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Technical Paper

Predicting Pressure Drop of Wall-Flow Diesel Particulate Filters - Theory and Experiment

Information on transport mechanisms in a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) provides crucial insight into the filter performance. Extensive experimental work has been pursued to modify, customize and validate a model yielding accurate predictions of a ceramic wall-flow DPF pressure drop. The model accounts, not only for the major pressure drop components due to flow through porous walls but also, for viscous losses due to channel plugs, flow contraction and expansion due to flow entering and exiting the trap and also for flow secondary inertial effects near the porous walls. Experimental data were collected on a matrix of filters covering change in filter diameter and length, cell density and wall thickness and for a wide range of flow rates. The model yields accurate predictions of DPF pressure drop with no particulate loading and, with adequate adjustment, it is also capable of making predictions of pressure drop for filters lightly-loaded with particulates.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Cordierite Thin Wall DPF for Improved Pressure Drop and Lifetime Pressure Drop Solution

Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become a standard aftertreatment component for a majority of current on-road/non-road diesel engines used in the US and Europe. The upcoming Stage V emissions regulations in Europe will make DPFs a standard component for emissions reductions for non-road engines. The tightening in NOx emissions standard has resulted in the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for NOx reduction and as a result the general trend in engine technology as of today is towards a higher engine-out NOx/PM ratio enabling passive regeneration of the DPF. The novel filter concept discussed in this paper is optimized for low pressure drop, high filtration efficiency, and low thermal mass for optimized regeneration and fast heat-up, therefore reducing CO2 implications for the DPF operation.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Aluminum Titanate Filter for Light Duty Diesel Applications

With the introduction of the current EU5 standards the diesel particulate filter has become a key element in the aftertreatment of diesel passenger cars. The upcoming future emission standards target primarily a further reduction in NOx emission as well as reduced fleet average CO₂ emissions. Although the particulate filter has no direct influence on the reduction of these species, the needs of future aftertreatment systems impose additional requirements on advanced filter technologies. In this paper we are introducing two new filter products based on a new low porosity aluminum titanate family that complement the current DuraTrap® AT filter products. The new products offer the potential for an increased soot mass limit or a significant reduction in pressure drop. The enhanced performance of the new filter products is discussed and demonstrated in a large number of experimental data obtained in engine bench tests.
Technical Paper

Improved Lifetime Pressure Drop Management for Robust Cordierite (RC) Filters with Asymmetric Cell Technology (ACT)

The stricter emissions legislation in the US, require the implementation of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) for Heavy Duty Diesel engines to meet the 2007 PM emissions targets. Cordierite based wall-flow filters with high filtration efficiency, low Δp and good thermal durability are the product of choice for these applications. Continuous passive oxidation of the soot by NO2 is desired, however under certain operating and ambient conditions periodic active oxidation of the soot at elevated temperatures (>550°C) is required. A part of the PM emissions of the engine contains non-combustible contributions (ashes). These materials accumulate in the filter over lifetime, resulting in an increase in pressure drop as well as a reduction of the filter volume available for soot accumulation. As the pressure drop rises above manageable levels from a performance perspective, ash cleaning of the filter is required.
Technical Paper

Impacts of B20 Biodiesel on Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

Engine laboratory tests were conducted to assess the impact of B20 biodiesel on the performance of cordierite diesel particulate filters (DPFs). Test fuels included 20% soy based methyl ester blended into ultra low sulfur diesel fuel, and two ULSD on-road market fuels. B20 has a higher cetane number, boiling point and oxygen content than typical on-road diesel fuels. A comparative study was performed using a model year 2007 medium duty diesel truck engine. The aftertreatment system included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) followed by a cordierite wall flow DPF. A laboratory-grade supplemental fuel doser was used in the exhaust stream for precise regeneration of the DPF. Tests revealed that the fuel dosing rate was higher and DOC fuel conversion efficiency was poorer for the B20 fuel during low exhaust temperature regenerations. The slip of B20 fuel past the DOC was shown to produce significantly higher exotherms in the DPF during regeneration.
Journal Article

Filtration Efficiency and Pressure Drop Performance of Ceramic Partial Wall Flow Diesel Particulate Filters

A simple 1-dimensional filter model, with symmetric and asymmetric channels, has been developed to investigate the fundamental behavior and performance of ceramic partial diesel particulate filters (PFs). The governing equations of mass and momentum are similar to those of a full DPF [7, 15]. A standard DPF with the plugs at its inlet face removed has been referred to as a ‘rear-plugged PF’ while, one with the plugs at the outlet face removed has been referred to as a ‘front-plugged PF’ in the present study. Removal of some of the plugs from a standard ceramic DPF reduces the (i) overall pressure drop (ΔP) across the filter, (ii) filtration efficiency (FE) of the DPF, and (iii) manufacturing cost. Partial filters stand a high chance of being deployed in diesel exhaust after-treatment systems for the emerging markets (Brazil, Russia, India, China) that follow Euro 4 emission regulations.
Journal Article

Advanced Diesel Particulate Filter Technology for Cost Effective and Robust BSVI Solutions

With Bharat Stage VI (BSVI) regulations on the horizon [3],[4]tighter particulate matter (PM) regulations will require the use of wall flow diesel particulate filters for on-road heavy duty (HD) diesel engines in India. The Indian HD vehicle market is very cost sensitive, especially with the majority of engine displacement being less than 7L [5] therefore, after treatment cost plays a significant role in design of the system. Robust wall flow diesel particulate filter solutions with the ability to deliver high filtration requirements required for particle number regulations can be designed in a cost-efficient manner. In this paper advanced design for diesel particulate filters with pressure drop, ash capacity, regeneration, and filtration performance are discussed. Corning’s asymmetric cell technology (ACT) was created to improve ash capacity and reduce pressure drop and has the potential to downsize up to 45%.
Technical Paper

Advanced Diesel Particulate Filter Design for Lifetime Pressure Drop Solution in Light Duty Applications

Highly efficient wall-flow diesel particulate filters (DPF) are the primary means of PM emissions control in light-duty diesel vehicles. The successful commercialization of DPF technology has allowed combining attractive characteristics (good fuel economy, high low-end torque characteristics) of a diesel engine with significant PM emissions reductions to meet the stringent legislation. The design for advanced filter systems is driven by the lifetime pressure drop requirements with the accumulation of non-combustible materials (ashes) over time in the filter. More compact filter designs can be achieved by using filters with the proprietary Asymmetric Cell Technology (ACT) providing a larger inlet channel volume and therefore a higher ash storage capacity in the same space envelope without compromising the filter bulk heat capacity and mechanical integrity.
Journal Article

A Next Generation Cordierite Diesel Particle Filter with Significantly Reduced Pressure Drop

Diesel particle filters (DPF) have become a standard aftertreatment component for all current and future on-road diesel engines used in the US. In Europe the introduction of EUVI is expected to also result in the broad implementation of DPF's. The anticipated general trend in engine technology towards higher engine-out NOx/PM ratios results in a somewhat changing set of boundary conditions for the DPF predominantly enabling passive regeneration of the DPF. This enables the design of a novel filter concept optimized for low pressure drop, low thermal mass for optimized regeneration and fast heat-up of a downstream SCR system, therefore reducing CO₂ implications for the DPF operation. In this paper we will discuss results from a next-generation cordierite DPF designed to address these future needs.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Emissions and Flow Restriction of Thinwall Ceramic Substrates for Low Emission Vehicles

The emission and flow restriction characteristics of three different ceramic substrates with varying wall thickness and cell density (400 cpsi/6.5 mil, 600/4.3, and 600/3.5) are compared. These 106mm diameter substrates were catalyzed with similar amounts of washcoat and fabricated into catalytic converters having a total volume of 2.0 liters. A Pd/Rh catalyst technology was applied at a concentration of 6.65 g/l and a ratio of 20/1. Three sets of converters (two of each type) were aged for 100 hours on an engine dynamometer stand. After aging, the FTP performance of these converters were evaluated on an auto-driver FTP stand using a 2.4L, four-cylinder prototype engine and on a 2.4L, four-cylinder prototype vehicle. A third set of unaged converters was used for cold flow restriction measurements and vehicle acceleration tests.