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Journal Article

Study of Air Flow Interaction with Pilot Injections in a Diesel Engine by Means of PIV Measurements

2017-03-28
2017-01-0617
With ever-demanding emission legislations in Compression Ignition (CI) engines, new premixed combustion strategies have been developed in recent years seeking both, emissions and performance improvements. Since it has been shown that in-cylinder air flow affects the combustion process, and hence the overall engine performance, the study of swirling structures and its interaction with fuel injection are of great interest. In this regard, possible Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) distribution changes after fuel injection may be a key parameter for achieving performance improvements by reducing in-cylinder heat transfer. Consequently, this paper aims to gain an insight into spray-swirl interaction through the analysis of in-cylinder velocity fields measured by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) when PCCI conditions are proposed. Experiments are carried out in a single cylinder optical Diesel engine with bowl-in-piston geometry.
Technical Paper

Soot Characterization of Diesel/Gasoline Blends Injected through a Single Injection System in CI engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0048
In the past few years’ various studies have shown how the application of a highly premixed dual fuel combustion for CI engines leads a strong reduction for both pollutant emissions and fuel consumption. In particular a drastic soot and NOx reduction were achieved. In spite of the most common strategy for dual fueling has been represented by using two different injection systems, various authors are considering the advantages of using a single injection system to directly inject blends in the chamber. In this scenario, a characterization of the behavior of such dual-fuel blend spray became necessary, both in terms of inert and reactive ambient conditions. In this work, a light extinction imaging (LEI) has been performed in order to obtain two-dimensional soot distribution information within a spray flame of different diesel/gasoline commercial fuel blends. All the measurements were conducted in an optically accessible two-stroke engine equipped with a single-hole injector.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation and Components Behavior of Light Duty Diesel Engine after 300 Hours Test Fuelled with Pure Biodiesel: Effects on Reliability and Durability

2012-04-16
2012-01-0865
Pure biodiesel is non-toxic, biodegradable and greenhouse gas neutral alternative fuel with potential successful future but reduced quantitative information is available about the impact of biodiesel on engine durability and long period usage effects. In this study, a commercial light duty Diesel engine installed on an engine test bench has been operated fuelled with pure biodiesel (B100 referred to the EN-14214 standard) during a period test of 300 hours in order to analyze engine performance and components behavior. A engine characterization has been completed using conventional diesel fuel (EN 590). Then, following a specific defined operation cycle and fuelled with pure biodiesel, a study over different engine components such as: engine oil, fuel filters, Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), so on, has been done in order to obtain possible negative effects and modifications required over maintenance policies applied to them.
Journal Article

Particulates Size Distribution of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) on a Medium-Duty Engine Fueled with Diesel and Gasoline at Different Engine Speeds

2017-09-04
2017-24-0085
This work investigates the particulates size distribution of reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion, a dual-fuel concept which combines the port fuel injection of low-reactive/gasoline-like fuels with direct injection of highly reactive/diesel-like fuels. The particulates size distributions from 5-250 nm were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer at six engine speeds, from 950 to 2200 rpm, and 25% engine load. The same procedure was followed for conventional diesel combustion. The study was performed in a single-cylinder engine derived from a stock medium-duty multi-cylinder diesel engine of 15.3:1 compression ratio. The combustion strategy proposed during the tests campaign was limited to accomplish both mechanical and emissions constraints. The results confirms that reactivity controlled compression ignition promotes ultra-low levels of nitrogen oxides and smoke emissions in the points tested.
Technical Paper

PIV and DBI Experimental Characterization of Air Flow-Spray Interaction and Soot Formation in a Single Cylinder Optical Diesel Engine Using a Real Bowl Geometry Piston

2019-09-09
2019-24-0100
With demanding emissions legislations and the need for higher efficiency, new technologies for compression ignition engines are in development. One of them relies on reducing the heat losses of the engine during the combustion process as well as to devise injection strategies that reduce soot formation. Therefore, it is necessary a better comprehension about the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) distribution inside the cylinder and how it is affected by the interaction between air flow motion and fuel spray. Furthermore, new diesel engines are characterized by massive decrease of NOx emissions. Therefore, considering the well-known NOx-soot trade-off, it is necessary a better comprehension and overall quantification of soot formation and how the different injection strategies can impact it.
Technical Paper

Influence of Direct-Injected Fuel Properties on Performance and Emissions from a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Running Under RCCI Combustion Mode

2018-04-03
2018-01-0250
The dual-fuel combustion mode known as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) allows an effective control of the combustion process by means of modulating the in-cylinder fuel reactivity depending on the engine operating conditions. This strategy has been found to be able to avoid the NOx-soot trade-off appearing during conventional diesel combustion (CDC), with diesel-like or better thermal efficiency in a great part of the engine map. The role of the low reactivity fuel properties and engine settings over RCCI combustion has been widely investigated in literature, concluding that the direct-injected fuel injection timing is a key parameter for controlling the in-cylinder fuel stratification. From this, it can be inferred that the physical and chemical characteristics of the direct-injected fuel should have also an important role on the RCCI combustion process.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Vortex Center Location Algorithms for Particle Image Velocimetry Data in an Optical Light-Duty Compression Ignition Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0209
Ever decreasing permitted emission levels and the necessity of more efficient engines demand a better understanding of in-cylinder phenomena. In swirl-supported compression ignition (CI) engines, mean in-cylinder flow structures formed during the intake stroke deeply influence mixture preparation prior to combustion, heat transfer and pollutant oxidation all of which could potentially improve engine performance. Therefore, the ability to characterize these mean flow structures is relevant for achieving performance improvements. CI mean flow structure is mainly described by a precessing vortex. The location of the vortex center is key for the characterization of the flow structure. Consequently, this work aims at evaluating algorithms that allow for the location of the vortex center both, in ensemble-averaged velocity fields and in instantaneous velocity fields.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Emissions and Performances from Partially Premixed Compression Ignition Combustion using Gasoline and Spark Assistance

2013-04-08
2013-01-1664
Several new combustion concepts have been developed during last decade with the aim of reducing pollutant emissions. Specifically, these strategies allow a simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot emissions by reducing the local combustion temperatures, enhancing the fuel/air mixing (PCCI, HCCI…). In spite of their benefits, these concepts present difficulties controlling the appropriate combustion phasing as well as high knocking levels and therefore, their operating range is reduced to low-medium loads. In this work gasoline is considered as a fuel in order to improve combustion strategies based on fully or partially premixed combustion in CI engines. Its use provides more flexibility to achieve lean and low combustion temperature, however the concept has demonstrated difficulty under light load conditions using gasoline with ON up to 95.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of EGR Effect on the Global Energy Balance of a High Speed DI Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0646
Regulated emissions and fuel consumption are the main constraints affecting internal combustion engine (ICE) design. Over the years, many techniques have been used with the aim of meeting these limitations. In particular, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has proved to be an invaluable solution to reduce NOx emissions in Diesel engines, becoming a widely used technique in production engines. However, its application has a direct effect on fuel consumption due to both the changes in the in-cylinder processes, affecting indicated efficiency, and also on the air management. An analysis, based on the engine Global Energy Balance, is presented to thoroughly assess the behavior of a HSDI Diesel engine under variable EGR conditions at different operating points. The tests have been carried out keeping constant the conditions at the IVC and the combustion centering.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Efficiency of a Conventional Diesel Oxidation Catalyst for Dual-Fuel RCCI Diesel-Gasoline Combustion

2018-09-10
2018-01-1729
Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion has demonstrated to be able to avoid the NOx-soot trade-off appearing during conventional diesel combustion (CDC), with similar or better thermal efficiency than CDC under a wide variety of engine platforms. However, a major challenge of this concept comes from the high hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, which are orders of magnitude higher than CDC and similar to those of port fuel injected (PFI) gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures during RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatment technologies. RCCI has been successfully implemented on different compression ignition engine platforms with only minor modifications on the combustion system to include a PFI for feeding the engine with the low reactivity fuel.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Spray Evaporation and Mixing Using Blends of Commercial Gasoline and Diesel Fuels in Engine-Like Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0843
Recent studies have shown that the use of highly premixed dual fuel combustion reduces pollutant emissions and fuel consumption in CI engines. The most common strategy for dual fueling is to use two injection systems. Port fuel injection for low reactivity fuel and direct injection for high reactivity fuel. This strategy implies some severe shortcomings for its real implementation in passenger cars such as the use of two fuel tanks. In this sense, the use of a single injection system for dual fueling could solve this drawback trying to maintain pollutant and efficiency benefits. Nonetheless, when single injection system is used, the spray characteristics become an essential issue. In this work the fundamental characteristics of dual-fuel sprays with a single injection system under non-evaporating engine-like conditions are presented.
Technical Paper

Characterization of In-Cylinder Soot Oxidation Using Two-Color Pyrometry in a Production Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0735
Engine-out soot emissions are the result of a complex balance between in-cylinder soot formation and oxidation. Soot is formed in the diffusion flame, just after the lift-off length (LOL). Size and mass of soot particles increase through the diffusion flame and finally they are partially oxidized at the flame front. Therefore, engine-out soot emissions depend on the amount of soot formed and oxidized inside the combustion chamber. There is a considerable amount of work in the literature on characterization of soot formation. However, there is a clear lack of published research related to the characterization of soot oxidation. Thus, the main objective of the current research is to provide more knowledge and insight into the soot oxidation processes. For this purpose, a combination of theoretical and experimental tools were used. In particular, in-cylinder optical thickness (KL) was quantified with an optoelectronic sensor that uses two-color pyrometry.
Journal Article

An Investigation on Mixing and Auto-ignition using Diesel and Gasoline in a Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition Engine Operating in PCCI Combustion Conditions

2011-06-09
2011-37-0008
Most of the new Diesel combustion concepts are mainly based on reducing local combustion temperatures and enhancing the fuel/air mixing with the aim of simultaneously reducing soot and NOx emissions. In this framework, Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) has revealed as one of the best options to combine both low emissions and good combustion controllability. During last years, PCCI strategy has been widely explored using high EGR levels and different early or late injection timings to extend the ignition delay. Recently, the use of lower cetane fuels is under investigation. Despite the great quantity of research work performed, there are still some aspects related to PCCI combustion that are not completely well known. In this paper an experimental and numerical study is carried out focused on understanding the mixing and auto-ignition processes in PCCI combustion conditions using Diesel and Gasoline fuels.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Engine Combustion Network ‘Spray B’ in a Light Duty Single Cylinder Optical Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0220
Engine Combustion Network promotes fundamental investigations on a number of different spray configurations with the goal of providing experimental results under highly controlled conditions for CFD validation. Most of the available experiments up to now have been obtained in spray vessels, which miss some of the interactions governing spray evolution in the combustion chamber of an engine, such as the jet wall interaction and the transient conditions in the combustion chamber. The main aim of the present research is to compare the results obtained with a three-hole, 90 μm injector, known as ECN’s Spray B, in these constant-volume vessels and more recent Heavy-Duty engines with those obtained in a Light Duty Single Cylinder Optical Engine, under inert and reactive conditions, using n-dodecane. In-cylinder conditions during the injection were estimated by means of a 1-D and 0-D model simulation, accounting for heat transfer and in-cylinder mass evolution.
Journal Article

An Investigation of Radiation Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2015-09-06
2015-24-2443
In the last two decades engine research has been mainly focused on reducing pollutant emissions. This fact together with growing awareness about the impacts of climate change are leading to an increase in the importance of thermal efficiency over other criteria in the design of internal combustion engines (ICE). In this framework, the heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls can be considered as one of the main sources of indicated efficiency diminution. In particular, in modern direct-injection diesel engines, the radiation emission from soot particles can constitute a significant component of the efficiency losses. Thus, the main of objective of the current research was to evaluate the amount of energy lost to soot radiation relative to the input fuel chemical energy during the combustion event under several representative engine loads and speeds. Moreover, the current research characterized the impact of different engine operating conditions on radiation heat transfer.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Particle Size Distributions with Post Injection in DI Diesel Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1379
In-cylinder emission control strategies, such as modifications of injection pressure and injection timing, have been used by researchers in order to reduce exhaust emissions and to comply with the legislation standards. Since some years ago post-injections have been studied and are well known as being efficient for soot emissions reduction. Although is well known that diesel gaseous and particle mass emissions have been reduced progressively over the last twenty years in response to the restrictive emission legislation and due to the application of new technologies The aim of this work is to help develop and understand the effect of the post-injection on diesel exhaust particle size distributions. The approach is to use a modern, well instrumented research engine equipped with a flexible high pressure fuel injection system. The results of this work are available to help provide guidelines for strategies to achieve reductions of the particle size distributions in diesel engines.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on Diesel Spray Injection into a Non-Quiescent Chamber

2017-03-28
2017-01-0850
Visualization of single-hole nozzles into quiescent ambient has been used extensively in the literature to characterize spray mixing and combustion. However in-cylinder flow may have some meaningful impact on the spray evolution. In the present work, visualization of direct diesel injection spray under both non-reacting and reacting operating conditions was conducted in an optically accessible two-stroke engine equipped with a single-hole injector. Two different high-speed imaging techniques, Schlieren and UV-Light Absorption, were applied here to quantify vapor penetration for non-reacting spray. Meanwhile, Mie-scattering was used to measure the liquid length. As for reacting conditions, Schlieren and OH* chemiluminescence were simultaneously applied to obtain the spray tip penetration and flame lift-off length under the same TDC density and temperature. Additionally, PIV was used to characterize in-cylinder flow motion.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Spray Mixing and Combustion Characteristics for Spray C/D Nozzles in a Constant Pressure Vessel

2018-09-10
2018-01-1783
The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is a coordinate effort from research partners from all over the world which aims at creating a large experimental database to validate CFD calculations. Two injectors from ECN, namely Spray C and D, have been compared in a constant pressure flow vessel, which enables a field of view of more than 100 mm. Both nozzles have been designed with similar flow metrics, with Spray D having a convergent hole shape and Spray C a cylindrical one, the latter being therefore more prone to cavitation. Although the focus of the study is on reacting conditions, some inert cases have also been measured. High speed schlieren imaging, OH* chemiluminescence visualization and head-on broadband luminosity have been used as combustion diagnostics to evaluate ignition delay, lift off length and reacting tip penetration. Parametric variations include ambient temperature, oxygen content and injection pressure variations.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Diesel-Gasoline Blends Effects in a Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition Engine Operating in PCCI Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1676
Compared to the gasoline engine, the diesel engine has the advantage of being more efficient and hence achieving a reduction of CO₂ levels. Unfortunately, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from diesel engines are high. To overcome these drawbacks, several new combustion concepts have been developed, including the PCCI (Premixed Charge Compression Ignition) combustion mode. This strategy allows a simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot emissions through the reduction of local combustion temperatures and the enhancement of the fuel/air mixing. In spite of PCCI benefits, the concept is characterized by its high combustion noise levels. Currently, a promising way to improve the PCCI disadvantages is being investigated. It is related with the use of low cetane fuels such as gasoline and diesel-gasoline blends.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study of Diesel Combustion and Emissions with Post-injection

2007-04-16
2007-01-0915
A comprehensive study is carried out in order to better understand combustion behavior in a direct injection Diesel engine working under multiple injection strategies, in particular when using post-injections. The aim of the study is to provide criteria to more easily define optimized injection strategies. During the study two main phenomena have been observed and characterized: an acceleration of the final stage of combustion and an apparent disconnection between the combustions of the two pulses (“split flame”). Thanks to the combustion acceleration phenomenon, if the post-injection is placed near enough the main injection, the end of combustion can take place even earlier compared to the case with a single main injection. In such conditions NOx emissions increase (most likely due to a higher temperature level during the last stage of combustion), but soot and specific fuel consumption decrease (due to a faster last phase of combustion).
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