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Technical Paper

Yaw/Roll Stability Modeling and Control of HeavyTractor-SemiTrailer

This paper sets up a simplified dynamic model for simulating the yaw/roll stability of heavy tractor-semitrailer using Matlab/Simulink. A linear quadratic regulator (LQR) based on partial-state feedback controller is used to optimize the roll stability of the vehicle. The control objective for optimizing roll stability is to be reducing the lateral load transfer rate while keeping the suspension angle less than the maximum allowable angle. The simulation result shows that the LQR controller is effective in the active roll stability control of the heavy tractor-semitrailer.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Mass Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicle

Aiming at estimating the vehicle mass and the position of center of gravity, an on-line two-stage estimator, based on the recursive least square method, is proposed for buses in this paper. Accurate information of the center of gravity position is crucial to vehicle control, especially for buses whose center of gravity position can be varied substantially because of the payload onboard. Considering that the buses start and stop frequently, the first stage of the estimator determines the bus total mass during acceleration, and the second stage utilizes the recursive least-square methods to estimate the position of the center of gravity during braking. The proposed estimator can be validated by the co-simulation with MATLAB/Simulink and TruckSim software, simulation results exhibit good convergence and stability, so the center of gravity position can be estimated through the proposed method in a certain accuracy range.
Technical Paper

Variable Yaw Rate Gain for Vehicle Steer-by-wire with Joystick

Steering-By-Wire (SBW) system has advantages of advanced vehicle control system, which has no mechanical linkage to control the steering wheel and front wheels. It is possible to control the steering wheel actuator and front wheels actuator steering independently. The goal of this paper is to use a joystick to substitute the conventional steering wheel with typical vehicle SBW system and to study a variable steering ratio design method. A 2-DOF vehicle dynamic reference model is built and focused on the vehicle steering performance of drivers control joystick. By verifying the results with a hardware-in-the-loop simulation test bench, it shows this proposed strategy can improve vehicle maneuverability and comfort.
Technical Paper

Traction Control Logic Based on Extended Kalman Filter for Omni-directional Electric Vehicle

Omni-directional electric vehicle built by our research group is an advanced electric vehicle whose four wheels can drive, steer and brake independently. The vehicle chassis system is composed of four in-wheel motors, four independent steer motors and electromagnetic brake system, and its control system is divided into logical control layer and underlying execution layer. The information exchange between these two layers is implemented by CAN bus. In this paper, the traction control logic for Omni-directional electric vehicle is developed. The study mainly involves two aspects: the vehicle states estimation and the traction control logic design. The vehicle states, including vehicle longitudinal velocity, lateral speed, side slip angle and yaw rate, etc, are estimated based on Extended Kalman Estimation and multiple degrees of freedom vehicle model.
Technical Paper

Study on Dynamic Characteristics and Control Methods for Drive-by-Wire Electric Vehicle

A full drive-by-wire electric vehicle, named Urban Future Electric Vehicle (UFEV) is developed, where the four wheels' traction and braking torques, four wheels' steering angles, and four active suspensions (in the future) are controlled independently. It is an ideal platform to realize the optimal vehicle dynamics, the marginal-stability and the energy-efficient control, it is also a platform for studying the advanced chassis control methods and their applications. A centralized control system of hierarchical structure for UFEV is proposed, which consist of Sensor Layer, Identification and Estimation Layer, Objective Control Layer, Forces and Motion Distribution Layer, Executive Layer. In the Identification and Estimation Layer, identification model is established by utilizing neural network algorithms to identify the driver characteristics. Vehicle state estimation and road identification of UFEV based on EKF and Fuzzy Logic Control methods is also conducted in this layer.
Technical Paper

Study on Braking Force Distribution Algorithm for Hybrid Electric Bus Based on EBS

In order to improve the braking energy recovery, a parallel hybrid electric bus simulation model with electric braking system (EBS) was established by co-simulation platform for the TruckSim and Matlab/Simulink in this paper. EBS makes the front and rear shaft braking force arbitrarily distributed, which is more effective to improve the rate of energy recovery and the braking stability. A braking force distribution algorithm for hybrid electric bus based on EBS was designed in this paper. Under the premise to meet the driver's needs and the ECE regulations, this braking force distribution method focuses on making the braking force distribute to the drive shaft to a maximum extent, so as to obtain the maximum energy recovery rate by the utilization of the motor regenerative braking. At last, the simulation in different operating conditions was used to analyze the braking energy utilization and the braking performance based on the simulation model.
Technical Paper

Study on Automated Mechanical Transmission and Method of Parameter Optimization Design for Hybrid Electric Bus

The hybrid electric city bus, which consists of the electric motor and battery, is obviously different from the traditional buses. This paper focuses on optimizing the characteristics of the automatic mechanical transmission in hybrid electric city bus and does the following studies: firstly, in order to reduce the fuel consumption, the transmission ratio and some structural parameters are optimized with CRUISE software; secondly, the volume and weight of the transmission structure is reduced and optimized by numerical optimization approach, with the limitation of the structural reliability.
Technical Paper

Research on the Dynamic Integration Control for Distributed-Traction Electric Vehicle with Four-Wheel-Distributed Steering System

With rapid development of the automobile industry and the growing maturity of the automotive electronic technologies, the distributed-traction electric vehicle with four-wheel-distributed steering/braking/traction systems is regarded as an important development direction. With its unique chassis structure, it is the ideal benchmark platform used to evaluate active safety systems. The distributed-traction electric vehicle with four-wheel-distributed steering system is essentially full drive-by-wire vehicle. With its flexible chassis layout and high control degrees-of-freedom, the full drive-by-wire electric vehicle acted as a kind of redundant system is an ideal platform for the research of integrated control. In this treatise, the longitudinal dynamics of the electric vehicle as well as its lateral and yaw motions are controlled simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Research on an AKF Estimator of the Gravity Centre and States of Commercial Vehicles

The commercial vehicle is widely used in the overland transport. A prediction is given on the 9th annual China automotive industry forum that the number of the global commercial vehicles will reach eight million by the year of 2016. However, since the distance between its gravity centre and the ground is larger than that of the passenger vehicle, considering its comparatively short wheelbase, the rollover accident, which is fatal to the drivers and always makes enormous loss of merchandises, easily occurs in the case of commercial vehicles. As the number of the commercial vehicle is increasing fast, the accidents will occur more frequently, the losses will be increasingly enormous. To solve the problem, many researches about rollover early warning systems have been done. In most cases, it is assumed that the references of the vehicle are given.
Technical Paper

Research on Vehicle Height Adjustment Control of Electronically Controlled Air Suspension

Electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS) systems have been widely used in commercial vehicles to improve the ride comfort and handling stability of vehicles, as it can adjust vehicle height according to the driving conditions and the driver's intent. In this paper, the vehicle height adjustment process of ECAS system is studied. A mathematical model of vehicle height adjustment is derived by combining vehicle dynamics theory and thermodynamics theory of variable mass system. Reasons lead to the problems of “over-charging”, “over-discharging” and oscillation during the process of height adjustment are analyzed. In order to solve these problems, a single neuron proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is proposed to realize the accurate control of vehicle height. By simulation and semi-physical rig test, the effectiveness and performance of the proposed control algorithm are verified.
Technical Paper

Research on Electric Vehicle Braking Force Distribution for Maximizing Energy Regeneration

The driving range of the electric vehicle (EV) greatly restricts the development of EVs. The vehicles waste plenty of energy on account of automobiles frequently braking under the city cycle. The regenerative braking system can convert the braking kinetic energy into the electrical energy and then returns to the battery, so the energy regeneration could prolong theregenerative braking system. According to the characteristics of robustness in regenerative braking, both regenerative braking and friction braking based on fuzzy logic are assigned after the front-rear axle’s braking force is distributed to meet the requirement of braking security and high-efficient braking energy regeneration. Among the model, the vehicle model and the mechanical braking system is built by the CRUISE software. The paper applies the MATLAB/SIMULINK to establish a regenerative braking model, and then selects the UEDC city cycle for model co-simulation analysis.
Technical Paper

Research on Characteristics of Proportional Relay Valve for Commercial Vehicle Pneumatic EBS

The simulation of electro-pneumatic components used in brake systems of commercial vehicles is of great importance in order to understand their characteristics for developing a control logic and improve the braking performance. As the goal of improving the performance of the commercial vehicle pneumatic EBS(Electronically controlled Braking System), static and dynamic characteristics of proportional relay valve for commercial vehicle pneumatic EBS have been simulated by using MATLAB/Simulink environment and validated by testing on hardware-in-the-loop test bench focused on its pressure hysteresis characteristic. The simulation and test results show that the mathematic model for proportional relay valve characteristics is reasonable and reliable, and this simulation tool can be used for research and developing of pneumatic EBS system for commercial vehicle effectively.
Technical Paper

Passive Fault-Tolerant Performance of 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles Based on MPC and Control Allocation

The passive fault-tolerant performance of the integrated vehicle controller (IVC) applied on 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles has been investigated in this study. The 4WID/4WIS EV is driven independently by four in-wheel motors and steered independently by four steering motors. Thanks to increased control flexibility of the over-actuated architecture, Control Allocation (CA) can be applied to control the 4WID/4WIS EVs so as to improve the handling and stability. Another benefit of the over-actuated architecture is that the 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle has sufficient redundant actuators to fight against the safety critical situation when one or more actuators fail.
Technical Paper

Parameters Identification for Simplified Model of Articulated Heavy Vehicles

In order to accurately characterize the dynamic characteristics of articulated heavy vehicles, 3-dof (degree of freedom) model and 5-dof simplified model of articulated heavy vehicle are established and key parameters of models are identified by the method which is to combine double models with genetic algorithm and by using Trucksim data. Simulation study, which combines 5-dof simplified model with the MAPs of key identified parameters, is carried out. Comparison, which is between simulation results and Trucksim data, indicates that the key parameters of simplified model can be accurately identified, the MAPs of key identified parameters can satisfy the demand of characterizing the actual state of vehicle and lay a foundation for vehicle stability control.
Technical Paper

Mass Estimation and Axle Load Distribution Algorithm for EBS of Large Bus

The paper describes an algorithm, which estimates the mass of large buses and axle load distribution using pedal position, wheel speed and the wheel cylinder pressure sensors. This algorithm is allowed to achieve the purpose without additional sensors by using the rotational speed sensors from ABS system and air pressure sensors in brake cylinders form ESP system. The axle load distribution algorithm mainly consists of three steps. Firstly, deceleration of the bus is estimated and then the mass of the bus is estimated. After that, the position of the mass centre is estimated. Taking account of the tire nonlinear characteristics under longitudinal forces and vertical forces, mass estimation, deceleration and the position of the mass centre of buses is corrected by the coefficient, which is determined by the wheel cylinder pressure, the wheel speed and mass estimation.
Technical Paper

Integrated HIL Test and Development System for Pneumatic ABS/EBS ECU of Commercial Vehicles

The quality of the brake system is a significant safety factor in commercial vehicles on the roads. With the development of automobile technology, the single function ABS system didn't meet active safety requirements of the user. The Electronically Controlled Brake System (EBS) system will replace the ABS system to become the standard safety equipment of commercial vehicles in the near future. EBS can be said an enhanced ABS system, it contains load sensor, brake valve sensor and pressure sensor of chamber, etc, and it is more advantages than ABS. This paper describes a flexible integrated test bench for ABS/EBS Electronic Control Unit (ECU) based on Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation technique. It consists of most commercial vehicle pneumatic braking system components (from brake pedal valve, brake caliper to brake chambers), and uses the dSPACE real-time simulation system to communicate to the hardware I/O interface.
Technical Paper

Fault-Tolerant Control for 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles

The passive fault-tolerant approach for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicles has been investigated in this study. An adaptive control based passive fault-tolerant controller is designed to improve vehicle safety, performance and maneuverability when an actuator fault happens. The proposed fault tolerant control method consists of the following three parts: 1) a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) module that monitors vehicle driving condition, detects and diagnoses actuator failures with the inequality constraints; 2) a motion controller that computes the generalized forces/moments to track the desired vehicle motion using Model Predictive Control (MPC); 3) a reconfigurable control allocator that redistributes the generalized forces/moments to four wheels with equality constrained optimization.
Journal Article

Fault-Tolerant Control for 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle Based on EKF and SMC

This paper presents a fault-tolerant control (FTC) algorithm for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicle. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm is utilized in the fault detection (FD) module so as to estimate the in-wheel motor parameters, which could detect parameter variations caused by in-wheel motor fault. A motion controller based on sliding mode control (SMC) is able to compute the generalized forces/moments to follow the desired vehicle motion. By considering the tire adhesive limits, a reconfigurable control allocator optimally distributes the generalized forces/moments among healthy actuators so as to minimize the tire workloads once the actuator fault is detected. An actuator controller calculates the driving torques of the in-wheel motors and steering angles of the wheels in order to finally achieve the distributed tire forces. If one or more in-wheel motors lose efficacy, the FD module diagnoses the actuator failures first.
Technical Paper

Fault Tolerant Control Against Actuator Failures of 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles

A fault tolerant control (FTC) approach based on reconfigurable control allocation for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicles against driving motor failures is proposed in order to improve vehicle safety, performance and maneuverability after the driving motor failures. The proposed fault tolerant control method consists of the following three parts: 1) a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) module that monitors vehicle driving condition, detects and diagnoses actuator failures; 2) a motion controller that computes the generalized forces/moments to track the desired vehicle motion using model predictive control method; 3) a reconfigurable control allocator that optimally distributes the generalized forces/moments to four wheels aiming at minimizing the total tire usage. The FTC approach is based on the reconfigurable control allocation which reallocates the generalized forces/moments among healthy actuators once the actuator failures is detected.
Technical Paper

Driving and Steering Coordination Control for 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle

This paper presents an integrated chassis controller with multiple hierarchical layers for 4WID/4WIS electric vehicle. The proposed systematic design consists of the following four parts: 1) a reference model is in the driver control layer, which maps the relationship between the driver's inputs and the desired vehicle motion. 2) a sliding mode controller is in the vehicle motion control layer, whose objective is to keep the vehicle following the desired motion commands generated in the driver control layer. 3) By considering the tire adhesive limits, a tire force allocator is in the control allocation layer, which optimally distributes the generalized forces/moments to the four wheels so as to minimize the tire workloads during normal driving. 4) an actuator controller is in the executive layer, which calculates the driving torques of the in-wheel motors and steering angles of the four wheels in order to finally achieve the distributed tire forces.