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Technical Paper

Virtual and Experimental Analysis of Brake Assist Systems

The paper deals with the virtual and experimental analysis of two commercial Mechanical Brake Assist systems. They are described in detail, then modeled and experimentally evaluated through a Hardware-In-the-Loop test bench and road tests. Three different kinds of drivers are compared, from the point of view of the performance increase promised by Brake Assist during an emergency brake maneuver. The three driver types are based on the measurement of the behavior of real drivers, as it is presented in specific research activities in literature.
Journal Article

Vehicle Simulation for the Development of an Active Suspension System for an Agricultural Tractor

The design of suspension systems for heavy-duty vehicles covers a specific field of automotive industry. The proposed work focuses on the design development of a front controllable suspension for an agricultural tractor capable to satisfy the system requirements under different operating conditions. The design of the control algorithms is based on the developed multibody model of the actual tractor, including the pitch motion of the sprung mass, the anti-dive effects during braking and forward-reverse maneuvers and the non-linear dynamics of the actuation system. For an advanced analysis, a novel thermo-hydraulic model of the hydraulic system has been implemented. Several semi-active damping controls are analyzed for the specific case study.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Simulation to Develop an Active Roll Control System

Active Roll Control (ARC) is one of the most promising active systems to improve vehicle comfort and handling. This paper describes the simulation based procedure adopted to conceive a double-channel Active Roll Control system, characterized by the hydraulic actuation of the stabilizer bars of a sedan. The first part of the paper presents the vehicle model adopted for this activity. It is Base Model Simulator (BMS), the 14 Degrees-of-Freedom vehicle model by Politecnico di Torino. It was validated through road tests. Then the paper describes the development of the control algorithm adopted to improve the roll dynamics of the vehicle. The implemented control algorithm is characterized by a first subsystem, capable of obtaining the desired values of body roll angle as a function of lateral acceleration during semi-stationary maneuvers.
Journal Article

Torque-Vectoring Control for an Autonomous and Driverless Electric Racing Vehicle with Multiple Motors

Electric vehicles with multiple motors permit continuous direct yaw moment control, also called torque-vectoring. This allows to significantly enhance the cornering response, e.g., by extending the linear region of the vehicle understeer characteristic, and by increasing the maximum achievable lateral acceleration. These benefits are well documented for human-driven cars, yet limited information is available for autonomous/driverless vehicles. In particular, over the last few years, steering controllers for automated driving at the cornering limit have considerably advanced, but it is unclear how these controllers should be integrated alongside a torque-vectoring system. This contribution discusses the integration of torque-vectoring control and automated driving, including the design and implementation of the torque-vectoring controller of an autonomous electric vehicle for a novel racing competition. The paper presents the main vehicle characteristics and control architecture.
Journal Article

Torque Gap Filler for Automated Manual Transmissions: Principles for the Development of the Control Algorithm

One of the most significant tasks in automotive design is related to the implementation of gearboxes capable of reducing the torque gap during the gearshift process and, at the same time, not decreasing vehicle performance from the point of view of driveline efficiency. Automated gearboxes based on torque converters ([1], [2]) satisfy the first requirement but not the second. On the other hand, manual automated gearboxes ([3], [4], [5], [6]) satisfy the requirements in terms of consumption, due to the absence of the dissipations caused by the torque converter. In fact, they consist of the basic layout of a manual transmission with hydraulic or electromechanical actuators which are adopted for the clutch and the synchronizers. However, automated manual transmissions cannot guarantee optimal longitudinal dynamics of the vehicle due to the discontinuity in torque transmission when the clutch is disengaged.
Technical Paper

Tire Thermal Model for Enhanced Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

Brush models permit a more physical simulation of tire performance in comparison with models based on empirical formulas. The paper presents an empirical model for the estimation of tire temperature as function of the actual working conditions of the component. The estimated temperature values enter a tire brush model and provoke the variation of the performance in terms of tangential forces. The model can be empirically tuned through experimental data showing the variation of tire performance as function of temperature. The experimental validation of the model is dealt with in detail.
Journal Article

The Application of Control and Wheel Torque Allocation Techniques to Driving Modes for Fully Electric Vehicles

The combination of continuously-acting high level controllers and control allocation techniques allows various driving modes to be made available to the driver. The driving modes modify the fundamental vehicle performance characteristics including the understeer characteristic and also enable varying emphasis to be placed on aspects such as tire slip and energy efficiency. In this study, control and wheel torque allocation techniques are used to produce three driving modes. Using simulation of an empirically validated model that incorporates the dynamics of the electric powertrains, the vehicle performance, longitudinal slip and power utilization during straight-ahead driving and cornering maneuvers under the different driving modes are compared.
Technical Paper

Shock Absorber Modeling and Experimental Testing

Simulation is becoming the fundamental tool to design the main components of a vehicle. The paper describes the shock absorber model which was implemented by the Vehicle Dynamics Research Team of Politecnico di Torino. It is a modular model which can be adopted both for mono-tube and twin-tube shock absorbers. It can be used at different levels of approximation, as a function of the kind of user and his/her targets. The main data which have to be inserted in the model are fluid properties, the basic dimensions of the component and the characteristics of the orifices of the shock absorber. An experimental test bench was conceived to obtain the diagrams plotting flow rate through an orifice of a shock absorber versus the pressure drop between input and output ports. The test rig and the procedure to perform the experimental tests and insert the results in the shock absorber model are described in detail.
Technical Paper

Racing Simulation of a Formula 1 Vehicle with Kinetic Energy Recovery System

This paper deals with the development of a Lap Time Simulator in order to carry out a first approximate evaluation of the potential benefits related to the adoption of the Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS). KERS will be introduced in the 2009 Formula 1 Season. This system will be able to store energy during braking and then use it in order to supply an extra acceleration during traction. Different technologies (e.g. electrical, hydraulic and mechanical) could be applied in order to achieve this target. The lap time simulator developed by the authors permits to investigate the advantages both in terms of fuel consumption reduction and the improvement of the lap time.
Technical Paper

Hardware-In-the-Loop to Evaluate Active Braking Systems Performance

The paper shortly describes an ABS/ESP Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) test bench built by the Vehicle Dynamics Team of the Department of Mechanics of Politecnico di Torino. It consists of a whole brake system, integrated through specific interface (e.g. wheel pressures signals) with a vehicle model running in real time on a dSPACE® board. Different commercial ABS strategies are compared, in a large spectrum of manoeuvres: slow brake apply manoeuvres, panic brake manoeuvres, μ-split brake manoeuvres, brake manoeuvres with a sudden variation of the friction coefficient between tyres and ground. The paper deals with the generation of all the signals required for activating a commercial ESP: steering wheel angle, body yaw rate, body lateral acceleration, engine control, etc… Some of them are transmitted by CAN. Typical handling manoeuvres are used to test the ESP: step steer, double step steer, ramp steer, etc… Several brake manoeuvres are simulated while turning.
Technical Paper

Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) Testing of ESP (Electronic Stability Program) Commercial Hydraulic Units and Implementation of New Control Strategies

Firstly, the paper presents Politecnico di Torino Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) brake systems test bench. Secondly, it describes in detail all the necessary basic tests to characterize, on the bench, an ESP hydraulic unit: for example, step response of each valve, measurement of pressure limiter valves calibration, step response of motor pump unit. The experimental results are reported. Thirdly, the paper deals with the frequency response of ESP valves, by using Pulse Width Modulation. Pressure gradients and pressure oscillations obtained in the tests are commented in detail. An open loop actuation strategy for ESP is presented, permitting to obtain, in each condition, the desired wheels pressure levels, without having any output pressure sensor in the hydraulic unit. This strategy was conceived by simulation and then successfully tested on the bench. An ESP control strategy, complete of a diagnostic algorithm, was added to the actuation logic described before and tested on the bench.
Technical Paper

Friction inside Wheel Hub Bearings: Evaluation through Analytical Models and Experimental Methodologies

This paper presents an experimental methodology which can be adopted to measure the friction torque of the bearings in the wheel hubs of passenger vehicles. The first section of the paper highlights the reasons why an experimental device is necessary to have an objective evaluation of the performance of the bearing in terms of friction. In particular, the high level of approximation of the current formulas for the estimation of the friction inside a single bearing is discussed and demonstrated. An analytical methodology for the evaluation of the distribution of the axial load between the two bearings of the wheel hub is presented. However, its practical application for the precise calculation of the distribution of the load has to be checked through experimental tests.
Technical Paper

Four-wheel-steering Control Strategy and its Integration with Vehicle Dynamics Control and Active Roll Control

The paper presents a 4-wheel-steering (4WS) control strategy devoted to reduce the turn diameter for small longitudinal speed values and to obtain a yaw rate damping effect in dynamic manoeuvres. Moreover, the 4WS active system conceived produces compensation both for lateral wind and road irregularities. The main results obtained through a functional vehicle model are presented. 4WS was integrated with a Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC), which was improved for turn while braking manoeuvres. The results due to integration were very good, with a reduction of both systems interventions. Finally, a VDC-4WS-Active Roll Control (ARC) integration was tried, based on only one reference body yaw rate for all the active systems. The main results obtained are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of a Heavy Goods Vehicle Fuel Consumption Model

Over the last decade the simulation of driving cycles through longitudinal vehicle models has become an important stage in the design, analysis and selection of vehicle powertrains. This paper presents an overview of existing software packages, along with the development of a new multipurpose driving cycle simulator implemented in the Matlab/Simulink environment. In order to evaluate the performance of the simulator, a MAN TGL 12.240 multi-usage delivery vehicle was fitted with a CAN-bus data logger and used to create a series of ‘real-life’ drive cycles. These were inputted into the vehicle model and the simulated fuel mass flow-rate and engine rotational speed were compared to those experimentally obtained.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Tire Brush Model for Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

The aim of this paper is the conception of a tire model which allows a good fit with the physical experimental behavior of the component. In the meanwhile, the model should be simple enough to permit real time vehicle dynamics simulation, in the same way as the diffused Pacejka's model. The paper discusses the influence of the model for the estimation of contact patch properties on the overall tire forces and moments. It demonstrates that unrealistic models of the contact patch can lead to a good fit with the experimental data (in terms of forces and self-aligning moment), even if the real physics of the tire is not reproduced. A realistic model implies a significant reduction of the stiffness of the brushes as a function of the vertical load between the tire and the road surface.
Technical Paper

Electro-Mechanical Active Roll Control: A New Solution for Active Suspensions

The paper presents the approach followed by Politecnico di Torino Vehicle Dynamics Research team to design an electro-mechanical Active Roll Control (ARC) system. The first part of the paper describes the targets of the system, which has to improve both comfort and handling. Different solutions for the implementation of the electro-mechanical actuation were evaluated. A prototype of the electro-mechanical Active Roll Control was built and experimentally tested in the Vehicle Dynamics Laboratory of the Department of Mechanics of Politecnico di Torino, by adopting a Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) test bench. The experimental results show the benefits of the system, both in a stand alone configuration and integrated with an Electronic Stability Control (ESC) system.
Technical Paper

Electro-Hydraulic Braking System Modelling and Simulation

The first step toward a braking system ‘by wire’ is Electro-Hydraulic Braking System (EHB). The paper describes a method to evaluate through virtual experimentation the actual improvement in vehicle behaviour, from the point of view of both handling and comfort, including also pedal feeling, due to EHB. The first step consisted in modelling the hydraulic unit, comprehensive of sensors. Then it was conceived a control logic devoted to medium-low intensity braking manoeuvres, without ABS intervention, to determine an optimal braking force distribution and pedal feeling depending on the manoeuvre. A failsafe strategy, complete of on board diagnosis, to prevent dangerous system behaviour in the eventuality of a component failure was carried out and tested. Finally, EHB wheel pressure sensors were used to improve both ABS performance, increasing the adherence estimation, and Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC) performance, through a more precise actuation.
Technical Paper

Driveline Layout Influence on Four Wheel Drive Dynamics

The paper presents the research activity managed to investigate the dynamics of a 4WD vehicle equipped considering drivelines with different layout. The procedure developed required to conceive an on purpose simulator to compare performance through virtual experimentation. Drivelines mechanical main characteristics and performance increasing due to control strategy were evaluated. Preliminary road test were performed with a single driveline layout, to evaluate simulation reliability and limits. The paper presents the 4WD vehicle simulator, the main equations applied to model open, torque sensing and limited slip differentials, some preliminary road test results showing torque sensing driveline performance.
Technical Paper

Chassis Torsional Stiffness: Analysis of the Influence on Vehicle Dynamics

It is universally recognized that torsional stiffness is one of the most important properties of a vehicle chassis, [ 1 ]. There are several reasons for which high chassis stiffness is preferable. Lack of chassis torsional stiffness affects the lateral load transfer distribution, it allows displacements of the suspension attachment points that modify suspension kinematics and it can trigger unwanted dynamic effects like resonance phenomena or vibrations, [ 2 ]. The present paper introduces two analytical vehicle models that constitute an efficient tool for a correct evaluation of the main effects of chassis torsional stiffness on vehicle dynamics. In the first part an enhanced steady-state vehicle model is derived and employed for the analysis of the vehicle handling. The model takes account of chassis torsional stiffness for the evaluation of the lateral load transfer and, by means of the concept of the axle cornering stiffness, includes the effects of tire non-linear behavior.
Technical Paper

Braking System Components Modelling

The paper deals with a method implemented to study braking systems design, modelling components' characteristics through commercial software. It summarizes the potential improvement possible by using modelling techniques in chassis systems design. The first part consisted in producing a passive braking system model. A first validation was carried out on a test bench by using components of different braking systems. Particular attention was devoted to booster modelization both in semi-stationary and dynamic conditions. The second part was callipers, roll-back and thermal phenomena modelization. Finally, it were modelled Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) and Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC) Hydraulic Units and their integration with control strategies and with vehicle dynamics model.