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Journal Article

Visualization and Spectroscopic Measurement of Knocking Combustion Accompanied by Cylinder Pressure Oscillations in an HCCI Engine

2013-10-15
2013-32-9166
Combustion experiments were conducted with an optically accessible engine that allowed the entire bore area to be visualized for the purpose of making clear the characteristics that induce extremely rapid HCCI combustion and knocking accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations. The HCCI combustion regime was investigated in detail by high-speed in-cylinder visualization of autoignition and combustion and emission spectroscopic measurements. The results revealed that increasing the equivalence ratio and advancing the ignition timing caused the maximum pressure rise rate and knocking intensity to increase. In moderate HCCI combustion, the autoignited flame was initially dispersed temporally and spatially in the cylinder and then gradually spread throughout the entire cylinder.
Technical Paper

The Application of Coconut-oil Methyl Ester for Diesel Engine

2007-10-30
2007-32-0065
The coconut-oil methyl ester is made from coconut oil and methanol, and both cold start performance and ignition characteristics of coconut-oil methyl ester are experimentally investigated by using a diesel engine. In experiments, diesel fuel and coconut-oil methyl ester are used and the blended ratio of coconut-oil methyl ester to diesel fuel is changed. The test is conducted at full load and 3000 rpm. The diesel engine can be run stably with any mixing ratio of coconut-oil methyl ester, however the power is slightly reduced with increasing the mixing ratio of coconut-oil methyl ester. In the cold start condition, when the mixing ratio of coconut-oil methyl ester increases, the combustion chamber wall temperature rises early and the ignition timing is improved. Therefore, the coconut-oil methyl ester has superior compression ignition characteristics and reduces exhaust gas emissions, so that the coconut-oil methyl ester is good alternative fuel for diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Study on Performance of Diesel Engine Applied with Emulsified Diesel Fuel: The Influence of Fuel Injection Timing and Water Contents

2011-11-08
2011-32-0606
The application of emulsified fuel for diesel engines is expected to reduce NOx and soot simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of water content in emulsified fuel and fuel injection timing on diesel engine performance. The engine performance of emulsified fuel was compared with the water injection method. In the water injection test, water was injected to intake manifold and diesel fuel was directly injected into combustion chamber. Two emulsified fuels of which mixing ratio of water and emulsifier to diesel fuel were 15 and 30 vol.% were tested. Engine performance and exhaust gas emission of water injection method were almost similar to those of diesel fuel, so that water presented in combustion chamber had almost no influence on engine performance. Therefore, it can be considered that the micro explosion of fuel droplet enhanced the fuel atomization and mixing of fuel and air.
Technical Paper

Study on Knocking Characteristics for High-Efficiency Operation of a Super-Lean Spark Ignition Engine

2018-10-30
2018-32-0002
This study investigated the influence of EGR and spark advance on knocking under high compression ratio, ultra-lean mixture and supercharged condition using premium gasoline as a test fuel. A high-compression ratio, supercharged single cylinder engine was used in this experiment. As a result, the period from ignition to autoignition was prolonged. In addition, knock intensity was drastically reduced. In other words, it is inferred that by combining an appropriate amount of EGR and spark advance, high efficiency operation avoiding knocking can be realized.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Study of Two-Stage High Temperature Heat Release Behavior in a Supercharged HCCI Engine using Blended Fuels

2011-08-30
2011-01-1788
This study examined the effects of fuel composition and intake pressure on two-stage high temperature heat release characteristics of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Light emission and absorption spectroscopic measurement techniques were used to investigate the combustion behavior in detail. Chemical kinetic simulations were also conducted to analyze the reaction mechanisms in detail. Blended fuels of dimethyl ether (DME) and methane were used in the experiments. It was found that the use of such fuel blends together with a suitable intake air flow rate corresponding to the total injected heat value gave rise to two-stage heat release behavior of the hot flame, which had the effect of moderating combustion. The results of the spectroscopic measurements and the chemical kinetic simulations revealed that the main reaction of the first stage of the hot flame heat release was one that produced CO from HCHO.
Technical Paper

Influence of Various Biodiesel Fuels on Diesel Engine Performance

2009-11-03
2009-32-0100
The composition ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) is depended on feedstock. Three FAMEs: soybean (SME), palm (PME) and coconut oil (CME) methyl esters were mixed to make fuels which have different composition ratio. The ignitability of fuel which mainly consisted of unsaturated FAME was inferior. Power was slightly reduced with increasing of mixing ratio of CME; however exhaust gas emissions were improved because CME contained a lot of oxygen atoms. Fuel which was equal mixture SME and CME indicated almost the same ignition characteristic as that of PME because they have same composition ratio.
Technical Paper

Influence of Supercharging and EGR on Multi-stage Heat Release in an HCCI Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0009
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest as a combustion system that offers the advantages of high efficiency and low exhaust emissions. However, it is difficult to control the ignition timing in an HCCI combustion system owing to the lack of a physical means of initiating ignition like the spark plug in a gasoline engine or fuel injection in a diesel engine. Moreover, because the mixture ignites simultaneously at multiple locations in the cylinder, it produces an enormous amount of heat in a short period of time, which causes greater engine noise, abnormal combustion and other problems in the high load region. The purpose of this study was to expand the region of stable HCCI engine operation by finding a solution to these issues of HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Influence of Internal EGR on Knocking in an HCCI Engine

2015-11-17
2015-32-0807
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines have attracted much attention and are being widely researched as engines characterized by low emissions and high efficiency. However, one issue of HCCI engines is their limited operating range because of the occurrence of rapid combustion at high loads and misfiring at low loads. It is known that knocking accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations also occurs in HCCI engines at high loads, similar to knocking seen in spark-ignition engines. In this study, HCCI combustion accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations was visualized by taking high-speed photographs of the entire bore area. In addition, the influence of internal exhaust gas circulation (EGR) on HCCI knocking was also investigated. The visualized combustion images revealed that rapid autoignition occurred in the end-gas region during the latter half of the HCCI combustion process when accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations.
Technical Paper

Influence of Calcium-Based Additives with Different Properties on Abnormal Combustion in an SI Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0007
Technologies for further improving vehicle fuel economy have attracted widespread attention in recent years. However, one problem with some approaches is the occurrence of abnormal combustion such as low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) that occurs under low-speed, high-load operating conditions. One proposed cause of LSPI is that oil droplets diluted by the fuel enter the combustion chamber and become a source of ignition. Another proposed cause is that deposits peel off and become a source of ignition. A four-stroke air-cooled single-cylinder engine was used in this study to investigate the influence of Ca-based additives having different properties on abnormal combustion by means of in-cylinder visualization and absorption spectroscopic measurements. The results obtained for neutral and basic Ca-based additives revealed that the former had an effect on advancing the time of autoignition.
Journal Article

Influence of Ca-, Mg- and Na-Based Engine Oil Additives on Abnormal Combustion in a Spark-Ignition Engine

2015-11-17
2015-32-0771
One issue of downsized and supercharged engines is low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) that occurs in the low-speed and high-load operating region. One proposed cause of LSPI is the influence of the engine oil and its additives. However, the effect of engine oil additives on pre-ignition and the mechanism involved are still not fully understood. This study investigated the influence of engine oil additives on abnormal combustion in a spark-ignition engine. A four-stroke air-cooled single-cylinder engine with a side valve arrangement was used in conducting combustion experiments. The research methods used were in-cylinder pressure analysis, in-cylinder visualization and absorption spectroscopic analysis. Engine oil additives were mixed individually at a fixed concentration into a primary reference fuel with an octane number of 50 and their effect on knocking was investigated.
Technical Paper

Influence of Autoignition and Pressure Wave Behavior on Knock Intensity Based on Multipoint Pressure Measurement and In-Cylinder Visualization of the End Gas

2018-10-30
2018-32-0001
In this study, the effect of autoignition behavior in the unburned end-gas region on pressure wave formation and knock intensity was investigated. A single-cylinder gasoline engine capable of high-speed observation of the end gas was used in the experiments. Visualization in the combustion chamber and spectroscopic measurement of light absorption by the end gas were carried out to analyze autoignition behavior in the unburned end-gas portion and the reaction history before autoignition. The process of autoignition and pressure wave growth was investigated by analyzing multipoint pressure histories. As a result, it was found that knocking intensity increases through interaction between autoignition and pressure waves.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Study of HCCI Combustion using Cooled EGR

2015-11-17
2015-32-0770
Unresolved issues of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion include an extremely rapid pressure rise on the high load side and resultant knocking. Studies conducted to date have examined ways of expanding the region of stable HCCI combustion on the high load side such as by applying supercharging or recirculating exhaust gas (EGR). However, the effect of applying EGR gas to supercharged HCCI combustion and the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, the effect of EGR gas components on HCCI combustion was investigated by conducting experiments in which external EGR gas was applied to supercharged HCCI combustion and also experiments in which nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were individually injected into the intake air pipe to simulate EGR gas components. In addition, HCCI combustion reactions were analyzed by conducting chemical kinetic simulations under the same conditions as those of the experiments.
Technical Paper

Application of Newly Developed Cellulosic Liquefaction Fuel for Diesel Engine

2009-11-03
2009-32-0132
A new bio-fuel i.e. the cellulosic liquefaction fuel (CLF) was developed for diesel engines. CLF was made from woods by direct liquefaction process. When neat CLF was supplied to diesel engine, the compression ignition did not occur, so that blend of CLF and diesel fuel was used. The engine could be operated when the mixing ratio of CLF was up to 35 wt%. CO, HC and NOx emissions were almost the same as those of diesel fuel when the mixing ratio of CLF was less than 20 wt% whereas the thermal efficiency slightly decreases with increase in CLF mixing ratio.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Combustion Characteristics of a HCCI Engine Operating on DME and Methane

2007-10-30
2007-32-0041
The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has attracted much interest in recent years because it can simultaneously achieve high efficiency and low emissions. However, it is difficult to control the ignition timing with this type of engine because it has no physical ignition mechanism. Varying the amount of fuel supplied changes the operating load and the ignition timing also changes simultaneously. The HCCI combustion process also has the problem that combustion proceeds too rapidly. This study examined the possibility of separating ignition timing control and load control using an HCCI engine that was operated on blended test fuels of dimethyl ether (DME) and methane, which have vastly different ignition characteristics. The influence of the mixing ratios of these two test fuels on the rapidity of combustion was also investigated.
Journal Article

Analysis of Supercharged HCCI Combustion Using a Blended Fuel

2011-11-08
2011-32-0521
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted much interest as a combustion system that can achieve both low emissions and high efficiency. But the operating region of HCCI combustion is narrow, and it is difficult to control the auto-ignition timing. This study focused on the use of a two-component fuel blend and supercharging. The blended fuel consisted of dimethyl ether (DME), which has attracted interest as alternative fuel for compression-ignition engines, and methane, the main component of natural gas. A spectroscopic technique was used to measure the light emission of the combustion flame in the combustion chamber in order to ascertain the combustion characteristics. HCCI combustion characteristics were analyzed in detail in the present study by measuring this light emission spectrum.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Supercharged HCCI Combustion Using Low-Carbon Alternative Fuels

2017-11-05
2017-32-0085
This study investigated the effects of recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) and its principal components of N2, CO2 and H2O on moderating Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion. Experiments were conducted using two types of gaseous fuel blends of DME/propane and DME/methane as the test fuels. The addition rates of EGR, N2, CO2 and H2O were varied and the effects of each condition on HCCI combustion of propane and methane were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of CO2 and H2O had the effect of substantially delaying and moderating rapid combustion. The addition of N2 showed only a slight delaying and moderating effect. The addition of EGR had the effect of optimally delaying the combustion timing, while either maintaining or increasing the indicated mean effective pressure and indicated thermal efficiency ηi.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Knocking in an SI Engine based on In-cylinder: Spectroscopic Measurements and Visualization

2010-09-28
2010-32-0092
There are strong demands today to further improve the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines against a backdrop of various environmental issues, including rising carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and global warming. One factor that impedes efforts to improve the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engines is the occurrence of knocking. The aim of this study was to elucidate the details of knocking based on spectroscopic measurements and visualization of phenomena in the combustion chamber of a test engine that was operated on three primary reference fuels with different octane ratings (0 RON, 30 RON, and 50 RON). The ignition timing was retarded in the experiments to delay the progress of flame propagation, making it easier to capture the behavior of low-temperature oxidation reactions at the time knocking occurred.
Journal Article

Analysis of Interaction between Autoignition and Strong Pressure Wave Formation during Knock in a Supercharged SI Engine Based on High Speed Photography of the End Gas

2017-11-15
2017-32-0119
Engine knock is the one of the main issues to be addressed in developing high-efficiency spark-ignition (SI) engines. In order to improve the thermal efficiency of SI engines, it is necessary to develop effective means of suppressing knock. For that purpose, it is necessary to clarify the mechanism generating pressure waves in the end-gas region. This study examined the mechanism producing pressure waves in the end-gas autoignition process during SI engine knock by using an optically accessible engine. Occurrence of local autoignition and its development process to the generation of pressures waves were analyzed under several levels of knock intensity. The results made the following points clear. It was observed that end-gas autoignition seemingly progressed in a manner resembling propagation due to the temperature distribution that naturally formed in the combustion chamber. Stronger knock tended to occur as the apparent propagation speed of autoignition increased.
Journal Article

Analysis of Combustion Characteristics and Efficiency Improvement of a Supercharged HCCI Engine Achieved by Using the Different Ignition Characteristics of Gaseous Fuels

2012-10-23
2012-32-0075
This study focused on the use of a two-component fuel blend and supercharging as possible means of overcoming these issues of HCCI combustion. Low-carbon gaseous fuels with clean emissions were used as the test fuels. The specific fuels used were dimethyl ether (DME, cetane number of 55 or higher) that autoignites easily And exhibits pronounced low-temperature oxidation reactions, methane (cetane number of 0) that does not autoignite readily and is the main component of natural gas which is regarded as petroleum substitute, and propane (cetane number of 5) that is a principal component of liquefied petroleum gas. The results of previous investigations have shown that the use of a blended fuel of DME and methane produces a two-stage main combustion process under certain operating conditions, with the result that combustion is moderated.
Technical Paper

An Application of Cellulosic Liquefaction Fuel for Diesel Engine - Improvement of Fuel Property by Cellulosic Liquefaction with Plastics -

2013-10-15
2013-32-9174
There are few investigations to change wood biomasses to the industrially available energy, so that a new conversion technology of biomass to liquid fuel has been established by the direct liquefaction process. However, cellulosic liquefaction fuel (for short CLF) cold not mixed with diesel fuel. In this study, the plastic was mixed with wood to improve the solubility of CLF to diesel fuel. CLF made by the direct co-liquefaction process could be stably and completely mixed with diesel fuel in any mixing ratio and CLF included 2 wt.% of oxygen. The test engine was an air-cooled, four-stroke, single cylinder, direct fuel injection diesel engine. In the engine starting condition test, the ignition timing of 5 wt.% CLF mixed diesel fuel was slightly delayed at immediately after the engine started, however the ignition timing was almost the same as diesel fuel after the engine was warmed-up.
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