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Journal Article

Very High Cycle Fatigue of Cast Aluminum Alloys under Variable Humidity Levels

2015-04-14
2015-01-0556
Ultrasonic fatigue tests (testing frequency around 20 kHz) have been conducted on four different cast aluminum alloys each with a distinct composition, heat treatment, and microstructure. Tests were performed in dry air, laboratory air and submerged in water. For some alloys, the ultrasonic fatigue lives were dramatically affected by the environment humidity. The effects of different factors like material composition, yield strength, secondary dendrite arm spacing and porosity were investigated; it was concluded that the material strength may be the key factor influencing the environmental humidity effect in ultrasonic fatigue testing. Further investigation on the effect of chemical composition, especially copper content, is needed.
Journal Article

Study on Fatigue Behaviors of Porous T300/924 Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Unidirectional Laminates

2017-03-28
2017-01-0223
Morphological features of voids were characterized for T300/924 12-ply and 16-ply composite laminates at different porosity levels through the implementation of a digital microscopy (DM) image analysis technique. The composite laminates were fabricated through compression molding. Compression pressures of 0.1MPa, 0.3MPa, and 0.5MPa were selected to obtain composite plaques at different porosity levels. Tension-tension fatigue tests at load ratio R=0.1 for composite laminates at different void levels were conducted, and the dynamic stiffness degradation during the tests was monitored. Fatigue mechanisms were then discussed based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the fatigue fracture surfaces. The test results showed that the presence of voids in the matrix has detrimental effects on the fatigue resistance of the material, depending on the applied load level.
Journal Article

Residual Stress Analysis of Air-Quenched Engine Aluminum Cylinder Heads

2008-04-14
2008-01-1420
Residual stress of an air quenched engine cylinder head is studied in the present paper. The numerical simulation is accomplished by sequential thermal and stress analyses. Thermal history of the cylinder head is simulated by using the commercial Computation Fluid Mechanics (CFD) code FLUENT. The only parameter adjustable in the analysis is the incoming air speed. Predicted temperatures at two locations are comparable with available thermocouple data. Stress analysis is performed using ABAQUS with a Ford proprietary material constitutive relation, which is based on coupon tests on the as-solution treated material. Both temperature and strain rate impacts on material behavior of the as-solution treated material are considered in the stress and strain model. Predicted residual strain is shown to be consistent with measured data, which is obtained by using strain gauging and sectioning method.
Journal Article

Impact of Rivet Head Height on the Tensile and Fatigue Properties of Lap Shear Self-Pierced Riveted CFRP to Aluminum

2017-03-28
2017-01-0477
Tensile and fatigue properties of continuous braided carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite to AA6111 self-piercing riveted (SPR) lap shear joints are presented. Rivets were inserted at two target head heights separated by 0.3 mm. Even within the narrow range of head heights considered, the flushness of the rivet head was found to have a dominant effect on both the monotonic and fatigue properties of the lap shear SPR joints. Joints created with a flush head resulted in a greater degree of fiber breakage in the top ply of the CFRP laminate, which resulted in lower lap shear failure load as compared to SPR joints produced with a proud rivet head. Irrespective of the lap shear failure load, rivet pullout was the most common failure mode observed for both rivet head heights. In fatigue tests, the SPR joints produced with a proud head exhibited higher fatigue life compared to SPR joints produced with a flush head.
Journal Article

High Strain Rate Mechanical Characterization of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites Using Digital Image Correlations

2017-03-28
2017-01-0230
The introduction of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites to structural components in lightweight automotive structures necessitates an assessment to evaluate that their crashworthiness dynamic response provides similar or higher levels of safety compared to conventional metallic structures. In order to develop, integrate and implement predictive computational models for CFRP composites that link the materials design, molding process and final performance requirements to enable optimal design and manufacturing vehicle systems for this study, the dynamic mechanical response of unidirectional (UD) and 2x2 twill weave CRFP composites was characterized at deformation rates applicable to crashworthiness performance. Non-standardized specimen geometries were tested on a standard uniaxial frame and an intermediate-to-high speed dynamic testing frame, equipped with high speed cameras for 3D digital image correlation (DIC).
Journal Article

Fatigue Life Assessment of Welded Structures with the Linear Traction Stress Analysis Approach

2012-04-16
2012-01-0524
Structural stress methods are now widely used in fatigue life assessment of welded structures and structures with stress concentrations. The structural stress concept is based on the assumption of a global stress distribution at critical locations such as weld toes or weld throats, and there are several variants of structural stress approaches available. In this paper, the linear traction stress approach, a nodal force based structural stress approach, is reviewed first. The linear traction stress approach offers a robust procedure for extracting linear traction stress components by post-processing the finite element analysis results at any given hypothetical crack location of interest. Pertinent concepts such as mesh-insensitivity, master S-N curve, fatigue crack initiation and growth mechanisms are also discussed.
Journal Article

Fatigue Behavior of Stainless Steel Sheet Specimens at Extremely High Temperatures

2014-04-01
2014-01-0975
Active regeneration systems for cleaning diesel exhaust can operate at extremely high temperatures up to 1000°C. The extremely high temperatures create a unique challenge for the design of regeneration structural components near their melting temperatures. In this paper, the preparation of the sheet specimens and the test set-up based on induction heating for sheet specimens are first presented. Tensile test data at room temperature, 500, 700, 900 and 1100°C are then presented. The yield strength and tensile strength were observed to decrease with decreasing strain rate in tests conducted at 900 and 1100°C but no strain rate dependence was observed in the elastic properties for tests conducted below 900°C. The stress-life relations for under cyclic loading at 700 and 1100°C with and without hold time are then investigated. The fatigue test data show that the hold time at the maximum stress strongly affects the stress-life relation at high temperatures.
Journal Article

Failure Modes of Friction Stir Spot Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Dissimilar Advanced High Strength Steels under Quasi-Static and Cyclic Loading Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0479
Failure modes of friction stir spot welds in lap-shear specimens of dissimilar high strength dual phase steel (DP780GA) and hot stamped boron steel (HSBS) sheets are investigated under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions based on experimental observations. Optical micrographs of dissimilar DP780GA/HSBS friction stir spot welds made by a concave tool before and after failure are examined. The micrographs indicate that the failure modes of the welds under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions are quite similar. The micrographs show that the DP780GA/HSBS welds mainly fail from cracks growing through the upper DP780GA sheets where the concave tool was plunged into during the welding process. Based on the observed failure modes, a kinked fatigue crack growth model is adopted to estimate fatigue lives.
Journal Article

Failure Mode and Fatigue Behavior of Friction Stir Spot Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Dissimilar Advanced High Strength Steels

2013-04-08
2013-01-1023
Failure mode and fatigue behavior of friction stir spot welds made with convex and concave tools in lap-shear specimens of dissimilar high strength dual phase steel (DP780GA) and hot stamped boron steel (HSBS) sheets are investigated based on experiments and a kinked fatigue crack growth model. Lap-shear specimens with the welds were tested under both quasistatic and cyclic loading conditions. Optical micrographs indicate that under both quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions, the welds mainly fail from cracks growing through the upper DP780GA sheets where the tools were plunged in during the welding processes. Based on the observed failure mode, a kinked fatigue crack growth model is adopted to estimate fatigue lives of the welds. In the kinked crack fatigue crack growth model, the stress intensity factor solutions for fatigue life estimations are based on the closed-form solutions for idealized spot welds in lap-shear specimens.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Mixed Mode Fatigue Crack Growth of Automotive Structural Adhesive BM4601

2017-03-28
2017-01-0331
Fatigue crack growth tests have been carried out to investigate the mixed mode fatigue crack propagation behavior of an automotive structural adhesive BM4601. The tests were conducted on a compound CMM (Compact Mixed Mode) specimen under load control with 0.1 R ratio and 3Hz frequency. A long distance moving microscope was employed during testing to monitor and record the real time length of the fatigue crack in the adhesive layer. The strain energy release rates of the crack under different loading angles, crack lengths and loads were calculated by using finite element method. The pure mode I and mode II tests show that an equal value of mode I strain energy release rate results in over ten times higher FCGR (Fatigue Crack Growth Rate) than the mode II stain energy release rate does. The mixed mode tests results show that under a certain loading angle, the mixed mode FCGR is changed by changing the load, which is contrary to the find in pure mode I and mode II tests.
Technical Paper

Effect of Temperature Cycle on Thermomechanical Fatigue Life of a High Silicon Molybdenum Ductile Cast Iron

2015-04-14
2015-01-0557
High silicon molybdenum (HiSiMo) ductile cast iron (DCI) is commonly used for high temperature engine components, such as exhaust manifolds, which are also subjected to severe thermal cycles during vehicle operation. It is imperative to understand the thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) behavior of HiSiMo DCI to accurately predict the durability of high temperature engine components. In this paper, the effect of the minimum temperature of a TMF cycle on TMF life and failure behavior is investigated. Tensile and low cycle fatigue data are first presented for temperatures up to 800°C. Next, TMF data are presented for maximum temperatures of 800°C and minimum cycle temperatures ranging from 300 to 600°C. The data show that decreasing the minimum temperature has a detrimental effect on TMF life. The Smith-Watson-Topper parameter applied at the maximum temperature of the TMF cycle is found to correlate well with out-of-phase (OP) TMF life for all tested minimum temperatures.
Journal Article

Effect of Humidity on the Very High Cycle Fatigue Behavior of a Cast Aluminum Alloy

2016-04-05
2016-01-0371
In this paper, fatigue tests on a cast aluminum alloy (AS7GU-T64) were performed under different frequencies and humidity levels. Tests conducted under conventional frequency in laboratory air have been compared to tests conducted under ultrasonic frequency in dry air, saturated humidity and in distilled water. It was observed that the highest and lowest fatigue lives correspond to ultrasonic fatigue tests in dry air and in distilled water, respectively. Unlike specimens tested at conventional frequency, all of the specimens tested at ultrasonic frequency presented a large amount of slip facets on the fatigue crack propagation fracture surface.
Technical Paper

Development of a Thermal Fatigue Test Bench for Cylinder Head Materials

2018-04-03
2018-01-1410
An innovative specimen design and test system for thermal fatigue (TF) analysis is developed to compare the fatigue behavior of different cylinder head materials under realistic cyclic thermal loadings. Finite element analyses were performed to optimize the specimen geometry and thermal cycles. The reduced section of the TF specimen is heated locally by a high frequency induction heater and cooled by compressed air. The mechanical strain is then induced internally by the non-uniform thermal gradient generated within the specimen to closely simulate what valve bridges in cylinder heads experience in real operation. The resulting fatigue life is a function not only of the inherent fatigue resistance of the alloys, but also of other relevant properties such as thermal conductivity, modulus of elasticity, and coefficient of thermal expansion. This test is an essential tool for comparing different alloys for thermal fatigue applications.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Head Design Process to Improve High Cycle Fatigue Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-1074
Cylinder head design is a highly challenging task for modern engines, especially for the proliferation of boosted, gasoline direct injection engines (branded EcoBoost® engines by Ford Motor Company). The high power density of these engines results in higher cylinder firing pressures and higher operating temperatures throughout the engine. In addition to the high operating stresses, cylinder heads are normally heat treated to optimize their mechanical properties; residual stresses are generated during heat treatment, which can be detrimental for high-cycle fatigue performance. In this paper, a complete cylinder head high cycle fatigue CAE analysis procedure is demonstrated. First, the heat treatment process is simulated. The transient temperature histories during the quenching process are used to calculate the distribution of the residual stresses, followed by machining simulation, which results in a redistribution of stress.
Journal Article

Cyclic Behavior of an Al-Si-Cu Alloy under Thermo-Mechanical Loading

2014-04-01
2014-01-1012
In this paper, the cyclic deformation behavior of an Al-Si-Cu alloy is studied under strain-controlled thermo-mechanical loading. Tests are carried out at temperatures from 20 °C to 440 °C. The effect of strain rate, hold time at temperature and loading sequence are investigated at each temperature. The results show that temperature has a significant effect on the cyclic deformation of Al-Si-Cu alloys. With increasing temperature, the effect of strain rate and hold time become more significant, while load sequence effects remain negligible within the investigated temperature range. Thus, an elasto-viscoplastic model is required for modeling the alloy's behavior at high temperature. This study provides an insight into the necessary information required for modeling of automotive engine components operating at elevated temperature.
Journal Article

Correlation between Scatter in Fatigue Life and Fatigue Crack Initiation Sites in Cast Aluminum Alloys

2012-04-16
2012-01-0920
High cycle fatigue tests at a constant positive mean stress have been performed on a Al-Si-Cu cast aluminum alloy. The Random Fatigue Limit (RFL) model was employed to fit the probabilistic S-N curves based on Maximum Likelihood Estimate (MLE). Fractographic studies indicated that fatigue cracks in most specimens initiate from oxide films located at or very close to specimen surface. The RFL model was proved to be able to accurately capture the scatter in fatigue life. The cumulative density function (CDF) of fatigue life determined by RFL fit is found to be approximately equal to the complementary value of the CDF of the near-surface fatigue initiator size.
Technical Paper

Copper Effect on the Ultrasonic Fatigue Life of A356 Aluminum Alloy Under Variable Humidity Levels

2018-04-03
2018-01-1411
Ultrasonic fatigue tests (testing frequency around 20kHz) have been conducted on A356 aluminum alloys with different copper contents and AS7GU aluminum alloy. Tests were performed in dry air and submerged in water conditions. The effect of copper content was investigated and it was concluded that copper content plays an important role influencing the humidity effect on A356 aluminum alloy ultrasonic fatigue lives. Also, for the same copper content, copper in solute solution or in precipitate have different humidity sensitivities.
Technical Paper

Comparative Assessment of Elastio-Viscoplastic Models for Thermal Stress Analysis of Automotive Powertrain Component

2015-04-14
2015-01-0533
In this paper, thermal stress analysis for powertrain component is carried out using two in-house developed elasto-viscoplastic models (i.e. Chaboche model and Sehitoglu model) that are implemented into ABAQUS via its user subroutine UMAT. The model parameters are obtained from isothermal cyclic tests performed on standard samples under various combinations of strain rates and temperatures. Models' validity is verified by comparing to independent non-isothermal tests conducted on similar samples. Both models are applied to the numerical analysis of exhaust manifold subject to temperature cycling as a result of vehicle operation. Due to complexity, only four thermal cycles of heating-up and cooling-down are simulated. Results using the two material models are compared in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. It is found that the implemented Chaboche model is generally more computationally efficient than Sehitoglu model, though they are almost identical in regard to accuracy.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Cylinder Head High Cycle Fatigue Durability Including the Effects of Manufacturing Processes

2012-04-16
2012-01-0540
High cycle fatigue material properties are not uniformly distributed on cylinder heads due to the casting process. Virtual Aluminum Casting (VAC) tools have been developed within Ford Motor Company to simulate the effects of the manufacturing process on the mechanical properties of cast components. One of VAC features is the ability to predict the high cycle fatigue strength distribution. Residual stresses also play an important role in cylinder head high cycle fatigue, therefore they are also simulated and used in the head high cycle fatigue analysis. Cylinder head assembly, thermal and operating stresses are simulated with ABAQUS™. The operating stresses are combined with the residual stresses for high cycle fatigue calculations. FEMFAT™ is used for the high cycle fatigue analysis. A user-defined Haigh diagram is built based on the local material properties obtained from the VAC simulation.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Two RVE Modelling Methods for Chopped Carbon Fiber SMC

2017-03-28
2017-01-0224
To advance vehicle lightweighting, chopped carbon fiber sheet molding compound (SMC) is identified as a promising material to replace metals. However, there are no effective tools and methods to predict the mechanical property of the chopped carbon fiber SMC due to the high complexity in microstructure features and the anisotropic properties. In this paper, a Representative Volume Element (RVE) approach is used to model the SMC microstructure. Two modeling methods, the Voronoi diagram-based method and the chip packing method, are developed to populate the RVE. The elastic moduli of the RVE are calculated and the two methods are compared with experimental tensile test conduct using Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Furthermore, the advantages and shortcomings of these two methods are discussed in terms of the required input information and the convenience of use in the integrated processing-microstructure-property analysis.
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