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Technical Paper

Training for Emissions I&M: Some Performance Objectives

To meet new emission standards, new diagnostic procedures require fixing the root cause instead of fixing the symptom. Technicians must understand how powerplant processes create emissions, and how vehicle systems affect emission control. Some Emissions Inspection and Maintenance (I&M) programs involve tailpipe measurements under load using a dynamometer, and EVAP testing. But where I/M was previously considered as a quasi-national standard (IM240), I/M is likely to vary among the states, and indeed within states. Effective technician training concentrates on need-to-know, considering two factors: 1) Baseline skills and knowledge define entry-level pre-training competencies; 2) Performance-based training is expressed in objectives--as a result of the training, what can the technician do?
Technical Paper

Training Tomorrow's Technicians Using Human-Performance Technology

At a time when car complexity is increasing, the supply of qualified technicians to service them is decreasing. The industry recognizes the importance of training more technicians, and training them better. Many managers are asking themselves “Are we doing things right?” Perhaps the better question is “Are we doing the right things?” Should our goal be more training, or should it be improved human performance to improve customer satisfaction? With more questions than answers, this paper explores the possibilities of a systems-engineering approach using analysis and feedback techniques to improve the performance of technicians with: 1) required skills and knowledge to do the job right the first time, 2) motivation and incentives to keep customers satisfied, and 3) proper operating conditions for human performance.
Technical Paper

Trained Technicians and Clean Air

The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires significant increases in Inspection and Maintenance (I&M) programs. The increase in emission-related repairs may more than double the need for qualified technicians. Improving the capability to keep cars clean and still satisfy owners requires improvements in the capabilities of technicians. Requirements for capable technicians include: adequate Supply, Information Availability, Training, and Certification.
Technical Paper

Service Information Resources

In repeated surveys, technicians and shop owners tell us their greatest needs are training and information. Clearly, the Clean Air Act is planned to help to satisfy these needs. One major problem is access, how do I find the information I need? Where can I get the training I need? Vehicle maintenance depends on the total industry service capabilities, to include OEM dealers, aftermarket independents, fleet service, mass marketers. The latter accomplish the greater proportion of service, normally four times the amount of service as new-car dealers. In the interest of long-term customer satisfaction and its effect on new vehicle sales, OE manufacturers and their dealers have a compelling interest in proper vehicle maintenance by the total industry.
Technical Paper

How Do We Know What They Can Do as a Result of the Training?

Report of a performance-based assessment following SAE J-2018, Type B, “How did the training change the way service technicians do jobs?” A. Pre/Post-Training Performance Evaluations assess the effectiveness of the training as changing the work of most trainees in the service bays. B. Performance-based assessment can supply feedback to improve: 1) the training and future instruction 2) supervision of individual technicians. C. Traditional Pre/Post test questions did not measure improvements in performance or knowledge.
Technical Paper

Changing I/M Performance Objectives

Recent changes in state I/M (Inspection/Maintenance) programs have significantly changed diagnosis and repair procedures. For many states, electronic engine controls require some form of loaded-mode I/M test. The static tests developed in the 1970s for carburetors and points/condenser ignition do not satisfactorily differentiate between modern clean and dirty cars. What do these changes mean to I/M technicians, specifically in High Enhanced areas? How do we define a “qualified” I/M technician? Many states are taking different approaches to I/M technician training, and individual states are redefining a “qualified service technician”. Such programs with overlaps have serious implications for technician training, OEM and aftermarket, with probable state/state variations Inevitable future changes in engine-management technology, state I/M programs, and vehicle fuels require a flexible dynamic approach to training and certification of technicians.
Technical Paper

Challenges of I/M - The California Hybrid Program, A Model?

Technician training must change to conform with changing I/M (Inspection/Maintenance) programs. Instead of a single federal standard I/M, individual state programs now vary widely. IM240, originally mandated in 22 states for Enhanced areas, lost favor: owners of established independent test & repair shops objected to the high cost of proposed test equipment vehicle owners objected to the Inconvenience and cost and the possibility of line ups at centralized test-only facilities California negotiated a major hybrid I/M program which combined decentralized and decentralized test variations. USEPA relaxation from the strict federal requirements of IM240 has produced several different state emissions I/M programs. Some states test in loaded-mode using simpler dynamometers than IM240, such as ASM (Acceleration Simulation Mode). Many states continue testing without load, thus limiting testing to HC and CO. Some are using (and many are testing) remote roadside sensing.