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Technical Paper

Vortex Drag for a Simple Bluff Body at Incidence in Ground Proximity

2005-04-11
2005-01-0869
Aerodynamic drag is comprised of pressure drag and skin friction only. The drag component associated with lift forces is contained within these two terms. In the case of a simple wing this drag component, called induced drag, is reasonably well defined as a function of lift, but for road vehicles the relationship is more complex. In this paper the drag due to lift, which will be called vortex drag, is investigated for a simple car-like shape at incidence in proximity to the ground. The vortex drag is derived from the parabolic relationship between drag and lift. The effects of ground clearance are considered for both moving a stationary ground simulations. The results are compared with data for other simple bodies.
Technical Paper

Transient Aerodynamic Characteristics of Simple Vehicle Shapes by the Measurement of Surface Pressures

2000-03-06
2000-01-0876
Transient force and surface pressure data has been measured on a range of simple geometric shapes in order to gain an understanding of the complex time dependent and separated flow around a vehicle when subjected to a crosswind. The experiments were carried out using the Cranfield University model crosswind facility. It is found that the leeward face is the dominant area of transient activity. Maximum and minimum peak yawing moments at gust entry and exit are compared
Technical Paper

The Influence of Ground Simulation on the Aerodynamics of a Simple Car Model

1997-02-24
970134
The aerodynamic development of cars is conventionally carried out in the wind tunnel with the working section floor representing the ground surface. While recognising that the boundary conditions are false it has generally been assumed that this basic ground simulation is adequate for road cars. This situation is currently being reappraised. In this investigation a simple 1/4 scale car model has been tested in the MIRA Model Wind Tunnel, using both moving and stationary belt to represent the ground surface. The body and wheel drag contributions were measured independently. The influence of rear body shape, front spoilers, cooling airflow, and underfloor roughness on the aerodynamic characteristics, for both ground conditions has been assessed.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Ground Condition on the Flow Around a Wheel Located Within a Wheelhouse Cavity

1999-03-01
1999-01-0806
A 3D Navier-Stokes CFD model of a wheel located within a wheelhouse cavity has been produced. Both a stationary wheel on a fixed ground and a rotating wheel on a moving ground were considered. Extensive comparisons with the results of a wind tunnel investigation based on the same geometry are presented. These consist of three force coefficients and pressures on the internal faces of the cavity. Comparison with the experimental results gave encouraging agreement. It was found that the rotating wheel produced more drag than the stationary wheel whilst shroud drag decreased when the groundplane was moving compared to when it was stationary.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Aerodynamic Lift on High Speed Stability

1999-03-01
1999-01-0651
The effect of aerodynamic lift on both straight line stability and lane change manoeuvrability of several small and medium sized European passenger cars has been determined from subjective track tests. The straight line and manoeuvring performance degrades with increasing lift and decreasing pitching moment. Increasing speed exacerbates the problem.
Journal Article

The Effect of a Sheared Crosswind Flow on Car Aerodynamics

2017-03-28
2017-01-1536
In the wind tunnel the effect of a wind input on the aerodynamic characteristics of any road vehicle is simulated by yawing the vehicle. This represents a wind input where the wind velocity is constant with height above the ground. In reality the natural wind is a boundary layer flow and is sheared so that the wind velocity will vary with height. A CFD simulation has been conducted to compare the aerodynamic characteristics of a DrivAer model, in fastback and squareback form, subject to a crosswind flow, with and without shear. The yaw simulation has been carried out at a yaw angle of 10° and with one shear flow exponent. It is shown that the car experiences almost identical forces and moments in the two cases when the mass flow in the crosswind over the height of the car is similar. Load distributions are presented for the two cases. The implications for wind averaged drag are discussed.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Raised Freestream Turbulence on the Flow Around Leading Edge Radii

2008-04-14
2008-01-0473
The turbulence environment in the real world is known to be significantly different to that found in a typical automotive wind tunnel. Various studies have shown that raising the level of freestream turbulence has an effect on the forces on generic bluff bodies and real vehicles. Previous work at Loughborough has shown a significant effect of raised freestream turbulence on edge radius optimisation using measurements of forces and moments, and in this paper the underlying changes in the flowfield are investigated using PIV. Results are presented of the flowfield around the leading edge radius of the generic bluff body used in the previous work. The effect of changing the Reynolds number is investigated in the clean tunnel (0.2% turbulence), and it is found that, when the radius is small, there is a significant separation that persists up to a high speed, and then abruptly collapses.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Free Stream Turbulence on A-pillar Airflow

2009-04-20
2009-01-0003
Various studies have shown that the level of wind noise experienced inside cars on the road in unsteady conditions can be substantially different from that measured in wind tunnel tests conducted using a low turbulence facility. In this paper a simple geometric body representing the cabin of a passenger car has been used to investigate the effects of free stream turbulence, (FST), on the A-pillar vortex flowfield and the side glass pressure distribution. Beneath the A-pillar vortex, both mean and dynamic pressures are increased by FST. The unsteady pressure can be associated with wind noise and the flow visualization shows the peak unsteadiness is related to the separation of the secondary vortex.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Backlight Aspect Ratio on Vortex and Base Drag for a Simple Car-Like Shape

2008-04-14
2008-01-0737
The vortex structure in the wake of a car creates drag. In the case of a simple wing this drag component is well defined as a function of lift, but for road vehicles the relationship is more complex. The backlight surface has been shown to be a significant source of vortex drag and in this paper the influence of backlight aspect ratio on both vortex and base drag is investigated. The vortex drag factor is found to be independent of aspect ratio, while the base drag component is shown to be dependent on the ratio of base to frontal area.
Journal Article

The Decay of Bluff Body Wakes

2011-04-12
2011-01-0178
Vehicles on the road operate in the turbulent flow field resulting from the combined effects of the natural wind and the wakes of other vehicles. While substantial data exists on the properties of the natural wind, much less information is available for the wake properties of road vehicles. The wake information available for road vehicle shapes is mainly restricted to the near wake region, but to understand the vehicle operating environment it is the wake downstream of this region which is of interest. To determine the range of this area of interest requires some knowledge of the decay of the wake properties. From wind tunnel studies using small simple bluff bodies in free stream and in ground proximity the principle wake properties, velocity deficit and peak turbulence intensity have been measured. The maximum velocity deficit is shown to approximately decay with x-2/3, where x is the distance downstream, while turbulence intensity decays at a slightly slower rate.
Journal Article

The Aerodynamics of a Small Car Overtaking a Truck

2014-04-01
2014-01-0604
The influence of a large truck on the aerodynamics of a small passenger car in an overtaking manoeuvre on the motorway was considered, many years ago, during the 1970's, to be a potential problem for the vehicle aerodynamicist. The concern never became significant as vehicle architecture evolved and car weights increased. The current drive for improved fuel economy is advocating that a considerable reduction in vehicle mass is desirable and therefore it may be time to readdress the significance of the truck passing manoeuvre. A quasi-steady experiment has been undertaken at small model scale to examine the aerodynamic characteristics of a small car in proximity to a large truck. Measurements at yaw were included to crudely simulate the effects of a crosswind. The wind tunnel data is presented and the limitations of the experimental procedure are discussed.
Technical Paper

On the Optimisation of Road Vehicle Leading Edge Radius in Varying Levels of Freestream Turbulence

2006-04-03
2006-01-1029
It has been recognised that the ideal flow conditions that exist in the modern automotive wind tunnel do not accurately simulate the environment experienced by vehicles on the road. This paper investigates the effect of varying one flow parameter, freestream turbulence, and a single shape parameter, leading edge radius, on aerodynamic drag. The tests were carried out at model scale in the Loughborough University Wind Tunnel, using a very simple 2-box shape, and in the MIRA Full Scale Wind Tunnel using the MIRA squareback Reference Car. Turbulence intensities up to 5% were generated by grids and had a strong effect on transcritical Reynolds number and Reynolds sensitivity at both model scale and full scale. There was a good correlation between the results in both tunnels.
Journal Article

Bluff Body Drag Reduction with Ventilated Base Cavities

2012-04-16
2012-01-0171
Various techniques to reduce the aerodynamic drag of bluff bodies through the mechanism of base pressure recovery have been investigated. These include, for example, boat-tailing, base cavities and base bleed. In this study an Ahmed body in squareback configuration is modified to include a base cavity of variable depth, which can be ventilated by slots. The investigation is conducted in freestream and in ground proximity. It is shown that, with a plain cavity, the overall body drag is reduced for a wide range of cavity depths, but a distinct minimum drag condition is obtained. On adding ventilation slots a comparable drag reduction is achieved but at a greatly reduced cavity depth. Pressure data in the cavity is used to determine the base drag component and shows that the device drag component is significant. Modifications of the slot geometry to reduce this drag component and the effects of slot distribution are investigated.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Effects of Shear and Turbulence During the Dynamic Testing of the Crosswind Sensitivity of Road Vehicles

1997-02-24
970135
With increasing speeds and the anticipated reduction in weight of modern cars, the issue of crosswind sensitivity is becoming increasingly important. In a previous paper by the same authors, the normal method of testing such aerodynamic characteristics at model scale, using static models at yaw to the freestream, was compared with dynamic testing, in which the model is propelled across a ‘gust’ simulated by a wind tunnel. A direct comparison using a similar gust profile for both static and dynamic tests was made with the conclusion that the simple static test technique was underestimating the true transient loads. Further tests have been carried out, on a generic squareback (or estate) model, during which the effect of varying both the vertical velocity profile and the turbulence intensity within the gust was considered.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of the Use of CFD for Investigating the Performance of Intercooler Assemblies

1997-05-19
971856
A three dimensional simulation of the flowfields within an intercooler has been performed, which included both the charge and cooling air flow. The simulation intended to demonstrate the application of numerical and computational techniques to heat exchangers with secondary heat transfer surfaces. The intercooler model selected for this work was typical of commercial designs and some experimental data was available. A multiblock grid was developed from CAD data using PROSTAR™ meshing software. The flowfield was then calculated using STAR-CD™ finite volume Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software using one processor of an HP K400 computeserver. In the simulation the intercooler secondary heat transfer surfaces (fins) were replaced by conducting distributed resistance (porous media). The resistance had been calibrated by 2D CFD studies of the fin designs.
Technical Paper

An Estimation of the Unsteady Aerodynamic Loads on a Road Vehicle in Windy Conditions

2004-03-08
2004-01-1310
Road vehicles operate almost entirely in the unsteady conditions created by the natural wind and the wakes of other vehicles. This is a time dependent and turbulent environment, which differs noticeably from the conditions simulated in the wind tunnel. Using a quasi-steady analysis the aerodynamic characteristics, as determined from wind tunnel tests, are used to derive the unsteady aerodynamic loads experienced by a typical road vehicle subjected to a random wind input. For this paper the wind energy spectrum is of the von Karman type and isotropic turbulence is assumed. The effects of vehicle speed, wind speed and wind direction on lift and side force spectra are presented.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Side Forces on Passenger Cars at Yaw

2016-04-05
2016-01-1620
Side force has an influence on the behaviour of passenger cars in windy conditions. It increases approximately linearly with yaw angle over a significant range of yaw for almost all cars and the side force derivative, (the gradient of side force coefficient with yaw angle), is similar for vehicles of a given category and size. The shape factors and components which affect side force for different vehicle types are discussed. The dominant influence on side force, for most cars, however, is shown to be the vehicle height which is consistent with slender wing theory if the car and its mirror image are considered. This simple theory is shown to apply to 1-box and 2- box shapes, covering most MPVs, hatchbacks and SUVs, but does not adequately represent the side forces on notchback and fastback car shapes. Data from simple bodies is used to develop a modification to the basic theory, which is applied to these vehicle types.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag of a Compact SUV as Measured On-Road and in the Wind Tunnel

2002-03-04
2002-01-0529
Growing concerns about the environmental impact of road vehicles will lead to a reduction in the aerodynamic drag for all passenger cars. This includes Sport Utility Vehicles (SUVs) and light trucks which have relatively high drag coefficients and large frontal area. The wind tunnel remains the tool of choice for the vehicle aerodynamicist, but it is important that the benefits obtained in the wind tunnel reflect improvements to the vehicle on the road. Coastdown measurements obtained using a Land Rover Freelander, in various configurations, have been made to determine aerodynamic drag and these have been compared with wind tunnel data for the same vehicle. Repeatability of the coastdown data, the effects of drag variation near to zero yaw and asymmetry in the drag-yaw data on the results from coastdown testing are assessed. Alternative blockage corrections for the wind tunnel measurements are examined.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Drag of Passenger Cars at Yaw

2015-04-14
2015-01-1559
The aerodynamic drag characteristics of a passenger car are typically defined by a single parameter, the drag coefficient at zero yaw angle. While this has been acceptable in the past, it may not allow a true comparison between vehicles with regard to the impact of drag on performance, especially fuel economy. An alternative measure of aerodynamic drag should take into account the effect of non-zero yaw angles and some proposals have been made in the past, including variations of wind-averaged drag coefficient. For almost all cars the drag increases with yaw, but the increase can vary significantly between vehicles. In this paper the effect of various parameters on the drag rise with yaw are considered for a range of different vehicle types. The increase of drag with yaw is shown to be an essentially induced drag, which is strongly dependent on both side force and lift. Shape factors which influence the sensitivity of drag with yaw are discussed.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Drag Reduction on a Simple Car-Like Shape with Rear Upper Body Taper

2013-04-08
2013-01-0462
Various techniques to reduce the aerodynamic drag of bluff bodies through the mechanism of base pressure recovery have been investigated. These include, for example, boat-tailing, base cavities and base bleed. In this study a simple body representing a car shape is modified to include tapering of the rear upper body on both roof and sides. The effects of taper angle and taper length on drag and lift characteristics are investigated. It is shown that a significant drag reduction can be obtained with moderate taper angles. An unexpected feature is a drag rise at a particular taper length. Pressure data obtained on the rear surfaces and some wake flow visualisation using PIV are presented.
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