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Summary of Icing Simulation Test Facilities

2015-09-25
CURRENT
AIR5320A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains information on most of the major icing simulation ground facilities. An effort was made to obtain data from as many facilities as possible over a two year time period. The data in this document represents the state of the facilities in calendar year 1996. Facilities are constantly changing and upgrading and, therefore, some facility specifications may change during the life of this report. Of the 27 facilities described in this report, the primary use is split with approximately half for engine testing and half for wind tunnel testing. The facilities are limited to ground facilities and, therefore, icing tankers have not been included.
Standard

Summary of Icing Simulation Test Facilities

1999-07-01
HISTORICAL
AIR5320
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains information on most of the major icing simulation ground facilities. An effort was made to obtain data from as many facilities as possible over a two year time period. The data in this document represents the state of the facilities in calendar year 1996. Facilities are constantly changing and upgrading and, therefore, some facility specifications may change during the life of this report. Of the 27 facilities described in this report, the primary use is split with approximately half for engine testing and half for wind tunnel testing. The facilities are limited to ground facilities and, therefore, icing tankers have not been included.
Standard

SAE Aerospace Applied Thermodynamics Manual Ice, Rain, Fog, and Frost Protection

2016-08-29
CURRENT
AIR1168/4B
This section presents the basic equations for computing ice protection requirements for nontransparent and transparent surfaces and for fog and frost protection of windshields. Simplified graphical presentations suitable for preliminary design and a description of various types of ice, fog, frost, and rain protection systems are also presented.
Standard

SAE Aerospace Applied Thermodynamics Manual Ice, Rain, Fog, and Frost Protection

2014-01-14
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/4A
This section presents the basic equations for computing ice protection requirements for nontransparent and transparent surfaces and for fog and frost protection of windshields. Simplified graphical presentations suitable for preliminary design and a description of various types of ice, fog, frost, and rain protection systems are also presented.
Standard

Rotor Blade Electrothermal Ice Protection Design Considerations

2019-06-14
WIP
AIR1667B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) identifies and summarizes the various factors that should be considered during design, development, certification, or testing of helicopter rotor blade ice protection systems. Although various concepts of ice protection are mentioned in this report, the text is limited generally to those factors associated with design and substantiation of cyclic electrothermal ice protection systems as applicable to the protection of helicopter rotor blades. Other systems are described briefly in Appendix A. Applications consider main rotor blades, conventional tail rotor blades, and other types of antitorque devices. The information contained in this report is also limited to the identification of factors that should be considered and why the factor is important. Specific design, analysis and test methodologies are not included. For additional information refer to the references listed in 2.1.
Standard

Rotor Blade Electrothermal Ice Protection Design Considerations

2002-09-30
CURRENT
AIR1667A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) identifies and summarizes the various factors that should be considered during design, development, certification, or testing of helicopter rotor blade ice protection systems. Although various concepts of ice protection are mentioned in this report, the text is limited generally to those factors associated with design and substantiation of cyclic electrothermal ice protection systems as applicable to the protection of helicopter rotor blades. Other systems are described briefly in Appendix A. Applications consider main rotor blades, conventional tail rotor blades, and other types of antitorque devices. The information contained in this report is also limited to the identification of factors that should be considered and why the factor is important. Specific design, analysis and test methodologies are not included. For additional information refer to the references listed in 2.1.
Standard

ROTOR BLADE ELECTROTHERMAL ICE PROTECTION DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

1989-10-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1667
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) identifies and summarizes the various factors that should be considered during design, development, certification, or testing of helicopter rotor blade ice protection. Although various concepts of ice protection are mentioned in this report, the text is limited generally to those factors associated with design and substantiation of cyclic electrothermal ice protection systems as applicable to the protection of helicopter rotor blades. Other systems are described briefly in Appendix A. Applications consider main rotor blades, conventional tail rotor blades, and other types of antitorque devices. The information contained in this report is also limited to the identification of factors that should be considered and why the factor is important. Specific design, analysis and test methodologies are not included. For additional information refer to the references in Section 7.
Standard

Icing Tunnel Tests for Thermal Ice Protection Systems

2010-05-11
WIP
AIR6440
This document is intended to provide guidance for conducting icing tunnel tests for assessment and design of thermal anti-ice systems for wing, stabilizers and engine inlets (considering both hot air and electrical power as a heat source).
Standard

Icing Technology Bibliography

2007-04-11
HISTORICAL
AIR4015B
This Icing Technology Bibliography is a compendium of references from the open literature that were published prior to the original 1987 issuance of the AIR, including both national and foreign sources. Due to the generality of the subject, and the difficulty of fully investigating every available source, the Bibliography in this document is not intended to be complete.
Standard

Icing Technology Bibliography

2013-03-15
CURRENT
AIR4015D
This Icing Technology Bibliography is a compendium of references from the open literature that were published prior to the original 1987 issuance of the AIR, including both national and foreign sources. Due to the generality of the subject, and the difficulty of fully investigating every available source, the Bibliography in this document is not intended to be complete.
Standard

Ice, Rain, Fog, and Frost Protection

1989-07-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1168/4
This section presents the basic equations for computing ice protection requirements for nontransparent and transparent surfaces and for fog and frost protection of windshields. Simplified graphical presentations suitable for preliminary design, and a description of various types of ice, fog, frost, and rain protection systems are also presented.
Standard

Ice and Rain Minimum Qualification Standards for Pitot and Pitot-static Probes

2015-08-07
CURRENT
AS5562
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes minimum ice and rain performance criteria for electrically-heated pitot and pitot-static probes intended for use on the following classes of fixed-wing aircraft and rotorcraft. The classes of fixed-wing aircraft are defined by aircraft flight envelopes and are shown in Figure 1. The flight envelopes generally fall into the classes as shown below: The user of this standard must evaluate the aircraft level installation requirements for the probe against the class definition criteria to ensure adequate coverage for the application. It may be necessary to step up in class or modify the test conditions in order to meet the applicable installation requirements. NOTE: Class 2 is divided into two subgroups identified as either Class 2a or Class 2b. Class 2a probe applications typically include aircraft that operate within the mid to lower end of the Class 2 altitude range and that only use probe output to display basic airspeed and/or altitude.
Standard

Ice Shape Test Matrix Development for Unprotected Surfaces

2010-10-19
WIP
ARP6455
This document is intended to provide guidance for development of a test matrix for generation of ice shapes on unprotected surfaces. It introduces the reader to scaling of flight conditions to capabilities of typical icing tunnels and provides an example of the process.
Standard

Deicing System, Pneumatic Boot, Aircraft, General Specification for

2001-07-01
CURRENT
AS8804A
This specification covers the general requirements for pneumatic deicing systems for wings, empennages, radomes, radio masts, air induction system entrance cones, and ducts of aircraft. Deicing boots shall be of one type, operating at 15 to 22 psig pressure.
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