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Technical Paper

Validation of Advanced Combustion Models Applied to Two-Stage Combustion in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Two advanced combustion models have been validated with the KIVA-3V Release 2 code in the context of two-stage combustion in a heavy duty diesel engine. The first model uses CHEMKIN to directly integrate chemistry in each computational cell. The second model accounts for flame propagation with the G-equation, and CHEMKIN predicts autoignition and handles chemistry ahead of and behind the flame front. A Damköhler number criterion was used in flame containing cells to characterize the local mixing status and determine whether heat release and species change should be a result of flame propagation or volumetric heat release. The purpose of this criterion is to make use of physical and chemical time scales to determine the most appropriate chemistry model, depending on the mixture composition and thermodynamic properties of the gas in each computational cell.
Technical Paper

Using Large Eddy Simulations to Study Mixing Effects in Early Injection Diesel Engine Combustion

Early direct injection with HCCI like properties is characterized by the presence of an ignition dwell - the interval between end of fuel injection and start of combustion, during which fuel-air mixing occurs. Previous work by Jhavar and Rutland (2005) has focused on investigating different methods to affect fuel-air mixing during the ignition dwell. That study helped to evaluate the relative influence of various mixing control strategies to achieve ignition control. In this study, we attempt to look into the mixture preparation process in more detail. Therefore, turbulence is studied using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models in place of Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models. While LES is computationally more expensive than RANS, it depicts the flow structure more accurately. Therefore, it can be applied to engines in order to gain a better representation of local mixing as well as accurately simulate unsteady flow behavior in engines.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Diesel Engine Operating Parameters Using Neural Networks

Neural networks are useful tools for optimization studies since they are very fast, so that while capturing the accuracy of multi-dimensional CFD calculations or experimental data, they can be run numerous times as required by many optimization techniques. This paper describes how a set of neural networks trained on a multi-dimensional CFD code to predict pressure, temperature, heat flux, torque and emissions, have been used by a genetic algorithm in combination with a hill-climbing type algorithm to optimize operating parameters of a diesel engine over the entire speed-torque map of the engine. The optimized parameters are mass of fuel injected per cycle, shape of the injection profile for dual split injection, start of injection, EGR level and boost pressure. These have been optimized for minimum emissions. Another set of neural networks have been trained to predict the optimized parameters, based on the speed-torque point of the engine.
Technical Paper

Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters

This article presents nondestructive neutron computed tomography (nCT) measurements of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as a method to measure ash and soot loading in the filters. Uncatalyzed and unwashcoated 200cpsi cordierite DPFs exposed to 100% biodiesel (B100) exhaust and conventional ultra low sulfur 2007 certification diesel (ULSD) exhaust at one speed-load point (1500 rpm, 2.6 bar BMEP) are compared to a brand new (never exposed) filter. Precise structural information about the substrate as well as an attempt to quantify soot and ash loading in the channel of the DPF illustrates the potential strength of the neutron imaging technique.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer of Fuel Films Resulting from Impinging Sprays

To help account for fuel distribution during combustion in diesel engines, a fuel film model has been developed and implemented into the KIVA-II code [1]. Spray-wall interaction and spray-film interaction are also incorporated into the model. Modified wall functions for evaporating, wavy films are developed and tested. The model simulates thin fuel film flow on solid surfaces of arbitrary configuration. This is achieved by solving the continuity, momentum and energy equations for the two dimensional film that flows over a three dimensional surface. The major physical effects considered in the model include mass and momentum contributions to the film due to spray drop impingement, splashing effects, various shear forces, piston acceleration, dynamic pressure effects, and convective heat and mass transfer.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Intake Generated Turbulence and Resolved Flow Structures on Combustion in DI Diesel Engines

Previous studies have shown the importance of the in-cylinder flow field which exists prior to fuel injection on performance and emissions behavior of direct injected (DI) diesel engines. Key parameters in the flow field are the turbulence level and the resolved structures, such as swirl and tumble flow. These characteristics are known to have significant effects on the fuel vaporization, droplet break-up, and fuel-air mixing. The relative importance of these effects is investigated through simulation of injection into a stirred, heated, constant volume combustion bomb, using the computational fluid dynamics codes KIVA-3 [9] and KIVA-II [10]. Initial conditions for these simulations are based on in-cylinder conditions which exist in a heavy duty DI diesel engine immediately prior to fuel injection.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Intake Flow Characteristics on Diesel Engine Combustion

The three-dimensional CFD codes KIVA-II and KIVA-3 have been used together to study the effects of intake generated in-cylinder flow structure on fuel-air mixing and combustion in a direct injected (DI) Diesel engine. In order to more accurately account for the effect of intake flow on in-cylinder processes, the KIVA-II code has been modified to allow for the use of data from other CFD codes as initial conditions. Simulation of the intake and compression strokes in a heavy-duty four-stroke DI Diesel engine has been carried out using KIVA-3. Flow quantities and thermodynamic field information were then mapped into a computational grid in KIVA-II for use in the study of mixing and combustion. A laminar and turbulent timescale combustion model, as well as advanced spray models, including wave breakup atomization, dynamic drop drag, and spray-wall interaction has been used in KIVA-II.
Technical Paper

Modeling of a Turbocharged DI Diesel Engine Using Artificial Neural Networks

Artificial neural networks (ANN) have been recognized as universal approximators for nonlinear continuous functions and actively applied in engine research in recent years [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8]. This paper describes the methodology and results of using the ANN to model a turbocharged DI diesel engine. The engine was simulated using the CFD code (KIVA-ERC) over a wide range of operating conditions, and numerical simulation results were used to train the ANN. An efficient data collection methodology using the Design of Experiments (DOE) techniques was developed to select the most characteristic engine operating conditions and hence the most informative data to train the ANN. This approach minimizes the time and cost of collecting training data from either computational or experimental resources. The trained ANN was then used to predict engine parameters such as cylinder pressure, cylinder temperature, NOx and soot emissions, and cylinder heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Modeling Fuel Film Formation and Wall Interaction in Diesel Engines

A fuel film model has been developed and implemented into the KIVA-II code to help account for fuel distribution during combustion in diesel engines. Spray-wall interaction and spray-film interaction are also incorporated into the model. The model simulates thin fuel film flow on solid surfaces of arbitrary configuration. This is achieved by solving the continuity and momentum equations for the two dimensional film that flows over a three dimensional surface. The major physical effects considered in the model include mass and momentum contributions to the film due to spray drop impingement, splashing effects, various shear forces, piston acceleration, and dynamic pressure effects. In order to adequately represent the drop interaction process, impingement regimes and post-impingement behavior have been modeled using experimental data and mass, momentum and energy conservation constraints. The regimes modeled for spray-film interaction are stick, rebound, spread, and splash.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effect of DPF Loading and Passive Regeneration on Engine Performance and Emissions Using an Integrated System Simulation

An integrated system model containing sub-models for a diesel engine, NOx and soot emissions, and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been used to simulate stead-state engine operating conditions. The simulation results have been used to investigate the effect of DPF loading and passive regeneration on engine performance and emissions. This work is the continuation of previous work done to create an overall diesel engine/exhaust system integrated model. As in the previous work, a diesel engine, exhaust system, engine soot emissions, and diesel particulate filter (DPF) sub-models have been integrated into an overall model using Matlab Simulink. For the current work new sub-models have been added for engine-out NOx emissions and an engine feedback controller. The integrated model is intended for use in simulating the interaction of the engine and exhaust aftertreatment components.
Technical Paper

Investigation into Different DPF Regeneration Strategies Based on Fuel Economy Using Integrated System Simulation

An integrated system model containing sub-models for a multi-cylinder diesel engine, NOx and soot(PM) emissions, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been developed to simulate the engine and aftertreatment systems at transient engine operating conditions. The objective of this work is two-fold; ensure correct implementation of the integrated system level model and apply the integrated model to understand the fuel economy trade-off for various DPF regeneration strategies. The current study focuses on a 1.9L turbocharged diesel engine and its exhaust system. The engine model was built in GT-Power and validated against experimental data at full-load conditions. The DPF model is calibrated for the current engine application by matching the clean DPF pressure drop for different mass flow rates. Load, boost pressure, speed and EGR controllers are tuned and linked with the current engine model.
Technical Paper

Investigating the Effect of Spray Targeting and Impingement on Diesel Engine Cold Start

Analysis of the cold-starting performance of diesel engines requires the development of advanced models to describe the multicomponent nature of the fuel as well as the spray impingement and wall film behavior. A new approach to modeling the multicomponent nature of commercial fuels was implemented. This model is based on a continuous distribution using a probability density function, rather than the use of discrete components, to capture more accurately the entire range of composition in commercial fuels. The model was applied to single droplet calculations to validate the predictions against experimental results. Previous discrete component wall-film modeling has been extended to include the continuous multicomponent fuel representation. A significant factor that has received little attention in analyzing the cold-start performance of diesel engines is the spray impingement angle and location. This has been investigated using the modified KIVA code.
Technical Paper

Integration of Diesel Engine, Exhaust System, Engine Emissions and Aftertreatment Device Models

An overall diesel engine and aftertreatment system model has been created that integrates diesel engine, exhaust system, engine emissions, and diesel particulate filter (DPF) models using MATLAB Simulink. The 1-D engine and exhaust system models were developed using WAVE. The engine emissions model combines a phenomenological soot model with artificial neural networks to predict engine out soot emissions. Experimental data from a light-duty diesel engine was used to calibrate both the engine and engine emissions models. The DPF model predicts the behavior of a clean and particulate-loaded catalyzed wall-flow filter. Experimental data was used to validate this sub-model individually. Several model integration issues were identified and addressed. These included time-step selection, continuous vs. limited triggering of sub-models, and code structuring for simulation speed. Required time-steps for different sub models varied by orders of magnitude.
Technical Paper

Integrated Engine, Emissions, and Exhaust Aftertreatment System Level Models to Simulate DPF Regeneration

An integrated system model containing sub-models for diesel engine, emissions, and aftertreatment devices has been developed. The objective is to study engine-device and device-device interactions. The emissions sub-models used are for NOx and PM (particulate matter) prediction. The aftertreatment sub-models used include a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Controllers have also been developed to allow for transient simulations, active DPF regeneration, and prevention/control of runaway DPF regenerations. The integrated system-level model has been used to simulate DPF regeneration via exhaust fuel injection ahead of the DOC. In addition, the controller model can use intake throttling to assist in active DPF regeneration if needed. Regeneration studies have been done for both steady engine load and with load transients. High to low engine load transients are of particular interest because they can lead to runaway DPF regeneration.
Technical Paper

Flamelet Modeling with LES for Diesel Engine Simulations

Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with a flamelet time scale combustion model is used to simulate diesel combustion. The flamelet time scale model uses a steady-state flamelet library for n-heptane indexed by mean mixture fraction, mixture fraction variance, and mean scalar dissipation rate. In the combustion model, reactions proceed towards the flamelet library solution at a time scale associated with the slowest reaction. This combination of a flamelet solution and a chemical time scale helps to account for unsteady mixing effects. The turbulent sub-grid stresses are simulated using a one-equation, non-viscosity LES model called the dynamic structure model. The model uses a tensor coefficient determined by the dynamic procedure and the subgrid kinetic energy. The model has been expanded to include scalar mixing and scalar dissipation. A new model for the conditional scalar dissipation has been developed to better predict local extinction.
Technical Paper

Experiments and CFD Modeling of Direct Injection Gasoline HCCI Engine Combustion

The present study investigated HCCI combustion in a heavy-duty diesel engine both experimentally and numerically. The engine was equipped with a hollow-cone pressure-swirl injector using gasoline direct injection. Characteristics of HCCI combustion were obtained by very early injection with a heated intake charge. Experimental results showed an increase in NOx emission and a decrease in UHC as the injection timing was retarded. It was also found that optimization can be achieved by controlling the intake temperature together with the start-of-injection timing. The experiments were modeled by using an engine CFD code with detailed chemistry. The CHEMKIN code was implemented into KIVA-3V such that the chemistry and flow solutions were coupled. The model predicted ignition timing, cylinder pressure, and heat release rates reasonably well. The NOx emissions were found to increase as the injection timing was retarded, in agreement with experimental results.
Journal Article

Effect of Mesh Structure in the KIVA-4 Code with a Less Mesh Dependent Spray Model for DI Diesel Engine Simulations

Two different types of mesh used for diesel combustion with the KIVA-4 code are compared. One is a well established conventional KIVA-3 type polar mesh. The other is a non-polar mesh with uniform size throughout the piston bowl so as to reduce the number of cells and to improve the quality of the cell shapes around the cylinder axis which can contain many fuel droplets that affect prediction accuracy and the computational time. This mesh is specialized for the KIVA-4 code which employs an unstructured mesh. To prevent dramatic changes in spray penetration caused by the difference in cell size between the two types of mesh, a recently developed spray model which reduces mesh dependency of the droplet behavior has been implemented. For the ignition and combustion models, the Shell model and characteristic time combustion (CTC) model are employed.
Technical Paper

Combustion Modeling of Conventional Diesel-type and HCCI-type Diesel Combustion with Large Eddy Simulations

A general combustion model, in the context of large eddy simulations, was developed to simulate the full range of combustion in conventional diesel-type and HCCI-type diesels. The combustion model consisted of a Chemkin sub-model and an Extended Flamelet Time Scale (EFTS) sub-model. Specifically, Chemkin was used to simulate auto-ignition process. In the post-ignition phase, the combustion model was switched to EFTS. In the EFTS sub-model, combustion was assumed to be a combination of two elementary combustion modes: homogeneous combustion and flamelet combustion. The combustion index acted as a weighting factor blending the contributions from these two modes. The Chemkin sub-model neglected the subgrid scale turbulence-chemistry interactions whereas the EFTS model took them into account through a presumed PDF approach. The model was used to simulate an early injection mode of a Cummins DI diesel engine and a mode of a Caterpillar DI diesel engine.
Journal Article

CO Emission Model for an Integrated Diesel Engine, Emissions, and Exhaust Aftertreatment System Level Model

A kinetic carbon monoxide (CO) emission model is developed to simulate engine out CO emissions for conventional diesel combustion. The model also incorporates physics governing CO emissions for low temperature combustion (LTC). The emission model will be used in an integrated system level model to simulate the operation and interaction of conventional and low temperature diesel combustion with aftertreatment devices. The Integrated System Model consists of component models for the diesel engine, engine-out emissions (such as NOx and Particulate Matter), and aftertreatment devices (such as DOC and DPF). The addition of CO emissions model will enhance the capability of the Integrated System Model to predict major emission species, especially for low temperature combustion. In this work a CO emission model is developed based on a two-step global kinetic mechanism [8].
Technical Paper

An Application of the Coherent Flamelet Model to Diesel Engine Combustion

A turbulent combustion model based on the coherent flamelet model was developed in this study and applied to diesel engines. The combustion was modeled in three distinct but overlapping phases: low temperature ignition kinetics using the Shell ignition model, high temperature premixed burn using a single step Arrhenius equation, and the flamelet based diffusion burn. Two criteria for transitions based on temperature, heat release rate, and the local Damköhler number were developed for the progression of combustion between each of these phases. The model was implemented into the computational computer code KIVA-II. Previous experiments on a Caterpillar model E 300, # 1Y0540 engine, a Tacom LABECO research engine, and a single cylinder version of a Cummins N14 production engine were used to validate the cylinder averaged predictions of the model.