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Journal Article

Using 2d Infrared Imaging for the Analysis of Non-Conventional Fuels Combustion in a Diesel Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1646
The common realization of the necessity to reduce the use of mineral sources is promoting the use of alternative fuels. Big efforts are being made to replace petroleum derivatives in the internal combustion engines (ICEs). For this purpose it is mandatory to evaluate the behavior of non-conventional fuels in the ICEs. The optical diagnostics have proven to be a powerful tool to analyze the processes that take place inside the engine. In particular, 2d imaging in the infrared range can reveal new details about the effect of the fuel properties since this technique is still not very common. In this work, a comparison between commercial diesel fuel and two non-conventional fuels has been made in an optically accessible diesel engine. The non-conventional fuels are: the first generation biofuel Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and an experimental blend of diesel and a fuel with high glycerol content (HG).
Technical Paper

Ultra-High Speed Fuel Tracer PLIF Imaging in a Heavy-Duty Optical PPC Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0904
In order to meet the requirements in the stringent emission regulations, more and more research work has been focused on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) or partially premixed compression ignition (PCCI) as they have the potential to produce low NOx and soot emissions without adverse effects on engine efficiency. The mixture formation and charge stratification influence the combustion behavior and emissions for PPC/PCCI, significantly. An ultra-high speed burst-mode laser is used to capture the mixture formation process from the start of injection until several CADs after the start of combustion in a single cycle. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time that such a high temporal resolution, i.e. 0.2 CAD, PLIF could be accomplished for imaging of the in-cylinder mixing process. The capability of resolving single cycles allows for the influence of cycle-to-cycle variations to be eliminated.
Journal Article

UV-Visible Spectroscopic Measurements of Dual-Fuel PCCI Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0061
In this work, optical diagnostics were applied in a transparent DI diesel engine equipped with the head of Euro5 commercial engine and the last generation CR injection system. In order to realize the PCCI combustion the injection of neat bio-ethanol was performed in the intake manifold and European commercial diesel fuel was injected into the cylinder. Different amounts of bio-ethanol were injected in order to create PCCI combustion with high levels of pre-combustion mixing, and to ensure low equivalence ratio and low flame temperatures too. UV-Visible imaging and spectroscopic measurements were performed in the engine in order to investigate the autoignition of the charge and the combustion process, respectively. In particular, the detection of the species involved in the combustion, like OH, HCO, and CH, was performed. The relevance of the radicals and species on PCCI were evaluated and compared with the data from thermodynamic analysis.
Technical Paper

UV-Visible Imaging of PCCI Engine Running with Ethanol/Diesel Fuel

2012-04-16
2012-01-1238
Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) has been shown to be a promising strategy to simultaneously reduce emissions while realizing improved fuel economy. PCCI combustion uses high levels of pre-combustion mixing to lower both NOx and soot emissions by ensuring low equivalence ratio and low flame temperatures. The high level of pre-combustion mixing results in a primarily kinetics controlled combustion process. In this work, optical diagnostics have been applied in a transparent DI diesel engine equipped with the head of Euro5 commercial engine and the last generation CR injection system. In order to realize the PCCI combustion the injection of neat ethanol has been performed in the intake manifold. The engine run in continuous way at 1500 rpm engine speed and commercial diesel fuel has been injected into the cylinder. The PCCI combustion has been analyzed by means of UV- Visible digital imaging and the mixing process, the autoignition of the charge have been investigated.
Technical Paper

Towards On-Line Prediction of the In-Cylinder Pressure in Diesel Engines from Engine Vibration Using Artificial Neural Networks

2013-09-08
2013-24-0137
This study aims at building efficient and robust artificial neural networks (ANN) able to reconstruct the in-cylinder pressure of Diesel engines and to identify engine conditions starting from the signal of a low-cost accelerometer placed on the engine block. The accelerometer is a perfect non-intrusive replacement for expensive probes and is prospectively suitable for production vehicles. In this view, the artificial neural network is meant to be efficient in terms of response time, i.e. fast enough for on-line use. In addition, robustness is sought in order to provide flexibility in terms of operation parameters. Here we consider a feed-forward neural network based on radial basis functions (RBF) for signal reconstruction, and a feed-forward multi-layer perceptron network with tan-sigmoid transfer function for signal classification. The networks are trained using measurements from a three-cylinder real engine for various operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Temperature Measurements of the Piston Optical Window in a Research Compression Ignition Engine via Thermography and Templugs

2018-04-03
2018-01-0083
Internal combustion engines are characterized by high pressure and thermal loads on pistons and in cylinders. The heat generated by the combustion process is dissipated by means of water and oil cooling systems. For the best design and optimization of the engine components it is necessary to know the components temperature in order to estimate the thermal flows. The purpose of this work is to measure the piston sapphire window temperature in a research optically accessible engine by combining two different techniques: measurements with templugs and with thermography. The method is very simple and can provide a reliable value of temperature within a small interval. It fits well for applications inside the engine because of its low technical level requirements. It consists of application of temperature sensitive stickers on the target component that makes it a very robust method, not affected by piston movement.
Technical Paper

Temperature Measurements of the Piston Optical Window in a Research Compression Ignition Engine to Set-Up a 1d Model of Heat Transfer in Transient Conditions

2019-09-09
2019-24-0182
The analysis of heat losses in internal combustion engines (ICEs) is fundamental to evaluate and to improve engine efficiency. Detailed and reliable heat transfer models are required for more complex 1d-3d combustion models. At the same time, the thermal status of engine components, like pistons, is needed for an efficient design. Measurements of piston temperature during ICEs operation represent an important and challenging result to get for the aforementioned purposes. In the present work, temperature measurements collected at different engine speeds and loads, both in motored and fired modes, have been performed and used to set-up a theoretical correlation and 1d model of heat transfer through the optical window of the piston. The in-cylinder gas and external ambient temperature, together with the thermodynamic and material properties are given. The model has been first calibrated in some selected operating conditions and then validated in the remaining.
Technical Paper

Study on Spray Injection and Combustion of Fouled and Cleaned Injectors by Means of 2-D Digital Imaging in a Transparent CR Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0062
The aim of this study is to investigate how the fouling that injectors undergo after several operating hours on a vehicle can affect the injection and combustion phases. The impact of the injector fouling on the pollutant formation has been also investigated. Moreover, the effects of the injector cleaning by deposits through the top quality diesel fuel commercialized by eni that is FAME free and contains multi performance additives have been investigated. The experimentation has been carried out on transparent compression ignition engine. It is a single cylinder equipped with a Euro 5 multi-cylinder head and a second-generation common rail injection system. Three indirect-acting piezoelectric injectors have been tested. The first one has been fouled with European commercial diesel fuel through the CEC DW10 injector-coking test. The second one has been fouled in the same way and, then, it has been cleaned with eni top quality diesel fuel. This fuel has fed the third injector too.
Technical Paper

Study of E10 and E85 Effect on Air Fuel Mixing and Combustion Process in Optical Multicylinder GDI Engine and in a Spray Imaging Chamber

2013-04-08
2013-01-0249
The aim of the present work is the study of the combustion process in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine fuelled with ethanol mixed with gasoline at percentages of 10 and 85. The characterization has been made in terms of performance and emission for different injection pressure conditions and the results correlated to the unperturbed non-evaporating evolution of the fuel injected in a pressurized quiescent vessel. Measurements were performed in the optically accessible combustion chamber made by modifying a real 4-stroke, 4-cylinder, high performance GDI engine. The cylinder head was instrumented by using an endoscopic system coupled to high spatial and temporal resolution camera in order to allow the visualization of the fuel injection and the combustion process. The engine is equipped with solenoid-actuated six-hole GDI injectors, 0.14 mm hole diameter, 9.0 g/s @ 10 MPa static flow.
Journal Article

Spray and Soot Formation Analysis by Means of a Quasi-Dimensional Multizone Model in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine under Euro 4 Operating Conditions

2015-09-06
2015-24-2416
An investigation has been carried out on the spray penetration and soot formation processes in a research diesel engine by means of a quasi-dimensional multizone combustion model. The model integrates a predictive non stationary 1D spray model developed by the Sandia National Laboratory, with a diagnostic multizone thermodynamic model, and is capable of predicting the spray formation, combustion and soot formation processes in the combustion chamber. The multizone model was used to analyze three operating conditions, i.e., a zero load point (BMEP = 0 bar at 1000 rpm), a medium load point (BMEP = 5 bar at 2000 rpm) and a medium-high load point (BMEP = 10 bar at 2000 rpm). These conditions were experimentally tested in an optical single cylinder engine with the combustion system configuration of a 2.0L Euro4 GM diesel engine for passenger car applications.
Journal Article

Spray Formation and Combustion Analysis in an Optical Single Cylinder Engine Operating with Fresh and Aged Biodiesel

2011-04-12
2011-01-1381
The present paper describes the results of a cooperative research project between GM Powertrain Europe and Istituto Motori - CNR aimed at studying the impact of both fresh and highly oxidized RME at two levels of blending on spray formation and combustion in modern automotive diesel engines. The tests were performed on an optical single-cylinder engine sharing combustion system configuration with the 2.0L Euro5 GM diesel engine for passenger car application. Two blends (B50 and B100) blending were tested for both fresh and aged RME and compared with commercial diesel fuel in two different operating points typical of NEDC (1500rpm/2bar BMEP and 2000rpm/5bar BMEP). The experimental activity was devoted to an in-depth investigation of the spray density, breakup and penetration, mixture formation, combustion and soot formation, by means of optical techniques.
Technical Paper

Split Injection in a GDI Engine Under Knock Conditions: An Experimental and Numerical Investigation

2015-09-06
2015-24-2432
Present work investigates both experimentally and numerically the benefits deriving from the use of split injections in increasing the engine power output and reducing the tendency to knock of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. The here considered system is characterized by an optical access to the combustion chamber. Imaging in the UV-visible range is carried out by means of a high spatial and temporal resolution camera through an endoscopic system and a transparent window placed in the piston head. This last is modified to allow the view of the whole combustion chamber almost until the cylinder walls, to include the so-called eng-gas zones of the mixture, where undesired self-ignition may occur under some circumstances. Optical data are correlated to in-cylinder pressure oscillations on a cycle resolved basis.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of In-Cylinder Pressure in a Diesel Engine from Vibration Signal Using a RBF Neural Network Model

2011-09-11
2011-24-0161
This study aims at building an efficient and robust radial basis function (RBF) artificial neural network (ANN), to reconstruct the in-cylinder pressure of a diesel engine starting from the signal of a low-cost accelerometer placed on the engine block. The accelerometer is a perfect non-intrusive replacement for expensive probes and is prospectively suitable for production vehicles. The RBF network is trained using measurements from different engine operating conditions. Training data are composed of time series from the accelerometer and corresponding measured in-cylinder pressure signals. The RBF network is then validated using data not included in training and the results show good correspondence between measured and reconstructed pressure signal. Various network parameters are used to optimize the network quality.
Journal Article

Real Time Prediction of Particle Sizing at the Exhaust of a Diesel Engine by Using a Neural Network Model

2017-09-04
2017-24-0051
In order to meet the increasingly strict emission regulations, several solutions for NOx and PM emissions reduction have been studied. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology has become one of the more used methods to accomplish the NOx emissions reduction. However, actual control strategies do not consider, in the definition of optimal EGR, its effect on particle size and density. These latter have a great importance both for the optimal functioning of after-treatment systems, but also for the adverse effects that small particles have on human health. Epidemiological studies, in fact, highlighted that the toxicity of particulate particles increases as the particle size decreases. The aim of this paper is to present a Neural Network model able to provide real time information about the characteristics of exhaust particles emitted by a Diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Performance, Gaseous and Particle Emissions of a Small Compression Ignition Engine Operating in Diesel/Methane Dual Fuel Mode

2016-04-05
2016-01-0771
This paper deals with the combustion behavior and exhaust emissions of a small compression ignition engine modified to operate in diesel/methane dual fuel mode. The engine is a three-cylinder, 1028 cm3 of displacement, equipped with a common rail injection system. The engine is provided with the production diesel oxidation catalyst. Intake manifold was modified in order to set up a gas injector managed by an external control unit. Experiments were carried out at different engine speeds and loads. For each engine operating condition, the majority of the total load was supplied by methane while a small percentage of the load was realized using diesel fuel; the latter was necessary to ignite the premixed charge of gaseous fuel. Thermodynamical analysis of the combustion phase was performed by in-cylinder pressure signal. Gas emissions and particulate matter were measured at the exhaust by commercial instruments.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation of Injection and Combustion Phases of a Fouled Piezoelectric Injector in a Transparent CR Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1591
This study was conducted to determine the effects of the fouling process on the piezoelectric injectors in a transparent common-rail diesel engine. Piezoelectric injectors are characterized by a ceramic actuator that can dilate or retract when it receives a pulse of current. The piezo element controls a valve, which creates an imbalance in the pressure that is exerted at each end of the needle, causing the needle rising or closing. Two same model injectors were tested; one was new and the other one was fouled on a vehicle. The aim of the experimental investigation was to evaluate the performance of a new and a fouled piezoelectric injector in terms of injection and flame evolution. It was evaluated how the nozzle carbon deposits affect the injection quantity and combustion. The experimental apparatus was a single-cylinder research engine equipped with a Euro 5 multi-cylinder head. A second-generation common rail injection system and 6-hole piezoelectric injectors were used too.
Technical Paper

Optical Characterization of Methane Combustion in a Four Stroke Engine for Two Wheel Application

2012-04-16
2012-01-1150
In the urban area the internal combustion engines are the main source of CO₂, NO and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The reduction of these emissions is no more an option, but a necessity highlighted by the even stricter emission standards. In the last years, even more attention was paid to the alternative fuels. They allow both reducing the fuel consumption and the pollutant emissions. With regards to the gaseous fuels, methane is considered one of the most interesting in terms of engine application. It represents an immediate advantage over other hydrocarbon fuels because of the lower C/H ratio. In this paper the effect of the methane on the combustion process, the pollutant emissions and the engine performance was analyzed. The measurements were carried out in an optically accessible single-cylinder, Port Fuel Injection, four-stroke SI engine equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial 250 cc motorcycles engine and fuelled both with gasoline and methane.
Journal Article

Non-Intrusive Investigation in a Small GDI Optical Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and Ethanol

2011-04-12
2011-01-0140
The aim of this paper is the experimental investigation of the effect of direct fuel injection on the combustion process and pollutant formation in a spark ignition (SI) two-wheel engine. The engine is a 250cc single cylinder, four-stroke spark-ignition firstly equipped with a four-valve PFI head and then with GDI one operating with European commercial gasoline and Bio-ethanol. It is equipped with a wide sapphire window in the bottom of the chamber and quartz cylinder. In the combustion chamber, optical techniques based on 2D-digital imaging were used to follow the injection and flame propagation and spectroscopic measurements were carried out in order to evaluate the main radical species. Radical species such as OH and CH were detected and used to follow the chemical phenomena related to the fuel quality. Measurements were carried out at different engine speeds and combustion strategies based on different injection pressures.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Injection Process in a Research CR Diesel Engine using Different Blends of Propane-Diesel Fuel

2015-09-06
2015-24-2477
Blends of propane-diesel fuel can be used in direct injection diesel engines to improve the air-fuel mixing and the premixed combustion phase, and to reduce pollutant emissions. The potential benefits of usinf propane in diesel engines are both environmental and economic; furthermore, its use does not require changes to the compression ratio of conventional diesel engines. The present paper describes an experimental investigation of the injection process for different liquid preformed blends of propane-diesel fuel in an optically accessible Common Rail diesel engine. Slight modifications of the injection system were required in order to operate with a blend of propane-diesel fuel. Pure diesel fuel and two propane-diesel mixtures at different mass ratios were tested (20% and 40% in mass of propane named P20 and P40). First, injection in air at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure were performed to verify the functionality of the modified Common Rail injection system.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Injector Nozzle Flow Number Impact on Spray Formation and Combustion Evolution by Optical Diagnostics

2012-04-16
2012-01-0701
The present paper describes an experimental investigation over the impact of diesel injector nozzle flow number on spray formation and combustion evolution for a modern EURO5 light-duty diesel engine. The analysis has been carried out by coupling the investigations in non evaporative spray bomb to tests in optical single cylinder engine in firing conditions. The research activity, which is the result of a collaborative project between Istituto Motori Napoli - CNR and GM Powertrain Europe, is devoted to understanding the basic operating behaviour of low flow number nozzles which are showing promising improvements in diesel engine behaviour at partial load. In fact, because of the compelling need to push further emission, efficiency, combustion noise and power density capabilities of the last-generation diesel engines, the combination of high injection pressure fuel pumps and low flow number nozzles is general trend among major OEMs.
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