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Technical Paper

Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Piston - Design Study

Variable compression ratio (VCR) technology has long been recognized as a method for improving the automobile engine performance, efficiency, fuel economy with reduced emission. This paper presents a design of hydraulically actuated piston based on the VCR piston proposed by the British Internal Combustion Engine Research Institute (BICERI). In this design, the compression height of the piston automatically changes in response to engine cylinder pressure by controlling the lubrication oil flow via valves in the piston. In addition, numerical models including piston kinetic model, oil hydraulic model, compression ratio model and etc., have been established to evaluate the piston properties. The oil flow characteristics between two chambers in VCR piston have been investigated and the response behaviors of VCR engine and normal engine, such as compression pressure and peak cylinder pressure, are compared at different engine loads.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Self Tuning Gross Heat Release Algorithm

The present paper shows the validation of a self tuning heat release method with no need to model heat losses, crevice losses and blow by. Using the pressure and volume traces the method estimates the polytropic exponents (before, during and after the combustion event), by the use of the emission values and amount of fuel injected per cycle the algorithm calculates the total heat release. These four inputs are subsequently used for computing the heat release trace. The result is a user independent algorithm which results in more objective comparisons among operating points and different engines. In the present paper the heat release calculated with this novel method has been compared with the one computed using the Woschni correlation for modeling the heat transfer. The comparison has been made using different fuels (PRF0, PRF80, ethanol and iso-octane) making sweeps in relative air-fuel ratio, engine speed, EGR and CA 50.
Technical Paper

The Usefulness of Negative Valve Overlap for Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion, PPC

Partially premixed combustion has the potential of high efficiency and simultaneous low soot and NOx emissions. Running the engine in PPC mode with high octane number fuels has the advantage of a longer premix period of fuel and air which reduces soot emissions, even at higher loads. The problem is the ignitability at low load and idle operating conditions. The objective is to investigate the usefulness of negative valve overlap on a light duty diesel engine running with gasoline partially premixed combustion at low load operating conditions. The idea is to use negative valve overlap to trap hot residual gases to elevate the global in-cylinder temperature to promote auto-ignition of the high octane number fuel. This is of practical interest at low engine speed and load operating conditions because it can be assumed that the available boost is limited. The problem with NVO at low load operating conditions is that the exhaust gas temperature is low.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Valve Strategy on In-Cylinder Flow and Combustion

This study is focused on the effect of different valve strategies on the in-cylinder flow and combustion A conventional four-valve pentroof engine was modified to enable optical access to the combustion chamber To get information on the flow, a two-component LDV system was applied The combustion was monitored by the use of cylinder pressure in a one-zone heat release model The results show that the flow in the cylinder with the valves operating in the standard configuration has an expected tumble characteristic In this case the high frequency turbulence is homogeneous and has a peak approximately 20 CAD BTDC With one valve deactivated, the flow shows a swirling pattern The turbulence is then less homogeneous but the level of turbulence is increased When the single inlet valve was phased late against the crankshaft dramatic effects on the flow resulted The late inlet valve opening introduced a low cylinder pressure before the valve opened The high pressure difference across the valve introduced a high-velocity jet into the cylinder Turbulence was increased by a factor of two by this operational mode When two inlet valves were used, a reduction of turbulence resulted from a very late inlet cam phase
Technical Paper

The Effect of Transfer Port Geometry on Scavenge Flow Velocities at High Engine Speed

2-D LDV measurements were performed on two different cylinder designs in a fired two-stroke engine running with wide-open throttle at 9000 rpm. The cylinders examined were one with open transfer channels and one with cup handle transfer channels. Optical access to the cylinder was achieved by removing the silencer and thereby gain optical access through the exhaust port. No addition of seeding was made, since the fuel droplets were not entirely vaporized as they entered the cylinder and thus served as seeding. Results show that the loop-scavenging effect was poor with open transfer channels, but clearly detectable with cup handle channels. The RMS-value, “turbulence”, was low close to the transfer ports in both cylinders, but increased rapidly in the middle of the cylinder. The seeding density was used to obtain information about the fuel concentration in the cylinder during scavenging.
Technical Paper

Technologies for Carbon-Neutral Passenger Transport - a Comparative Analysis

Road transport has become a large source of CO2 emission and accounted in 1998 for about 27% of the CO2 emission in Sweden. Efficient energy use and the use of renewable energy sources are main options for reducing CO2 emission from vehicles in the future. In this study, the use of energy carriers based on renewable energy sources in battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), fuel-cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) is compared regarding energy efficiency, emission and cost. The cost calculations include energy, environmental and vehicle costs. The potential for non-technical measures to contribute to a reduction of road transport CO2 emission is also briefly discussed and related to the potential for technical measures. There is the potential to double the primary energy efficiency compared with the current level by utilizing vehicles with electric drivetrains.
Technical Paper

Study of a Heavy Duty Euro5 EGR-Engine Sensitivity to Fuel Change with Emphasis on Combustion and Emission Formation

A diesel engine developed for an international market must be able to run on different fuels considering the diesel fuel qualities and the increasing selection of biofuels in the world. This leads to the question of how different fuels perform relative to a standard diesel fuel when not changing the hardware settings. In this study five fuels (Japanese diesel, MK3, EN590 with 10% RME, EN590 with 30% RME and pure RME) have been compared to a reference diesel fuel (Swedish MK1) when run on three different speeds and three different loads at each speed. The experiments are run on a Scania 13l Euro5 engine with standard settings for Swedish MK1 diesel. In general the differences were not large between the fuels. NO x usually increased compared to MK1 and then soot decreased as would be expected. The combustion efficiency increased with increased RME contents of the fuel but the indicated efficiency was not influenced by RME except for at higher loads.
Technical Paper

Start of Injection Strategies for HCCI-combustion

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has a great potential for low NOx emissions but problems with emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (HC). One way of reducing the HC is to use direct injection. The purpose of this paper is to present experimental data on the trade off between NOx and HC. Injection timing, injection pressure and nozzle configuration all effect homogeneity of the mixture and thus the NOx and HC emissions. The engine studied is a single cylinder version of a Scania D12 that represents a modern heavy-duty truck size engine. A common rail (CR) system has been used to control injection pressure and timing. The combustion using injectors with different nozzle hole diameters and spray angle, both colliding and non-colliding, has been studied. The NOx emission level changes with start of injection (SOI) and the levels are low for early injection timing, increasing with retarded SOI. Different injectors produce different NOx levels.
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Pneumatic Hybrid Powertrain with VVT in GT-Power and Comparison with Experimental Data

In the study presented in this paper, experimental data from a pneumatic hybrid has been compared to the results from a simulation of the engine in GT-Power. The engine in question is a single-cylinder Scania D12 diesel engine, which has been converted to work as a pneumatic hybrid. The base engine model, provided by Scania, is made in GT-Power and it is based on the same engine configuration as the one used during real engine testing. During pneumatic hybrid operation the engine can be used as a 2-stroke compressor for generation of compressed air during vehicle deceleration and during vehicle acceleration the engine can be operated as a 2-stroke air-motor driven by the previously stored pressurized air. There is also a possibility to use the stored pressurized air in order to supercharge the engine when there is a need for high torque, like for instance at take off after a standstill or during an overtake maneuver.
Technical Paper

Simulation of HCCI – Addressing Compression Ratio and Turbo Charging

This paper focuses on the performance and efficiency of an HCCI (Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition) engine system running on natural gas or landfill gas for stationary applications. Zero dimensional modeling and simulation of the engine, turbo, inlet and exhaust manifolds and inlet air conditioner (intercooler/heater) are used to study the effect of compression ratio and exhaust turbine size on maximum mean effective pressure and efficiency. The extended Zeldovich mechanism is used to estimate NO-formation in order to determine operation limits. Detailed chemical kinetics is used to predict ignition timing. Simulation of the in-cylinder process gives a minimum λ-value of 2.4 for natural gas, regardless of compression ratio. This is restricted by the NO formation for richer mixtures. Lower compression ratios allow higher inlet pressure and hence higher load, but it also reduces indicated efficiency.
Technical Paper

Scavenging Flow Velocity in Small Two-Strokes at High Engine Speed

2D-LDV-measurements were made on the flow from one transfer channel into the cylinder in a small two-stroke SI engine. The LDV measuring volume was located just outside the transfer port. The engine was a carburetted piston-ported crankcase compression chainsaw engine and it was run with wide open throttle at 9000 RPM. The muffler was removed to enable access into the cylinder. No additional seeding was used; the fuel and/or oil was not entirely vaporized as it entered the cylinder. Very high velocities (-275 m/s) were detected in the beginning of the scavenging phase. The horizontal velocity was, during the whole scavenging phase, higher than the vertical.
Technical Paper

Scalability Aspects of Pre-Chamber Ignition in Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engines

This article presents a study related to application of pre-chamber ignition system in heavy duty natural gas engine which, as previously shown by the authors, can extend the limit of fuel-lean combustion and hence improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. A previous study about the effect of pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter on a single cylinder 2 liter truck-size engine resulted in recommendations for optimal pre-chamber geometry settings. The current study is to determine the dependency of those settings on the engine size. For this study, experiments are performed on a single cylinder 9 liter large bore marine engine with similar pre-chamber geometry and a test matrix of similar and scaled pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter settings. The effect of these variations on main chamber ignition and the following combustion is studied to understand the scalability aspects of pre-chamber ignition. Indicated efficiency and engine-out emission data is also presented.
Technical Paper

Reacting Boundary Layers in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

An experimental and computational study of the near-wall combustion in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has been conducted by applying laser based diagnostic techniques in combination with numerical modeling. Our major intent was to characterize the combustion in the velocity- and thermal boundary layers. The progress of the combustion was studied by using fuel tracer LIF, the result of which was compared with LDA measurements of the velocity boundary layer along with numerical simulations of the reacting boundary layer. Time resolved images of the PLIF signal were taken and ensemble averaged images were calculated. In the fuel tracer LIF experiments, acetone was seeded into the fuel as a tracer. It is clear from the experiments that a proper set of backgrounds and laser profiles are necessary to resolve the near-wall concentration profiles, even at a qualitative level.
Technical Paper

Quantification of the Formaldehyde Emissions from Different HCCI Engines Running on a Range of Fuels

In this paper, the formaldehyde emissions from three different types of homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are quantified for a range of fuels by means of Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis. The engines types are differentiated in the way the charge is prepared. The characterized engines are; the conventional port fuel injected one, a type that traps residuals by means of a Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) and finally a Direct Injected (DI) one. Fuels ranging from pure n-heptane to iso-octane via diesel, gasoline, PRF80, methanol and ethanol were characterized. Generally, the amount of formaldehyde found in the exhaust was decreasing with decreasing air/fuel ratio, advanced timing and increasing cycle temperature. It was found that increasing the source of formaldehyde i.e. the ratio of heat released in the cool-flame, brought on higher exhaust contents of formaldehyde.
Technical Paper

Particle Image Velocimetry Flow Measurements and Heat-Release Analysis in a Cross-Flow Cylinder Head

A specially designed cylinder head, enabling unthrottled operation with a standard cam-phasing mechanism, was tested in an optical single-cylinder engine. The in-cylinder flow was measured with particle image velocimetry (PIV) and the results were compared with heat release and emission measurements. The article also discusses effects of residual gas and effective compression ratio on heat-release and emissions. The special design of the cylinder head, with one inlet and one exhaust valve per camshaft, made it possible to operate the engine unthrottled at part load. Cam phasing led to late inlet valve closing, but also to increased valve overlap. The exhaust valve closing was late in the intake stroke, resulting in high amounts of residual gases. Two different camshafts were used with late inlet valve closing. One of the camshafts had shorter valve open duration on the phased exhaust cam lobe.
Technical Paper

Multi Cylinder Partially Premixed Combustion Performance Using Commercial Light-Duty Engine Hardware

This work investigates the performance potential of an engine running with partially premixed combustion (PPC) using commercial diesel engine hardware. The engine was a 2.01 SAAB (GM) VGT turbocharged diesel engine and three different fuels were run - RON 70 gasoline, RON 95 Gasoline and MK1 diesel. With the standard hardware an operating range for PPC from idle at 1000 rpm up to a peak load of 1000 kPa IMEPnet at 3000 rpm while maintaining a peak pressure rise rate (PPRR) below 7 bar/CAD was possible with either RON 70 gasoline and MK1 diesel. Relaxing the PPRR requirements, a peak load of 1800 kPa was possible, limited by the standard boosting system. With RON 95 gasoline it was not possible to operate the engine below 400 kPa. Low pressure EGR routing was beneficial for efficiency and combined with a split injection strategy using the maximum possible injection pressure of 1450 bar a peak gross indicated efficiency of above 51% was recorded.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Geometry Generated Turbulence on HCCI Engine Combustion

The present study uses a numerical model to investigate the effects of flow turbulence on premixed iso-octane HCCI engine combustion. Different levels of in-cylinder turbulence are generated by using different piston geometries, namely a disc-shape versus a square-shape bowl. The numerical model is based on the KIVA code which is modified to use CHEMKIN as the chemistry solver. A detailed reaction mechanism is used to simulate the fuel chemistry. It is found that turbulence has significant effects on HCCI combustion. In the current engine setup, the main effect of turbulence is to affect the wall heat transfer, and hence to change the mixture temperature which, in turn, influences the ignition timing and combustion duration. The model also predicts that the combustion duration in the square bowl case is longer than that in the disc piston case which agrees with the measurements.
Technical Paper

Mini High Speed HCCI Engine Fueled with Ether: Load Range, Emission Characteristics and Optical Analysis

Power supply systems play a very important role in everyday life applications. There are mainly two ways of producing energy for low power generation: electrochemical batteries and small engines. In the last few years, many improvements have been carried out in order to obtain lighter batteries with longer durations but unfortunately the energy density of 1 MJ/kg seems to be an asymptotic value. An energy source constituted of an organic fuel with an energy density around 29 MJ/kg and a minimum overall efficiency of only 3.5% could surpass batteries. Nowadays, the most efficient combustion process is HCCI combustion which has the ability to combine a high energy conversion efficiency with low emission levels and a very low fuel consumption. The present paper describes an investigation carried out on a modified model airplane engine, on how a pure HCCI combustion behaves in a small volume, Vd = 4.11 cm3, at very high engine speeds (up to 17,500 [rpm]).
Technical Paper

Low Load Limit Extension for Gasoline Compression Ignition Using Negative Valve Overlap Strategy

Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) is widely studied for the benefits of simultaneous reduction in nitrogen oxide (NOX) and soot emissions without compromising the engine efficiency. Despite this advantage, the operational range for GCI is not widely expanded, as the auto-ignition of fuel at low load condition is difficult. The present study aims to extend the low load operational limit for GCI using negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy. The engine used for the current experimentation is a single cylinder diesel engine that runs at an idle speed of 800 rpm with a compression ratio of 17.3. The engine is operated at homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) combustion modes with the corresponding start of injection (SOI) at −180 CAD (aTDC) and −30 CAD (aTDC), respectively.
Technical Paper

Loss Analysis of a HD-PPC Engine with Two-Stage Turbocharging Operating in the European Stationary Cycle

Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has demonstrated substantially higher efficiency compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and gasoline engines (SI). By combining experiments and modeling the presented work investigates the underlying reasons for the improved efficiency, and quantifies the loss terms. The results indicate that it is possible to operate a HD-PPC engine with a production two-stage boost system over the European Stationary Cycle while likely meeting Euro VI and US10 emissions with a peak brake efficiency above 48%. A majority of the ESC can be operated with brake efficiency above 44%. The loss analysis reveals that low in-cylinder heat transfer losses are the most important reason for the high efficiencies of PPC. In-cylinder heat losses are basically halved in PPC compared to CDC, as a consequence of substantially reduced combustion temperature gradients, especially close to the combustion chamber walls.