gas Fuelled S.I. Engine

Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder, four stroke S.I. engine fuelled with biogas to characterize the nature of cycle by cycle variations (CCV) at different equivalence ratios. A full cycle simulation program using a two zone model with the capability to study the effects of fluctuations in equivalence ratio on hydrocarbon emissions was developed. CCV have been modeled using the Monte Carlo simulation scheme. The scheme has the capability to account for the deterministic and stochastic effects on the inputs. The model was validated using steady state experimental data and then applied to predict UBHC (Un Burned Hydro Carbon) emissions under conditions of low to high CCV. The predictions agreed fairly well with experimental results. The model can be used to determine the influence of adjusting spark ignition timings of cycles based on individual cycle equivalence ratios.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intensified Swirl and Squish on the Performance of a Lean Burn Engine Operated on LPG

Experiments were conducted to assess the relative effects of swirl (by using a masked intake valve and by providing swirl grooves on the piston crown) and squish on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a lean burn engine operating on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at a compression ratio of 10.5 under 20% and 100% throttle opening conditions. The swirl produced by the masked intake valve configuration at 100% throttle opening resulted in improved thermal efficiency and reduced HC emission, cyclic variations, ignition delay & combustion duration as compared to swirl groove piston and enhanced squish piston. The lean misfire limit was extended and there was no increase in the NO level at any given power output. At 20% throttle with high squish, under lean mixture conditions, combustion is even better than the masked valve configuration.
Technical Paper

Development and Testing of a Novel Direct Mixture Injection System for a Two Stroke SI Engine

In this work a novel mixture injection system has been developed and tested on a two stroke scooter engine. This system admits finely atomized gasoline directly into the combustion chamber. It employs many components that were individually developed, fabricated, tested and then coupled together. A small compressor driven by the engine sends pressurized air at the correct crank angle through a timing valve. This is connected to a mechanical injector through a high pressure pipe. Fuel is metered into the high pressure pipe using a standard low pressure injector. The developed mixture injection system resulted in considerable improvements in thermal efficiency and reduction in HC emissions over the manifold injection method at all engine outputs. A considerable reduction in short circuiting losses was seen. The highest brake thermal efficiency achieved was 25.5% as against 23% with the manifold injection system.
Technical Paper

Complete Vegetable Oil Fueled Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Engine

Vegetable oils can be directly used in compression ignition engines without any modification. A dual fuel engine was run using vegetable oils as primary and pilot fuels. Small quantities of orange oil were inducted along with air and ignited after compression by a pilot spray of Jatropha oil. The energy share of orange oil was varied till 35% of the total. Methyl ester of Jatropha oil and diesel were also used as pilot fuels for comparison. Dual fuel operation with orange oil induction reduced the smoke level and improved the thermal efficiency with all pilot fuels. However, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were higher. Ignition delay was also increased. Methyl ester of Jatropha oil showed inferior performance than diesel. Performance with Jatropha oil was still inferior. On the whole it is concluded that the use of Jatropha oil and methyl ester of Jatropha oil as pilot fuels and orange oil as the inducted fuel will lead to reduced smoke levels and improved thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Comparative Studies on the Idling Performance of a Three Cylinder Passenger Car Engine Fitted with a Carburettor and a Single Point Electronic Gasoline Fuel Injection System

Experimental investigations relating to the performance and emission characteristics under idling conditions of a three cylinder passenger car spark ignition engine operating on a conventional carburettor and a developed single point gasoline fuel injection system are described in this paper. The idling performance at different engine speeds was studied by carrying out comprehensive engine testing on a test bed in two phases. In the first phase, experiments were conducted on an engine fitted with a conventional carburettor whilst they were extended to the engine provided with a developed electronic single point fuel injection (SPI) system, whose fuel spray was directed against the direction of air flow. The injection timing of the SPI system was varied from 82 deg. before inlet valve opening (or 98 deg. before top dead center) to 42 deg. after inlet valve opening (or 26 deg. after top dead center).
Technical Paper

An Ionization Current based Cylinder Gas Pressure Estimation for Knock Detection and Control in a Single Cylinder SI Engine

The ionization current across the spark plug gap is obtained by applying a constant voltage using DC power source across the spark gap after the high-voltage discharge. The methodology involves study and comparison of different knock detection methods (cylinder gas pressure, accelerometer and ion current) through literature survey, development of analytical models (ionization current, chemical equilibrium, kinetic Nitric Oxides) to estimate crank angle resolved cylinder gas pressure from the measured values of ionization current. Model refinements and validations, development of Ignition Coil integrated DC power source and ion current measurement circuit, Transistorized Coil Ignition and microcontroller based knock controller have been carried out. Experiments have been conducted to validate the model with the reference method (cylinder gas pressure).