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Technical Paper

Vehicle Driving Cycle Simulation of a Pneumatic Hybrid Bus Based on Experimental Engine Measurements

In the study presented in this paper, a vehicle driving cycle simulation of the pneumatic hybrid has been conducted. The pneumatic hybrid powertrain has been modeled in GT-Power and validated against experimental data. The GT-Power engine model has been linked with a MATLAB/simulink vehicle model. The engine in question is a single-cylinder Scania D12 diesel engine, which has been converted to work as a pneumatic hybrid. The base engine model, provided by Scania, is made in GT-power and it is based on the same engine configuration as the one used in real engine testing. During pneumatic hybrid operation the engine can be used as a 2-stroke compressor for generation of compressed air during vehicle deceleration and during vehicle acceleration the engine can be operated as a 2-stroke air-motor driven by the previously stored pressurized air.
Technical Paper

Variable Valve Actuation for Timing Control of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

Autoignition of a homogeneous mixture is very sensitive to operating conditions. Therefore fast combustion phasing control is necessary for reliable operation. There are several means to control the combustion phasing of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. This paper presents cycle-to-cycle cylinder individual control results from a six-cylinder HCCI engine using a Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) system. As feedback signal, the crank angle for 50% burned, based on cylinder pressure, is used. Three control structures are evaluated, Model Predictive Control (MPC), Linear Quadratic Gaussian control (LQG) and PID control. In the control design of the MPC and LQG controller, dynamic models obtained by system identification were used. Successful experiments were performed on a port-injected six-cylinder heavy-duty Diesel engine operating in HCCI mode.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Temperature Measurements in Engine Combustion Using Phosphor Thermometry

A phosphor thermometry, for measurements of two-dimensional gas-phase temperature was examined in turbulent combustion in an engine. The reasonable temperature deviation and the agreement with calculated data within 5% precision were achieved by single-shot images in the ignition process of compression ignition engine. Focusing on the local flame kernel, the flame structure could be quantitatively given by the temperature. It became evident that the HCCI flame kernels had 1-3 mm diameter and the isolated island structures. Subsequently, the HTR zone consisted of the combined flame kernels near TDC.
Technical Paper

Thermal Efficiency Comparison of Different Injector Constellations in a CI Engine

More stringent emission regulations call for high-efficiency engines in the heavy-duty vehicle sector. Towards this goal, reduced heat losses, as well as increased work output, are needed. In this study, a multiple injector concept to control the combustion as well as reduce the hot boundary zones is proposed. Earlier studies have proven that multiple injectors experience lower heat losses and higher efficiency. However, a comprehensive investigation of the causes for experimental heat loss was not performed in depth. Experiments in a heavy-duty CI engine equipped with three injectors were thus performed. Engine configurations of single, dual and triple injectors were compared for a single-injection case as well as a multi-injection (Sabathe-cycle) case. Heat losses, efficiency and the emission levels were quantified and investigated. Optical experiments were performed to investigate the temperature field as well as flame behavior.
Technical Paper

The Usefulness of Negative Valve Overlap for Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion, PPC

Partially premixed combustion has the potential of high efficiency and simultaneous low soot and NOx emissions. Running the engine in PPC mode with high octane number fuels has the advantage of a longer premix period of fuel and air which reduces soot emissions, even at higher loads. The problem is the ignitability at low load and idle operating conditions. The objective is to investigate the usefulness of negative valve overlap on a light duty diesel engine running with gasoline partially premixed combustion at low load operating conditions. The idea is to use negative valve overlap to trap hot residual gases to elevate the global in-cylinder temperature to promote auto-ignition of the high octane number fuel. This is of practical interest at low engine speed and load operating conditions because it can be assumed that the available boost is limited. The problem with NVO at low load operating conditions is that the exhaust gas temperature is low.
Technical Paper

The Influence of a Late In-Cylinder Air Injection on In-Cylinder Flow Measured with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)

During development of an air assisted, direct injection combustion system, it was found that an air pulse during the late part of compression stroke significantly shortened the combustion duration and extended the lean limits of the engine. The effect of an injection of pure air through an air assist direct injector was studied with Particle Image Velocimetry, PIV. Results showed that an air pulse during the compression stroke significantly speeded up in-cylinder velocities, which also was showed in the heat release analysis. A system to use low density seeding particles was developed and is presented in the paper.
Technical Paper

The HCCI Combustion Process in a Single Cycle - Speed Fuel Tracer LIF and Chemiluminescence Imaging

The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion progress has been characterized by means of high-speed fuel tracer Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) combined with simultaneous chemiluminescence imaging. Imaging has been conducted using a high-speed laser and detector system. The system can acquire a sequence of eight images within less than one crank angle. The engine was run at 1200 rpm on iso-octane or ethanol and a slight amount of acetone was added as a fuel tracer, providing a marker for the unburned areas. The PLIF sequences showed that, during the first stage of combustion, a well distributed decay of fuel concentration occurs. During the later parts of the combustion process the fuel concentration images present much more structure, with distinct edges between islands of unburned fuel and products.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Transfer Port Geometry on Scavenge Flow Velocities at High Engine Speed

2-D LDV measurements were performed on two different cylinder designs in a fired two-stroke engine running with wide-open throttle at 9000 rpm. The cylinders examined were one with open transfer channels and one with cup handle transfer channels. Optical access to the cylinder was achieved by removing the silencer and thereby gain optical access through the exhaust port. No addition of seeding was made, since the fuel droplets were not entirely vaporized as they entered the cylinder and thus served as seeding. Results show that the loop-scavenging effect was poor with open transfer channels, but clearly detectable with cup handle channels. The RMS-value, “turbulence”, was low close to the transfer ports in both cylinders, but increased rapidly in the middle of the cylinder. The seeding density was used to obtain information about the fuel concentration in the cylinder during scavenging.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Volatility on HCCI Using Simultaneous Formaldehyde and OH PLIF

Simultaneous formaldehyde and OH PLIF have been applied in a direct-injected HCCI engine. The engine is a 0.5 l single-cylinder optical engine equipped with EGR system. PLIF measurements were performed with the engine run with two different fuels of low and high volatility, respectively. Different ratios of EGR were also examined. The aim of the study was to investigate how fuels with different volatility and EGR affect the HCCI combustion and measurements were performed for early and late injection timings. Measurements are presented for different injection timings showing formaldehyde and OH from start of injection until late in the expansion stroke. Also, formaldehyde distributions obtained from after the low temperature regime and before the high temperature regime are studied for different tuning of the start of injection from 300CAD to 20CAD before top dead center.
Technical Paper

Supercharged Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition

The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is the third alternative for combustion in the reciprocating engine. Here, a homogeneous charge is used as in a spark ignited engine, but the charge is compressed to auto-ignition as in a diesel. The main difference compared with the Spark Ignition (SI) engine is the lack of flame propagation and hence the independence from turbulence. Compared with the diesel engine, HCCI has a homogeneous charge and hence no problems associated with soot and NOX formation. Earlier research on HCCI showed high efficiency and very low amounts of NOX, but HC and CO were higher than in SI mode. It was not possible to achieve high IMEP values with HCCI, the limit being 5 bar. Supercharging is one way to dramatically increase IMEP. The influence of supercharging on HCCI was therefore experimentally investigated. Three different fuels were used during the experiments: iso-octane, ethanol and natural gas.
Technical Paper

Styrofoam Precursors as Drop-in Diesel Fuel

Styrene, or ethylbenzene, is mainly used as a monomer for the production of polymers, most notably Styrofoam. In the synthetis of styrene, the feedstock of benzene and ethylene is converted into aromatic oxygenates such as benzaldehyde, 2-phenyl ethanol and acetophenone. Benzaldehyde and phenyl ethanol are low value side streams, while acetophenone is a high value intermediate product. The side streams are now principally rejected from the process and burnt for process heat. Previous in-house research has shown that such aromatic oxygenates are suitable as diesel fuel additives and can in some cases improve the soot-NOx trade-off. In this study acetophenone, benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol are each added to commercial EN590 diesel at a ratio of 1:9, with the goal to ascertain whether or not the lower value benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol can perform on par with the higher value acetophenone. These compounds are now used in pure form.
Technical Paper

Study on Combustion Chamber Geometry Effects in an HCCI Engine Using High-Speed Cycle-Resolved Chemiluminescence Imaging

The aim of this study is to see how geometry generated turbulence affects the Rate of Heat Release (ROHR) in an HCCI engine. HCCI combustion is limited in load due to high peak pressures and too fast combustion. If the speed of combustion can be decreased the load range can be extended. Therefore two different combustion chamber geometries were investigated, one with a disc shape and one with a square bowl in piston. The later one provokes squish-generated gas flow into the bowl causing turbulence. The disc shaped combustion chamber was used as a reference case. Combustion duration and ROHR were studied using heat release analysis. A Scania D12 Diesel engine, converted to port injected HCCI with ethanol was used for the experiments. An engine speed of 1200 rpm was applied throughout the tests. The effect of air/fuel ratio and combustion phasing was also studied.
Technical Paper

Study of a Heavy Duty Euro5 EGR-Engine Sensitivity to Fuel Change with Emphasis on Combustion and Emission Formation

A diesel engine developed for an international market must be able to run on different fuels considering the diesel fuel qualities and the increasing selection of biofuels in the world. This leads to the question of how different fuels perform relative to a standard diesel fuel when not changing the hardware settings. In this study five fuels (Japanese diesel, MK3, EN590 with 10% RME, EN590 with 30% RME and pure RME) have been compared to a reference diesel fuel (Swedish MK1) when run on three different speeds and three different loads at each speed. The experiments are run on a Scania 13l Euro5 engine with standard settings for Swedish MK1 diesel. In general the differences were not large between the fuels. NO x usually increased compared to MK1 and then soot decreased as would be expected. The combustion efficiency increased with increased RME contents of the fuel but the indicated efficiency was not influenced by RME except for at higher loads.
Technical Paper

Spray and Combustion Visualization of Gasoline and Diesel under Different Ambient Conditions in a Constant Volume Chamber

Spray and combustion of gasoline and diesel were visualized under different ambient conditions in terms of pressure, temperature and density in a constant volume chamber. Three different ambient conditions were selected to simulate the three combustion regimes of homogeneous charge compression ignition, premixed charge compression ignition and conventional combustion. Ambient density was varied from 3.74 to 23.39 kg/m3. Ambient temperature at the spray injection were controlled to the range from 474 to 925 K. Intake oxygen concentration was also modulated from 15 % to 21 % in order to investigate the effects of intake oxygen concentrations on combustion characteristics. The injection pressure of gasoline and diesel were modulated from 50 to 150 MPa to analyze the effect of injection pressure on the spray development and combustion characteristics. Liquid penetration length and vapor penetration length were measured based on the methods of Mie-scattering and Schileren, respectively.
Journal Article

Some Effects of Fuel Autoignition Quality and Volatility in Premixed Compression Ignition Engines

Previous work has shown that it may be advantageous to use gasoline type fuels with long ignition delays compared to today's diesel fuels in compression ignition engines. In the present work we investigate if high volatility is also needed along with low cetane (high octane) to get more premixed combustion leading to low NO and smoke. A single-cylinder light-duty compression ignition engine is run on four fuels in the diesel boiling range and three fuels in the gasoline boiling range. The lowest cetane diesel boiling range fuel (DCN = 22) also has very high aromatic content (75%vol) but the engine can be run on this to give very low NO (≺ 0.4 g/kWh) and smoke (FSN ≺ 0.1), e.g,. at 4 bar and 10 bar IMEP at 2000 RPM like the gasoline fuels but unlike the diesel fuels with DCNs of 40 and 56. If the combustion phasing and delay are matched for any two fuels at a given operating condition, their emissions behavior is also matched regardless of the differences in volatility and composition.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous PLIF Measurements for Visualization of Formaldehyde- and Fuel- Distributions in a DI HCCI Engine

Simultaneous laser induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging of formaldehyde and a fuel-tracer have been performed in a direct-injection HCCI engine. A mix of N-heptane and iso-octane was used as fuel and Toluene as fluorescent tracer. The experimental setup involves two pulsed Nd:YAG lasers and two ICCD cameras. Frequency quadrupled laser radiation at 266 nm from one of the Nd:YAG lasers was used for excitation of the fuel tracer. The resulting fluorescence was detected with one of the ICCD cameras in the spectral region 270-320 nm. The second laser system provided frequency tripled radiation at 355 nm for excitation of Formaldehyde. Detection in the range 395-500 nm was achieved with the second ICCD. The aim of the presented work is to investigate the applicability of utilizing formaldehyde as a naturally occurring fuel marker. Formaldehyde is formed in the low temperature reactions (LTR) prior to the main combustion and should thus be present were fuel is located until it is consumed.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Formaldehyde and Fuel-Tracer LIF Imaging in a High-Speed Diesel Engine With Optically Accessible Realistic Combustion Chamber

Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging of formaldehyde and a fuel-tracer have been performed in a high-speed diesel engine. N-heptane and isooctane were used as fuel and toluene was used as a tracer. This arrangement made it possible to make simultaneous measurements of toluene by exciting at 266 nm and detecting at 270-320 nm while exciting formaldehyde at 355 nm and detecting at 400-500 nm. The aim of this study is to investigate how traditional fuel tracer and natural-occurring formaldehyde formed in the cool chemistry are transported in the piston bowl. A range of ignition delays were created by running the engine with different amounts of EGR. During this sweep the area where the low-temperature reactions take place were studied. The measurements were performed in a 0.5-l, single-cylinder optical engine running under conditions simulating a cruise-point, i.e., about 2.2 bar imep.
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Pneumatic Hybrid Powertrain with VVT in GT-Power and Comparison with Experimental Data

In the study presented in this paper, experimental data from a pneumatic hybrid has been compared to the results from a simulation of the engine in GT-Power. The engine in question is a single-cylinder Scania D12 diesel engine, which has been converted to work as a pneumatic hybrid. The base engine model, provided by Scania, is made in GT-Power and it is based on the same engine configuration as the one used during real engine testing. During pneumatic hybrid operation the engine can be used as a 2-stroke compressor for generation of compressed air during vehicle deceleration and during vehicle acceleration the engine can be operated as a 2-stroke air-motor driven by the previously stored pressurized air. There is also a possibility to use the stored pressurized air in order to supercharge the engine when there is a need for high torque, like for instance at take off after a standstill or during an overtake maneuver.
Technical Paper

Reducing Throttle Losses Using Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) in a Heavy-Duty Spark-Ignited Natural Gas Engine

Stoichiometric operation of Spark Ignited (SI) Heavy Duty Natural Gas (HDNG) engines with a three way catalyst results in very low emissions however they suffer from bad gas-exchange efficiency due to use of throttle which results in high throttling losses. Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) is a good practice to reduce throttling losses in a certain operating region of the engine. VTG technology is extensively used in diesel engines; it is very much ignored in gasoline engines however it is possible and advantageous to be used on HDNG engine due to their relatively low exhaust gas temperature. Exhaust gas temperatures in HDNG engines are low enough (lower than 760 degree Celsius) and tolerable for VGT material. Traditionally HDNG are equipped with a turbocharger with waste-gate but it is easy and simple to replace the by-pass turbocharger with a well-matched VGT.
Technical Paper

Reacting Boundary Layers in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

An experimental and computational study of the near-wall combustion in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has been conducted by applying laser based diagnostic techniques in combination with numerical modeling. Our major intent was to characterize the combustion in the velocity- and thermal boundary layers. The progress of the combustion was studied by using fuel tracer LIF, the result of which was compared with LDA measurements of the velocity boundary layer along with numerical simulations of the reacting boundary layer. Time resolved images of the PLIF signal were taken and ensemble averaged images were calculated. In the fuel tracer LIF experiments, acetone was seeded into the fuel as a tracer. It is clear from the experiments that a proper set of backgrounds and laser profiles are necessary to resolve the near-wall concentration profiles, even at a qualitative level.