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Technical Paper

International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Results to Date: Summary of Spacewalk Anomalies from Assembly Flight 2A through Expedition 4 U.S. EVA 1

The International Space Station (ISS) program has performed 27 United States (U.S.) led Extravehicular Activities (EVA) from December of 1998 through October of 2001. These spacewalks encompass the initial docking and outfitting of the Unity Node 1 to the Zarya Functional Cargo Block vehicle, through the addition of seven major components to the ISS. This document is an overview of the anomalies associated with the U.S. ISS spacewalks up to the first ISS Expedition Crew U.S. EVA on February 20, 2002. The EVA Group at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) is responsible for planning, training and flight controlling ISS EVAs. The EVA Group also document results for NASA management review. EVA results are presented here by dividing the various anomalies by type. Explanations and lessons learned are provided for anomalies relating to EVA tools, EVA tasks, Spacesuit and Airlock systems and ISS EVA actuated hardware.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Maintenance Concept of Operations – Interim Solution

There has been an assembly complete maintenance concept of operations associated with International Space Station (ISS) since the earliest design stages. However, ISS has been and will be at an intermediate stage of completion for several more years, requiring an interim solution to conduct maintenance. The ISS Program's logistics and maintenance plan dictates which spare components are on-orbit already and the order in which new ones will launch. This information dictates what Extravehicular Activity (EVA) maintenance capabilities are expected, which then has to be reconciled with the support equipment available that enables EVA to perform those tasks safely and effectively. The interim solution described is characterized by use of those ISS EVA components and methods that have proven efficient and useful during the ISS assembly EVA's performed to date.
Technical Paper

Extravehicular Activity Task Work Efficiency

Extravehicular activity (EVA) work efficiency is defined as a means to evaluate the on-orbit performance of the International Space Station (ISS) EVA support equipment system, worksite characteristics and basic layout of ISS for EVA maintenance. To facilitate a better understanding of the time and task data presented a brief explanation of the ISS EVA maintenance concept of operations and support equipment is system provided. Data from an ISS spacewalk is presented to calculate a task time distribution for that specific EVA. Analog data from two terrestrial based activities is presented to provide a comparison of different efficiencies. Conclusions are provided as to the effectiveness and efficiency of the ISS EVA task design and the future application of EVA task and tool related work efficiency parameters to the design of task related systems for exploration.
Technical Paper

Development of an EVA Support Equipment System for Exploration Using ISS Lessons Learned

A new Extravehicular Activity (EVA) support equipment system was developed during the 1990’s for the International Space Station (ISS) to accommodate external maintenance. This was done in accordance with the definition of ISS as a pre-integrated truss and pressurized module architecture with externally located system components. An overview of the history of the development of this system is provided here. Definition of how this system is to be used now and in the future to maintain ISS is referred to generically as the Concept of Operations, or ConOps. A historical perspective of the ISS EVA maintenance ConOps is provided. The support equipment system and ConOps are continually evolving as ISS assembly and maintenance proceeds and the face and future of ISS is altered by changing realities within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A summary of how the support equipment system and ConOps has changed and is likely to further change is presented.