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Technical Paper

Use of Truncated Finite Element Modeling for Efficient Design Optimization of an Automotive Front End Structure

2015-04-14
2015-01-0496
The present work is concerned with the objective of multi disciplinary design optimization (MDO) of an automotive front end structure using truncated finite element model. A truncated finite element model of a real world vehicle is developed and its efficacy for use in design optimization is demonstrated. The main goal adopted here is minimizing the weight of the front end structure meeting NVH, durability and crash safety targets. Using the Response Surface Method (RSM) and the Design Of Experiments (DOE) technique, second order polynomial response surfaces are generated for prediction of the structural performance parameters such as lowest modal frequency, fatigue life, and peak deceleration value.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Behaviors of Adhesively Bonded Steel Hat Section Components under Axial Impact Loading

2017-03-28
2017-01-1461
Adhesively bonded steel hat section components have been experimentally studied in the past as a potential alternative to traditional hat section components with spot-welded flanges. One of the concerns with such components has been their performance under axial impact loading as adhesive is far more brittle as compared to a spot weld. However, recent drop-weight impact tests have shown that the energy absorption capabilities of adhesively bonded steel hat sections are competitive with respect to geometrically similar spot-welded specimens. Although flange separation may take place in the case of a specimen employing a rubber toughened epoxy adhesive, the failure would have taken place post progressive buckling and absorption of impact energy.
Technical Paper

Performance of Lightweight Materials for Vehicle Interior Trim Subject to Monotonic Loading and Low Velocity Impact

2015-04-14
2015-01-0717
The usage of lightweight materials such as plastics and their derivatives continues to increase in automobiles driven by the urgency for weight reduction. For structural performance, body components such as A-pillar or B-pillar trim, instrument panel, etc. have to meet various requirements including resistance to penetration and energy absorption capability under impact indentation. A range of plain and reinforced thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics has been considered in the present study in the form of plates which are subject to low velocity perforation in a drop-weight impact testing set-up with a rigid cylindrical indenter fitted to a tup. The tested plates are made of polypropylene (PP), nanoclay-reinforced PP of various percentages of nanoclay content, wood-PP composites of different volume fractions of wood fiber, a jute-polyester composite, and a hybrid jute-polyester reinforced with steel.
Journal Article

Numerical Prediction of Dynamic Progressive Buckling Behaviors of Single-Hat and Double-Hat Steel Components under Axial Loading

2013-04-08
2013-01-0458
Hat sections, single and double, made of steel are frequently encountered in automotive body structural components such as front rails, B-Pillar, and rockers of unitized-body cars. These components can play a significant role in terms of impact energy absorption during collisions thereby protecting occupants of vehicles from severe injury. Modern vehicle safety design relies heavily on computer-aided engineering particularly in the form of explicit finite element analysis tools such as LS-DYNA for virtual assessment of crash performance of a vehicle body structure. There is a great need for the analysis-based predictions to yield close correlation with test results which in turn requires well-proven modeling procedures for nonlinear material modeling with strain rate dependence, effective representation of spot welds, sufficiently refined finite element mesh, etc.
Technical Paper

Energy-Based Criteria for Crashworthiness Design of Aluminum Intensive Space Frame Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-1521
Space frame type vehicle construction with extruded aluminum members holds promise in terms of desirable vibration-resistant and crashworthiness characteristics. Efficient design of such vehicles for superior frontal crash performance can be accomplished by judicious use of validated finite element and lumped parameter modeling and analysis. However, design iterations can be reduced considerably by employing energy-absorption targets for key members such as front rails in arriving at the initial design concept. For the NCAP (New Car Assessment Program) test procedure, a constraint is laid in terms of achieving a desirable level of vehicle peak deceleration for occupant safety. Using the information obtained through analysis, a numerical target can be set for energy to be absorbed by front rails. For this energy target, a new relationship is then derived which can be utilized for preliminary design of rail cross-section and material strength.
Technical Paper

Energy-Absorption Behaviors of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) Plates with Hemispherical/Corrugated Force-Multipliers

2015-04-14
2015-01-0560
In the present study, the behavior of hemispherical glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) energy-absorbers under applied transverse load has been investigated experimentally and numerically. A thermosetting general purpose polyester resin, along with bi-directionally woven E-glass fiber mats, has been used for the fabrication of the test specimens. Previously a limited number of studies were reported for hemispherical features made of composite laminates with fabrics based on randomly oriented chopped glass fibers. A motivation behind the current study is that woven fabric mats with continuous bi-directional strands can be considered as more reliable in terms of consistency of properties when compared with chopped strand mats. Additionally, the current concept of dome-shaped composite entities has been explored for vehicle safety applications, which has not been done earlier.
Journal Article

Efficient Approximate Methods for Predicting Behaviors of Steel Hat Sections Under Axial Impact Loading

2010-04-12
2010-01-1015
Hat sections made of steel are frequently encountered in automotive body structural components such as front rails. These components can absorb significant amount of impact energy during collisions thereby protecting occupants of vehicles from severe injury. In the initial phase of vehicle design, it will be prudent to incorporate the sectional details of such a component based on an engineering target such as peak load, mean load, energy absorption, or total crush, or a combination of these parameters. Such a goal can be accomplished if efficient and reliable data-based models are available for predicting the performance of a section of given geometry as alternatives to time-consuming and detailed engineering analysis typically based on the explicit finite element method.
Technical Paper

Effect of Strain Rate on Mechanical Responses of Jute-Polyester Composites

2017-03-28
2017-01-1467
There has been a keen interest in recent times on implementation of lightweight materials in vehicles to bring down the unladen weight of a vehicle for enhancing fuel efficiency. Fiber-reinforced composites comprise a class of such materials. As sustainability is also a preoccupation of current product development engineers including vehicle designers, bio-composites based on natural fibers are receiving a special attention. Keeping these motivations of lower effective density, environment friendliness and occupational safety in mind, woven jute fabric based composites have been recently studied as potential alternatives to glass fiber composites for structural applications in automobiles. In the past, mechanical characterization of jute-polyester composites were restricted to obtaining their stress-strain behaviors under quasi-static conditions.
Technical Paper

Development Of A Practical Multi-disciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) Algorithm For Vehicle Body Design

2016-04-05
2016-01-1537
The present work is concerned with the objective of developing a process for practical multi-disciplinary design optimization (MDO). The main goal adopted here is to minimize the weight of a vehicle body structure meeting NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness), durability, and crash safety targets. Initially, for simplicity a square tube is taken for the study. The design variables considered in the study are width, thickness and yield strength of the tube. Using the Response Surface Method (RSM) and the Design Of Experiments (DOE) technique, second order polynomial response surfaces are generated for prediction of the structural performance parameters such as lowest modal frequency, fatigue life, and peak deceleration value. The optimum solution is then obtained by using traditional gradient-based search algorithm functionality “fmincon” in commercial Matlab package.
Technical Paper

Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Steel Double-Hat Section Components under Lateral Impact Loading

2018-04-03
2018-01-1447
Recent experimental studies on the behavior of adhesively-bonded steel double-hat section components under axial impact loading have produced encouraging results in terms of load-displacement response and energy absorption when compared to traditional spot-welded hat- sections. However, it appears that extremely limited study has been carried out on the behavior of such components under transverse impact loading keeping in mind applications such as automotive body structures subject to lateral/side impact. In the present work, lateral impact studies have been carried out in a drop-weight test set-up on adhesively-bonded steel double-hat section components and the performance of such components has been compared against their conventional spot-welded and hybrid counterparts. It is clarified that hybrid components in the present context refer to adhesively-bonded hat-sections with a few spot welds only aimed at preventing catastrophic flange separations.
Technical Paper

Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Steel Double Hat-Section Components under Axial Quasi-Static and Impact Loading

2016-04-05
2016-01-0395
An attractive strategy for joining metallic as well as non-metallic substrates through adhesive bonding. This technique of joining also offers the functionality for joining dissimilar materials. However, doubts are often expressed on the ability of such joints to perform on par with other mechanical fastening methodologies such as welding, riveting, etc. In the current study, adhesively-bonded single lap shear (SLS), double lap shear (DLS) and T-peel joints are studied initially under quasi-static loading using substrates made of a grade of mild steel and an epoxy-based adhesive of a renowned make (Huntsman). Additionally, single lap shear joints comprised of a single spot weld are tested under quasi-static loading. The shear strengths of adhesively-bonded SLS joints and spot-welded SLS joints are found to be similar. An important consideration in the deployment of adhesively bonded joints in automotive body structures would be the performance of such joints under impact loading.
Journal Article

An Exploration of Jute-Polyester Composite for Vehicle Head Impact Safety Countermeasures

2018-04-03
2018-01-0844
Natural fiber-reinforced composites are currently gaining increasing attention as potential substitutes to pervasive synthetic fiber-reinforced composites, particularly glass fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRP). The advantages of the former category of composites include (a) being conducive to occupational health and safety during fabrication of parts as well as handling as compared to GFRP, (b) economy especially when compared to carbon fiber-reinforced composites (CFRC), (c) biodegradability of fibers, and (d) aesthetic appeal. Jute fibers are especially relevant in this context as jute fabric has a consistent supply base with reliable mechanical properties. Recent studies have shown that components such as tubes and plates made of jute-polyester (JP) composites can have competitive performance under impact loading when compared with similar GFRP-based structures.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of Load Cell- and Accelerometer-Based Responses in a Simulated Impact Test

2014-04-01
2014-01-0198
Load cells and accelerometers are commonly used sensors for capturing impact responses. The basic objective of the present study is to assess the accuracy of responses recorded by the said transducers when these are mounted on a moving impactor. In the present work, evaluation of the responses obtained from a drop-weight impact testing set-up for an axially loaded specimen has been carried out with the aid of an equivalent lumped parameter model (LPM) of the set-up. In this idealization, a test component such as a steel double hat section subjected to axial impact load is represented with a nonlinear spring. Both the load cell and the accelerometer are represented with linear springs, while the impactor comprising a hammer and a main body with the load cell in between are modelled as rigid masses. An experimentally obtained force-displacement response is assumed to be a true behavior of a specimen.
Technical Paper

An Alternative Approach for Formulation of a Crushable PU Foam Considering its Behavior under Compressive Loads

2015-04-14
2015-01-1483
Rigid polyurethane (PU) foam finds wide applications as a lightweight material in impact safety design such as improving occupant safety in vehicle crashes. The two principal reacting compounds for formulating such foam are variants of polyol and isocyanate. In the present study, an alternative mechanical engineering-based approach for determining, with confidence, the desirable ratio of reacting compounds for formulation of a rigid/crushable PU foam for mechanical applications is demonstrated. According to the present approach, PU foam samples are prepared by varying the mixing ratio over a wide range. The desirable mixing ratio is shown to be the one that optimizes key mechanical properties under compression such as total absorbed energy, specific absorbed energy and energy absorption efficiency.
Technical Paper

A Study on Impact Perforation Resistance of Jute-Polyester Composite Laminates

2014-04-01
2014-01-1055
Natural fiber-based composites such as jute-polyester composites have the potential to be more cost-effective and environment-friendly substitutes for glass fiber-reinforced composites which are commonly found in many applications. In an earlier study (Mache and Deb [1]), jute-polyester composite tubes of circular and square cross-sections were shown to perform competitively under axial impact loading conditions when compared to similar components made of bidirectional E-glass fiber mats and thermo-setting polyester resin. For jute-reinforced plastic panels to be feasible solutions for automotive interior trim panels, laminates made of such materials should have adequate perforation resistance. In the current study, a systematic characterization of jute-polyester and glass-polyester composite laminates made by compression molding is at first carried out under quasi-static tensile, compressive and flexural loading conditions.
Journal Article

A Study into the Mechanical Behavior of Adhesively-Bonded Jute Fiber-Reinforced Composite

2015-04-14
2015-01-0729
Rapid progress in the interdisciplinary field of automotive engineering and the pressing need for an environmental friendly alternative to metal and synthetic fiber-reinforced composites for vehicle structure have triggered recent research in the field of natural fiber-based composites. Their potential advantages are attributed to their light weight, low cost and biodegradability. However, their usage in present day automotive systems is restricted due a lower magnitude range of mechanical properties and limited study in this area. In contrast to mechanical joints, the adhesively bonded joints aid in reducing stress concentration, joining of dissimilar materials, corrosion prevention, weight reduction and a smoother finish. Thus, in the present study, failure load, and mean shear stress of single lap shear and double lap shear joints as a function of joint overlap length, are evaluated using a two part epoxy adhesive made by Huntsman.
Journal Article

A Methodology for Characterization of the Strain Rate-Dependent Behavior of PU Foam

2014-04-01
2014-01-0539
Polymeric foams are known to be sensitive to strain rate under dynamic loads. Mechanical characterization of such materials would not thus be complete without capturing the effect of strain rate on their stress-strain behaviors. Consistent data on the dynamic behavior of foam is also necessary for designing energy-absorbing countermeasures based on foam such as for vehicle occupant safety protection. Strain rates of the order of 100-500 s−1 are quite common in such design applications; strain rates of this range cannot be obtained with an ordinary UTM (universal testing machine) and a special test set-up is usually needed. In the current study, a unique approach has been suggested according to which quasi-static tests at low strain rates and low velocity drop tests at medium strain rates are utilized to arrive at an empirical relation between initial peak stress and logarithm of strain rate for a rigid closed-cell PU foam.
Journal Article

A Comparison of the Behaviors of Steel and GFRP Hat-Section Components under Axial Quasi-Static and Impact Loading

2015-04-14
2015-01-1482
Hat-sections, single and double, made of steel are frequently encountered in automotive body structural components. These components play a significant role in terms of impact energy absorption during vehicle crashes thereby protecting occupants of vehicles from severe injury. However, with the need for higher fuel economy and for compliance to stringent emission norms, auto manufacturers are looking for means to continually reduce vehicle body weight either by employing lighter materials like aluminum and fiber-reinforced plastics, or by using higher strength steel with reduced gages, or by combinations of these approaches. Unlike steel hat-sections which have been extensively reported in published literature, the axial crushing behavior of hat-sections made of fiber-reinforced composites may not have been adequately probed.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on the Axial Impact Performance of Jute and Glass Fiber-Based Composite Tubes

2013-04-08
2013-01-1178
This paper focuses on the energy absorbing characteristics and progressive deformation behavior of woven jute-polyester composite cylindrical tubes subjected to an axial impact load. In this study, the impact energy absorption characteristics and crushing mechanisms of composite tubes of different thicknesses and number of plies are investigated. To start with, coupon specimens are made from laminates of jute and glass fiber-based polyester composites. These are then tested in a UTM for mechanical characterization of the composites under tensile and compressive loading conditions. Experiments are then conducted in a drop-weight impact testing device to investigate crash performance characteristics such as mean crush load, absorbed energy and specific energy absorption (SEA) of woven jute-polyester composite cylindrical tubes.
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